Project start date
Project end date
- greens (leafy)
- greens (lettuces)
- Crop Production
- high tunnels or hoop houses
- row covers (for season extension)
- Education and Training
- farmer to farmer
- on-farm/ranch research
- technical assistance
Benefits and Impacts
- Economic Sustainability
- Improved income or profitability
- Increased employment & labor opportunities
- Production and Production Efficiency
- Improved crop production and/or production efficiency
- Social Sustainability
- Improved agriculture and food system infrastructure
- Improved quality of life
Project Summary (250-word limit)
High tunnel gantry systems can significantly reduce repetitive, laborious and non-creative tasks, enabling small farms to scale, innovate, and improve profits. Large-scale greenhouses benefit from automated gantry systems, however, no equivalent systems exist for smaller farms.
We will design an open-source gantry system specifically for high tunnels, empowering the small farm to enact efficiencies currently only seen in large greenhouses. Our designs account for size, weight and cost limitations necessary for high tunnels.
We will design a Transport Cart and Automated Row Cover System (ARCS) to show that a simple rail and trolley system can add significant value to small farms while providing a path to advanced automation. The Transport Cart is a mechanical device to help farmers move items through high tunnels. The same rail design is used for the ARCS to automatically manage row cover. Both implements will improve efficiency and reduce the physical requirements on small farms. Our design can expand to develop a new class of farm tools.
We will research its effectiveness with two labor studies, one for each implement. We will measure labor time and physical requirements in comparable production areas, with and without the high tunnel gantry.
We will educate the community during the design, build and research phases to assist with the adoption of the technology. We will create a knowledge base for high tunnel gantry system designs allowing future innovation.
Does this project involve research with animals?
Does this project involve human subjects research?
Plan for IACUC/IRB Determination
Applicant and Collaborator Information
Experience, skills and capacity (750-word limit)
Diane Abruzzini, Co-Founder Rigorous, Co-Principal Investigator. Education: BA in Anthropology and Art, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY. MBA in Sustainable Innovation, the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. Role: Diane will lead this team’s operations and outreach strategies. Diane has close to a decade of on-farm operational experience, and the same in small business management. Diane will make sure the product designs fit within the systems and ethos of sustainable farms here in the Northeast by working directly with farmers to review and give input on our progress. Experience: Diane has worked as a Greenhouse Manager, CSA Manager, Crew Manager, and solo-farmer on farms throughout the Northeast. For 7 years, Diane designed and built edible landscapes for schools, campgrounds, restaurants, and residences. In 2020, Diane taught a business planning course to food and farm entrepreneurs for the Center for Women and Enterprise and the Center for an Agricultural Economy.
Colin Riggs, Co-founder Rigorous, Co-Principal Investigator. Education: BS Physics and Minor Applied Mathematics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. Role: Colin will lead the gantry system technology development. Relevant Experience: Colin has spent more than a decade designing and building autonomous robotic systems with a longstanding passion for applying these tools to small farm innovation. During college, he researched complex planting patterns and started a small organic farm. In 2011, he began working for Greensea Systems, a robotics company specializing in autonomous control and navigation systems. He developed deep sea vehicles, boat control systems, land/water hybrid crawling systems and diver systems. He served as the Director of Product Development, Senior Engineer, and Program Manager for Emerging Technologies, launching dozens of successful robotic projects and deploying hundreds of robots. He left Greensea in 2020 to start Rigorous, LLC, a company dedicated to empowering small businesses to use automation and robotics to stay competitive far into the future.
Mark Fasching and Christa Alexander (Farm Partners) are co-owners and managers of Jericho Settlers Farm. For twenty years, Jericho Settlers Farm has been at the forefront of sustainable innovation, notably in four season production. Mark and Christa offer the space, infrastructure, and access to tools to build and run the High Tunnel Gantry System. Mark came up with the idea for the motorized row cover roll system based on internal need. Mark will help with installation and design support. Christa will lead data collection for the labor studies, including labor time and harvest metrics, in order to quantify hypothesized benefits of this product on their business and growing operations. Mark and Christa will co-present with us at workshops and conferences. They also serve on the Farmer Design Review Board and will assist in board presentations of this project.
Bob Lesnikoski (Farmer Design Review Board) of VT Cranberry Company is a farmer and engineer who provides input on the build of the gantry system.
Rebecca Maden (Farmer Design Review Board) is a farmer at Singing Cedars Farm and a Nutrient Management Specialist at University of Vermont Extension. Rebecca will provide feedback on the usability of the system.
Chris Callahan (Farmer Design Review Board) is an Associate Extension Professor of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Vermont. Chris will serve as a research and technology advisor.
Aaron Loomis (Osmium Engineering) is the lead mechanical engineer for the project. He will provide mechanical drawings and review for the trolley car, Transport Cart, and ARCS. Aaron has more than twenty years of experience as a mechanical engineer and will be a contractor for the project.
Identify and Describe Partner Farmer(s)
Letters of Commitment from Partner Farmer(s) (File upload)
Other Key Collaborators (if applicable).
Letters of Commitment from Key Collaborators (File upload)
Problem and Proposed Solution (500-word limit)
Repetitive, laborious, and non-creative tasks hinder small farm profitability, scalability, and innovation. Labor costs are typically the largest expense for sustainable farms. Finding and keeping reliable help is increasingly challenging and hinders farms from sustainably scaling operations.
Farmers are increasingly growing in high tunnels in the Northeast. High tunnels help farmers extend their growing season, improve plant and soil quality, reduce nutrient loss, and reduce energy use (“High...”, (n.d.)). Since 2002, there has been a 3.5x increase in small vegetable production greenhouses (Tasgal, 2019). The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has supported more than 9,825 high tunnels across the country since 2009 (“What…”, (n.d.)).
Growing in high tunnels requires farmers to perform many repetitive tasks. Chris Callahan of UVM Extension conducted a survey of winter growers that found row cover management takes an average of 0.4 labor hours per day per 30x96’ tunnel (Callahan, attached letter, 2021). Assuming a $20 per hour wage and 120 day winter growing season, farmers pay $960 per tunnel per year. NOFA-VT conducted a cost of production analysis for high tunnel tomatoes. Harvesting greenhouse tomatoes accounts for 17.1 labor hours per 1000 ft2 (“Cost…”, 2019). Using the same 30x96’ tunnels, harvesting tomatoes accounts for 49.25 labor hours per tunnel or $985 per tunnel per year.
High tunnel gantry systems (HTGS) can reduce repetitive tasks and physical requirements while saving time and enabling innovation. Existing large-scale commercial greenhouses use advanced automation to improve profitability and scalability. We are designing an affordable, accessible, and open source HTGS to allow small farms to benefit from similar innovation. We will support education and adoption of the system through farmer design reviews, demonstrations, research, and presentations.
The HTGS consists of one or more overhead rails, used as a monorail or together with a toolbar. Like a tractor, the toolbar works with interchangeable implements. A trolley car moves the implements along the rails to precise locations. We will develop two implements; a Transport Cart and an Automated Row Cover System (ARCS).
The Transport Cart saves farmers time and reduces the weight they must carry. Andy Jones of ICF anecdotally found they saved 40% of labor time using a similar rail and cart system to harvest tomatoes. Assuming $985 per tunnel per year for tomatoes, this equates to saving $394 per tunnel per year, not including time saved during transplanting, bed preparation and trellising.
The ARCS removes the daily task of managing row cover. We believe farmers can optimize the cover timing to increase ventilation, lighting, and temperatures for increased productivity and reduction of disease pressure. Saving both row cover management labor and tomato harvest labor, farms can save an average of $1,354 per tunnel per year.
The HTGS represents an effort to reduce the health risks and labor costs of repetitive heavy tasks, while improving crop yield and overall quality of life for farmers. Advancements in technology can provide new jobs and space to innovate, exciting the next generation of tech-savvy farmers.
Previous Work (750-word limit)
Greenhouse gantry systems are being used internationally in both large and small-scale operations. These systems assist in planting, watering, weeding, harvesting, shade cloth covering, insect management, disease management, and many other tasks. Large-scale operations have employed advanced automation and robotics to significantly increase efficiency, profitability, and scalability.
Smaller-scale operations employ relatively simple rail and trolley systems to assist watering, harvesting crops, and planting transplants. We will show that rail systems alone can provide value to sustainable farmers using high tunnels in the Northeast and show how the same rail systems can be scaled up for advanced automation.
The use of trolley systems in high tunnels has been affordable and effective for farmers in the Northeast. Intervale Community Farm (ICF) installed a hanging rail system for harvesting tomatoes which uses fence pipe as the rail and a harvest cart to move trays of tomatoes the length of the high tunnel. Andy Jones from ICF anecdotally found that utilizing a tomato harvest cart saves his team around 30-50% of labor time. The system was installed at approximately $5/foot including labor. The Small Farm Tools greenhouse hanging rail trolley improved efficiency for moving microgreens trays in a greenhouse by 200% (Garbos, G., (n.d.)).
Long Wind Farm installed an in-ground tomato harvest cart. The system uses rails on the ground to move a cart through the high tunnel. John Bartok Jr at the University of Massachusetts extension has promoted the use cases for irrigation greenhouse gantry systems (Bartok, 2009).
Railex is a commercial supplier that offers a greenhouse monorail for transporting items (“Custom…”, (n.d.).). We will leverage some Railex parts for our rail design, however, adaptations are required to fully support high tunnel producers. Most notably we will source the rail from less expensive and commercially off-the-shelf parts and adapt the system to be compatible with motorized implements.
Large greenhouses incorporate advanced automation and robotics. Companies such as Greenhouse Technology and Pacline create conveyors to transport plants and manage irrigation systems automatically. In a study on strawberry cultivation in Japan, a gantry system delivered the optimal plant application of fungicide while using less material and reducing labor time to 58% compared to manual spraying (Yamashita, et al., 2002). In the Netherlands, 11% of greenhouse growers indicated they use robots (“Use…”, 2019). Knecht, Hove, Logiqs, and Denton Automation sell greenhouse gantries with automation controls that focus on products for bedding plant nurseries. Their technologies allow for scalability and efficiency of production systems but are expensive, heavy, and more difficult to procure in the United States.
Our proposal aims to develop a high tunnel gantry system (HTGS) that allows Northeast sustainable farmers to benefit from basic functionality while setting them up for the potential to scale into advanced automated practices. Our proposal pulls inspiration from the technologies utilized in large operations and tailors those tools for Northeast sustainable farms.
We will make the HTGS lighter, cheaper, and open source. A lighter system is necessary for the structural load constraints of high tunnels. We will choose low-cost and off-the-shelf materials to enable farmers to install the system from locally sourced parts for maximum cost efficiency. The system will be multi-functional and support a variety of implements. The two implements developed for this project, the Transport Cart and ARCS, will create year-round benefits.
In December of 2020, we began talking to Mark Fasching of Jericho Settlers Farm about designing a remay rolling system. Mark and Robert Arnold of Smart Farm Innovations designed a prototype to reduce the repetitive task of covering and uncovering winter greens with Agribon row cover. We discussed a few options to accomplish automating the task and decided on prototyping a multi-use gantry system.
Through January and February 2021, we designed and constructed a prototype of the high tunnel gantry in a Ledgewood high tunnel. We completed 60’ of the rail, built a toolbar, hung a roll of remay from the toolbar, and rolled and unrolled row cover over the 60’ span by hand. We feel this proof of concept trial was successful and greatly informed the requirements for developing an operational HTGS.
Citation List (750-word limit)
Bartok, J. W. B. (2009). Boom Irrigation Systems. University of Massachusetts Amherst. https://ag.umass.edu/greenhouse-floriculture/fact-sheets/boom-irrigation-systems
Cost of Production Project: Greenhouse Tomatoes. (2019). NOFA-VT. Retrieved April 11, 2021 from https://nofavt.org/sites/default/files/files/resources/tomatoes-production-cop-factsheet.pdf
Custom Configured Railex Systems for Greenhouses & Grow Facilities. (n.d.). Railex. Retrieved April 11, 2021, from https://railexcorp.com/products/railex-indoor-farming-solutions/
Garbos, G. (n.d.). Small Farm Tools. Retrieved April 11, 2021, from https://www.smallfarmtools.com/trolley-systems-info
High Tunnel System Initiative. (n.d.). USDA. Retrieved April 11, 2021, from https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/national/programs/?cid=stelprdb1046250
Tasgal, P. T. (2019, May 28). US Greenhouse Trends - Comparison to Netherlands and Finland. IGrow. Retrieved March 31, 2021 from https://www.igrow.news/igrownews/is-the-united-states-under-greenhoused-7lwjl?rq=us%20census%20of%20agriculture
Use of robots in greenhouse horticulture increasing. (2019, December 5). Future Farming. Retrieved March 31, 2021 from https://www.futurefarming.com/Machinery/Articles/2019/12/Use-of-robots-in-greenhouse-horticulture-increasing-508761E/
What are high tunnels? (n.d.). USDA. Retrieved April 11, 2021, from https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/newsroom/contacts/?cid=stelprdb1261242
Yamashita, J. Y., Yugi, S. Y., Arima, S. A., Matsumoto, I. M., & Tsurusaki, T. T. (2002). Development research of gantry system for strawberry cultivation (1st report). Journal of Agricultural Machinery Society, 64(2), 122–130. https://doi.org/10.11357/jsam1937.64.2_122
Plan of Work
Objectives (200-word limit)
This project seeks to reduce repetitive and non-creative tasks through the use of an open-source High Tunnel Gantry System (HTGS) with two implements; a Transport Cart and Automated Row Cover System (ARCS).
- Design. We will develop a HTGS design plan. The design will include the rail, toolbar, trolley car, Transport Cart, and ARCS. We will engage farmers during the design process to inform the design and educate farms on design considerations.
- Build & Evaluate. We will construct a fully functional HTGS. We evaluate the implements for functionality, ease of construction, and ease of use. We will create videos of the installation and testing process to assist other farms adopting the system.
- Research. We will quantify the labor savings of the Transport Cart and ARCS through two labor studies. We will collect labor data during peak season and compare it to a similar control environment. We will write a report detailing our findings.
- Education & Adoption. We will publish the designs, reports, and videos on our website and open-source tool design website, farmhack.org. We will host two on-farm workshops and publish demonstration videos. We will present the research findings, use-cases, installation, and best practices at the 2022 NOFA-VT and NEFVC conferences.
Materials and Methods (1,200-word limit)
Objective 1 - Design
We will conduct a rigorous engineering design. We will begin by collecting system requirements to generate a System Requirements Specification (SRS). Stakeholders will include farmers, greenhouse manufacturers, and engineers. Requirements will cover structure, environment, functionality, accessibility, and cost.
Requirements will be created for the following system components:
Rail - Round tube hung from the high tunnel to allow hanging systems to move along the rail.
Trolleys - Trolleys are passive rollers that allow you to hang and move items on the rail.
Toolbar - Generic attachment to connect various implements between trolleys.
Trolley Car - Motorized trolley that moves along the rail to move implements.
Transport Cart - Hanging cart used to move objects.
Automated Row Cover System (ARCS) - Implement designed to automatically roll and unroll row cover.
We will create a preliminary design and host a Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The design will include Bill of Materials (BOM), mechanical drawings, and electrical drawings. We will create a high-level design document that describes the system goals, the concept of operations (CONOPS), and system functionality. The PDR will be reviewed by our Farmer Design Review Board. Feedback from the PDR will be incorporated into a final design. The Farmer Design Review Board will review the final designs.
We will write a Site Acceptance Test (SAT). The SAT will detail a set of tests and evaluations to ensure the overall system and subsystems meet the SRS requirements. The SAT will include all procedures and tests to prove full system functionality.
Objective 2 - Build & Evaluate
We will construct an operational High Tunnel Gantry System (HTGS) for Jericho Settlers Farm, including both initial implements. We will build the system in a 100x30’ Ledgewood High Tunnel. The construction and testing process will be divided into phases for rail, toolbar, and implement.
We will make the rails from standard fence round tubing, Railex hangers, and Railex trolley wheels. We will use two rails to span the 30’ greenhouse. The rails will operate independently as a monorail or together as a system. The rails are installed over the high tunnel’s walking rows such that the Transport Cart can be pushed down the rows without impeding the crops. We will test the trolley system to ensure the system can carry designed loads and move smoothly over junctions.
The toolbar will be made from off-the-shelf strut channel and extend 30’ across the high tunnel. The toolbar will provide a standard interface for implements. The toolbar hangs from both rails and two sets of trolleys horizontally across the high tunnel. The toolbar will carry the ARCS. We will test the toolbar’s capability to carry designed loads, move smoothly down the rail, and support multiple implement types.
The Transport Cart will be made from welded standard square tube and rail trolleys. We will test whether the Transport Cart can carry the designed loads, move standard-sized harvest bins and greenhouse trays, and smoothly move down the rails.
The Trolley Cars will be made from 3D printed parts, motor, motor controller, drive wheels, sprocket, and chain. The trolley car will include an embedded computer with a camera to autonomously control the trolley. The computer will run existing Rigorous software to autonomously control the system. This software is not open source. The embedded computer will control the trolley’s positioning and collect photographic data. The photographic data will be used for system positioning, verification of tasking, and plant data collection. We will test the Trolley Car’s ability to pull the specified load, positioning accuracy, and data management system.
The ARCS will be made from standard round tube, bearings, spooling motors, sprockets, and chains. The row cover system will span the 30’ width of the greenhouse and hang from the toolbar. The ARCS will include two motorized trolley cars to move the hanging implement down the rail. As the trolley cars move the ARCS, the on-board spooling motors will roll/unroll the row cover onto a spool. We will test the ARCS’ ability to effectively roll and unroll the row cover, the trolley car’s ability to move the ARCS, the system's ability to synchronize the two trolleys with rolling motors, and the system's ease of use.
We will document and release instructions and videos of the process. Upon completion of all build phases, we will conduct a Site Acceptance Test (SAT). The SAT will verify all SRS requirements have been satisfied and the system is ready for the research objective.
Objective 3 - Research
The research objective will quantify the effectiveness of the HTGS by performing a labor analysis.
The labor analysis will specifically look into how the Transport Cart and ARCS reduce labor and physical requirements. We will quantify the reduction of time and physical requirements for both implements.
We will run the HTGS and ARCS for thirty concurrent days at Jericho Settlers Farm. We will set up a comparably sized control house with similar plants and planting dates. Christa Alexander will record the time spent moving row cover in the control house every day and time spent in the test house with the HTGS. We will write a report comparing the labor required with and without the ARCS.
For the Transport Cart, we will host our test and control beds in the same high tunnel. Two beds with tomatoes will be on both sides of a single rail of the HTGS with the Transport cart. In the same tunnel, two beds with the same varieties of tomatoes will be on both sides of an open walkway. For two months during peak harvest and trellising, we will track data to compare labor time and harvest weights for the test and control beds. Jericho Settlers Farm will time sessions with and without the trolley. This will likely be 20 to 24 harvest sessions and 10 pruning sessions.
We will analyze the results and prepare a summary report that we will make publicly available. We will calculate total seasonal labor savings estimates based on these trials. We will also quantify the reduction of carried weight, calculated by collecting harvest data weight data over the average distance of travel.
Objective 4 - Education & Adoption.
We will create a PDF instructional guide linked on farmhack.org but downloadable free of charge from the Rigorous website. We will host plans, designs, and instructional content online. Instructional content will be created during all phases of this project and will cover best practices for installation, testing, and use. The content will be in a variety of formats, including video and written articles.
We will host two on-farm workshops where we will demonstrate the system. We will record the sessions for farmers to view online. We will cover the installation, load constraints, and best practices of the system. Through these workshops, participants can test drive the implements and ask questions directly.
To measure achievement of this project, we will track the following metrics.
To quantify education:
- Number of design downloads
- Supporting materials content views
- Attendees of demonstrations
To quantify adoption and farmer benefit:
- Number of new systems installed
- Labor hours saved as reported by farm partners
- Reduction of carried weight, calculated by collecting harvest weight data over average distance of travel
Supporting Materials (file upload)
Outreach Plan (500-word limit)
We will engage and educate farmers throughout the design, build, research and adoption objectives. We will solicit input from farmers to inform the design of the High Tunnel Gantry System (HTGS). We will create materials and host workshops to teach farmers how to build the HTGS and corresponding implements. We will research and share results to educate farmers about the benefits of this technology. We will present the findings of that research as well as best practices for use and installation online and at regional conferences.
We will communicate with at least twenty regional farmers about the potential need and desired functionality of the HTGS.
The farm advisory board will convene two times for a review of the HTGS design. The first will be the Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The board will review and suggest modifications to the HTGS, Transport Cart and ARCS designs. The PDR will be recorded to create a video for additional farmer outreach and input. Once designs are complete, the board will attend a final design review.
We will publish design instructions for the HTGS, Transport Cart, and ARCS. We will offer unlimited access to the designs and publish links and descriptions to the open-source tool website farmhack.org.
We will continue to communicate with farmers through one-on-one conversations with a goal of understanding and remediating barriers to adopting the system.
We will create video demonstrations of different stages of the design, installation, and use of the HTGS. These videos will be hosted on the Rigorous website, youtube, and social media, with links to build instructions and a bill of materials. We will share updates with regional organizations and listservs, including the Vermont Veg and Berry Listserv. We will track the number of design downloads and content views of supporting materials to measure the impact of this project.
We will lead two on-farm workshops with Jericho Settlers Farm. The first will be a demonstration of the ARCS, discussion of best practices, and review of the ARCS labor study results. The second workshop will demonstrate the Transport Cart. We will discuss best practices and results of the Transport Cart labor study. We will record both workshops and post the videos online. These recordings will be included with other support materials alongside the design instructions on the Rigorous website.
We will present the findings of our tool development and labor study at agricultural conferences. We will apply to present at the National Organic Farm Association of Vermont’s winter conference and the New England Fruit and Vegetable conference in 2022. Our presentations will cover the process for designing, building, and researching the HTGS, Transport Cart and ARCS. We will cover lessons learned along the way and best practices. We will review the labor studies and seasonal labor savings based on our testing.
Timeline (500-word limit)
|Time Period||Activity||Personnel Involved/Time Allotted|
|August - October, 2021||Design the rail, toolbar, trolley car, Transport Carts, ARCS. We will contract with Osmium Engineering to produce mechanical drawings and review designs.||Colin Riggs, est. 120 hours. Aaron Loomis, est. 90 hours.|
|August 2021 - August 2022||One on one Farmer Interviews||Diane Abruzzini, est. 40 hours.|
||Preliminary Design Review||Colin Riggs, Diane Abruzzini, Mark Fashing, Christa Alexander, est 1 hour each to present. Bob Lesnikoski, Rebecca Maden, Chris Callahan to attend.|
||Final Design Review||Colin Riggs, Diane Abruzzini, Mark Fashing, Christa Alexander, est 1 hour each to present. Bob Lesnikoski, Rebecca Maden, Chris Callahan to attend.|
||Procurement||Colin Riggs, est. 8 hours.|
|November 2021 - January 2022
||Build and Evaluate System||Colin Riggs, est. 40 hours. Diane Abruzzini, est. 20 hours. Mark Fasching, est. 16 hours.|
|November 2021 - January 2022
||Web Page Creation and Upload Support Materials, Data & Documentation||Diane Abruzzini, Est. 16 hours.|
||Site Acceptance Test (SAT)||Colin Riggs, est. 4 hours. Diane Abruzzini, est. 4 hours. Mark Fasching, est. 2 hours. Christa Alexander, est. 2 hours. Bob Lesnikoski, Rebecca Maden, Chris Callahan to attend.|
||Labor Study - ARCS||Christa Alexander, est. 12 hours.|
||On-Farm Demo/Workshop # 1||Mark Fasching, est. 4 hours. Diane Abruzzini, est. 4 hours.|
|April 2022||Design Instructions||Diane Abruzzini, est. 16 hours. Colin Riggs, est. 4 hours.|
|August - September 2022
||Labor Study - Transport Cart||Christa Alexander, est. 20 hours.|
|April - November 2022
||Labor Analysis Reports||Diane Abruzzini, est. 24 hours. Colin Riggs, est. 24 hours.|
|September 2022||On-Farm Demo/Workshop #2||Christa Alexander, est. 4 hours. Diane Abruzzini, est. 4 hours.|
|December 2022 - February 2023
||Conference Presentations (2)||Diane Abruzzini, est. 14 hours. Christa Alexander, est. 7 hours. Mark Fasching, est. 7 hours.|
Budget Justification and Narrative (file upload)
|Other direct costs||Subtotal from budget justification and narrative template||$15,191|
|Personnel||Subtotal from budget justification and narrative template||$13,840|
|Travel||Subtotal from budget justification and narrative template||$913|
|Rigorous Total: $29,944||$29,944|