A shift in agricultural focus from producing food and fiber to food, fiber, and energy can have adverse effects on agricultural sustainability.
In this project the objectives have been achieved by editing curricula suitable for use in training sessions. This book contains 24 case studies (exercises) ranging from using historical techniques to overcome production barrier to calculating soil organic carbon maintenance requirements. A CD containing data sets is included with the book. This book was published by CRC Press. Case studies developed in the book have been used in university classes and workshops. Over the project, 7 related workshops have been held and 31 related presentations have been given. An outcome of this project that an on-farm testing program that will increase energy efficiency has been initiated in South Dakota.
- Develop educational modules and case studies that illustrate how cropping rotational diversity, whole farm management, and precision N and conservation management increase energy efficiency.
Train agronomic professionals at 4 workshops on production practices designed to increase energy efficiency and how to conduct a whole farm energy assessment.
To reduce dependence on foreign oil, US agriculture, is experiencing a shift in crop production philosophy, from providing food and fiber to a major emphasis in energy farming. In response to this potential shift, many are predicting that ‘energy plantations’ using corn monocultures or appropriate mixes of species with high rates of residue removal will be created. Removal of most of the surface biomass or the adoption of monocultures can result in serious problems. Lal (2007) stated that “crop residues can be used either to restore soil quality and its carbon pool or for power/biofuel production, BUT NOT BOTH”. The collection and removal of plant residues, which today are typically left in the field, must be done in a manner that does not impair land productivity, diminish water quality, or result in unwanted carbon emissions. Resource planners often assume that non-harvested materials have little or no value. In reality, these materials maintain soil quality and crop productivity. Mann et al. (2002), in a literature review on stover removal, found little or no information on the long-term effects on erosion or SOC dynamics and transformations.
Research funded by a variety of funding agencies will attempt to answer these questions. However, due to the long-term ramification and huge risk associated with wide-scale crop residue harvesting, educational activities on improving production energy efficiency and sustainability must be started now. Educational activities should include the development of appropriate curriculum and training of professional agronomist in the use outreach models that lead to increased adoption rates of efficient energy production systems.
Education & Outreach Initiatives
Authors from the leading researchers world-wide on energy efficiency were invited to participate in this project. They were asked to write curricula suitable for use in workshops or the classroom. All papers were reviewed and case studies tested. The papers were published in book series, GIS Applications in Agronomy, by CRC press. Individual case studies were presented at workshops and in the classroom.
Outreach and Publications
GIS Applications in Agriculture: Nutrient Management for Improved Energy Efficiency. Clay and Shanahan (eds). 2011. Available at http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/0849375266.
Chapter 1. Energy and Climate Implications for Agricultural Nutrient Use Efficiency Adam J. Liska and Richard K. Perrin
Chapter 2: Nutrient Management for Improved Energy Efficiency. F. Mamani Pati, D.E. Clay and C.G. Carlson
Chapter 3: Using Precision Farming to Overcome Yield Limiting Factors in Southern Brazil Oxisols: A Case Study. Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado and Antônio Luis Santi
Chapter 4: Collecting and Analyzing Soil Spatial Information Using Kriging and Inverse Distance, D.W. Franzen
Chapter 5. Integration of USDA-NRCS Web Soil Survey and Site Collected Data. Kurtis D. Reitsma and Douglass D. Malo
Chapter 6: Space, Time, Remote Sensing and Optimal Nitrogen Fertilization Rates – A Fuzzy Logic Approach, N. Tremblay, M.Y. Bouroubi, B. Panneton, P. Vigneault and S. Guillaume.
Chapter 7. Digital Northern Great Plains and Zone Mapping Application for Precision Agriculture. Xiaodong Zhang.
Chapter 8: Spatial Variability of Machinery Use Efficiency, Viacheslav I. Adamchuk, Robert D. Grisso, and Michael F. Kocher
Chapter 9. Precision Manure Application Requirements, John Nowatzki, North Dakota State University.
Chapter 10: A Case Study For Improving Nutrient Management Efficiency by Optimizing the Plant Population. Gregg Carlson, David Clay, and Joseph Schefers.
Chapter 11. Soil water status maps for variable rate irrigation, C.B Hedley, I J Yule
Chapter 12. Maximizing Nutrient Efficiency Through the Adoption of Management Practices That Maintain Soil Organic Carbon: Calculating Carbon Turnover Kinetics, David Clay, Gregg Carlson, and Sharon Clay.
Chapter13. Predictive mapping of soil organic carbon: A case study using geographic weighted regression approach. Umakant Mishra, and Rattan Lal.
Chapter 14. Tillage and Crop Residue Effects on Soil Carbon Turnover Using the Michaelis and Menten Approach, Mahdi Al-Kaisi.
Chapter 15. Geospatial Management of Andean Technology by the Inca Empire F. Mamani-Pati, D.E. Clay, and H. Smeltekop.
Chapter 16. Calculating Energy Efficiency of Applying Fresh and Composted Manure to Soil, R.J. Wiederholt, S. Rahman and A. Ehni
Chapter 17. Quantifying Greenhouse Gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) Fluxes from Soil in a Pasture. Nsalambi V. Nkongolo
Chapter 18. Improved N and energy use efficiency using NIR estimated soil organic carbon and N simulated modeling. Christopher J. Graham, Harold M. van Es, Jeffrey J. Melkonian, and David A. Laird
Chapter 19. Computing Wheat Nitrogen Requirements from Grain Yield and Protein Maps. D.S. Long and R.E. Engel.
Chapter 20: A Review of Low and High Technology Nitrogen Management Approaches for Improved Nitrogen Use Efficiency. D.B. Arnall and R.W. Mullen.
Chapter 21. Use of GIS-based Site-specific Nitrogen Management for Improving Energy Efficiency. Kevin F. Bronson, Peter C. Scharf, and Newell R. Kitchen.
Chapter 22. Geographic Information and the Management of Animal Manure. D.A. Crouse and J.L. Havlin, NC State University.
Chapter 23. Spatial ramifications of crop selection: Water quality and biomass energy, M.P. Russelle, D.W. Kelley, A.S. Birr, and D.G. Tiffany.
Chapter 24. Estimating Soil Productivity and Energy Efficiency Using the USDA Websoil Survey, Soil Productivity Index Calculator, and Biofuel Energy Systems Simulator. Kurtis D. Reitsma, R. Kyle Heimerl, and Thomas E. Schumacher.
Clay, D.E., C.G. Carlson, and S.A. Clay. 2010. The present, the past, and the future of crop production in the Great Plains. Adapting Agriculture to a Changing Prairie Climate, Winnipeg, Manitoba. March 4. 2010.
Clay, D.E., C.G. Carlson, and S.A. Clay. 2010. The present, the past, and the future of crop production in the Great Plains. Adapting Agriculture to a Changing Prairie Climate, Kansas City, MO, March 9. 2010.
Clay, D.E., and C.G. Carlson. 2009. Energy use in agriculture and precision farming approaches to minimize impacts. Symposium on using precision farming techniques to minimize agricultural activities in the landscape at American Society Agronomy National Meetings, Pittsburg PA, Nov 1-5, 2009.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay.2009, On farm Research. 14-16 July 2009 Info Ag, Springfield Illinois.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. There is no loss of food in the ethanol life cycle”. Land Use and Carbon Impacts of Corn-based Ethanol Conference.25-26 August 2009, St Louis Mo, National Corn Growers Association.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. Up data on site specific variety recommendations. 9 September 2009, Pioneer Hybrid.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. There is no loss of food in the ethanol life cycle” 9 September 2009, South Dakota Corn Council
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay.1 December 2009, Recommendations from on farm research. Lethbridge, Canada, Alberta barley producers, Lethbridge, Canada, Alberta barley producers,
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009., Recommendations from on farm research. 2 December 2009, Lethbridge Alberta, Canada, Southern Ag Advantage Conference Keynote Speaker, barley producers
Clay., D.E., T. Schumacher, S.A. Clay, and V. Owens. 2009. The agronomic and environmental cost of removing corn stover. Symposium: The environmental and ecological challenges of biomass production. American Society Agronomy National Meetings, Pittsburg PA, Nov 1-5, 2009.
Clay, D.E., C.G. Carlson, S.A. Clay. 2009. Genetic improvements for enhanced drought tolerance. Monsanto water and drought symposium, July 29, 2009. St Louis, MO.
Carlson, G. and D.E. Clay. 2009. Analyzing site-specific plant population data. IPNI-InfoAg. July 14-16, Springfield Ill.
Clay, D.E., C.G. Carlson, and K. Reitsma. 2009. Making more from historic carbon studies. NCR-180 National Meeting. January 7-9.
Clay, D.E., C.G. Carlson, K. Reitsma, and S.A. Clay. 2009. Global warming and carbon trading. Soil Moisture Clinic, Jan 26, 2009, Brookings, SD.
Mamani-Pati, F., D.E. Clay. And G. Carlson. 2009. The influence of corn plant populations, N rate, and simulated landscape position on net energy yield and profitability. American Society Agronomy National Meetings, Pittsburg PA, Nov 1-5, 2009.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. High intensity crop production. 23 Jan 2009 Crops Clinic Brookings
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. High intensity crop production. 19 Feb 2009 McIntosh, SD
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. Do precision farming tools pay? 24 Feb 2009 Winner SD
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. Is Precision Ag Profitable? 25 Feb 2009 Lake Preston, SD
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. Is precision farming profitable?, 26 Feb 2009 Winfield solutions, Brookings, SD
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. Is Precision farming profitable?” 3 March 2009 Aberdeen, SD.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009. Intro to on farm research., 5 March 2009 Brookings, SD
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay.2009. Intro to on farm research I. Elluminate session Bison SD, 20 March 2009.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay.2009., Intro to on farm research. South Dakota crop consultants, 30 March 2009 Brookings, SD
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay. 2009 “Intro to on farm research, II. Elluminate session Bison SD 2 April 2009.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay 2009. Intro to on farm research. .20 April 2009. Brookings, South Dakota Vo Ag Instructors.
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay., 2009. An update, on farm research. 5 June 2009 Watertown, The Association of Site Specific Providers
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay 2009. What is precision farming? 16 June 2009 Opportunity Farm, SDSU Foundation BeefBucks Steak Fry
Carlson, C.G., and D.E. Clay.2009. On farm research. 9 & 10 July 2009 SDSU IPM Field School SE Farm
Mamani-Pati, F., M.A. Yujra Callata, D.Clay, and J. Smeltekop. 2009. Nutrient cycling in organic coffee production in a tropical ecoregion Nor Yungas of La Paz, Bolivia. American Society Agronomy National Meetings, Pittsburg PA, Nov 1-5, 2009.
Clay, S.A., S. Hansen, J. Moriles, D.E. Clay, and D. Horvath. 2009. Investigating early growth and development response of corn to weed competition using transcriptone analysis. American Society Agronomy National Meetings, Pittsburg PA, Nov 1-5, 2009.
Mamani-Pati, F., E. Mamani Villca, D. Clay, and H. Smeltekop. 2010. Effect of lime application on soil acidity and coffee yields in the province of Caranavi-Taipiplaya Nor Yungas Region of La Paz. American Society of Agronomy National Meetings. Long Beach CA.
Mamani-Pati, F., D. Clay, G. Carlson, and S. Clay. 2010. Nitrogen rate and harvest corn stover impacts the profitability and energy gains of corn grown in South Dakota. American Society of Agronomy National Meetings. Long Beach CA.
Owens, V., C. Oh Hong, S. Osborne, T. Schumacher, and D. Clay. 2010. Environmental impact of growing herbaceous perennials for bioenergy. American Society of Agronomy National Meetings. Long Beach CA.
Mamani-Pati, F., D. Clay, and H. Smeltekop. 2010. Geospatial soil conservation using Andean technologies by the Inca Empire. American Society of Agronomy National Meetings. Long Beach CA.
Mamani-Pati, F., D.E. Clay. And G. Carlson. 2009 The influence of corn plant populations, N rate, and simulated landscape position on net energy yield and profitability. American Society Agronomy National Meetings, Pittsburg PA, Nov 1-5, 2009.
Clay, D.E., S.A. Clay, D. Malo, and T. Schumacher. 2008. Potential errors when estimating soil organic carbon maintenance requirements. 744-7. ASA 2008, National Meetings, Houston TX.
Carlson, C.G., V. Owens, and D. E. Clay, 2008, Energy Efficiency of South Dakota Corn and Ethanol Production, Brookings Plant Science Tour, 30 June, 2008.
The short term contribution/impact/outcome was the development of training modules on bioenergy production, energy efficient production practices that can be used for self-learning or integrated into workshops, classes, and training seminars. This outcome has not be achieved. The intermediate outcomes were changed attitudes and knowledge about the importance of utilizing energy efficient production systems; and the initiation of a participatory research program by Extension Educators and crop consultants. We are using these on-farm study groups to create learning communities.
Accomlishments are discussed in the attached document.
Partial funding for this project was provided by NCR-SARE, South Dakota Corn Utilization council, South Dakota State University, SD Wheat Council, and SD Soybean Board and Promotion Council.
Increasing energy and production system within a sustainable system is a critical need. This technology can be used targeting inputs to where they are needed (precision farming). Research and outreach efforts in this important area need to be continued.