Pacific Island Agroforestry Workshops and Field Visits

Final Report for EW05-009

Project Type: Professional Development Program
Funds awarded in 2005: $59,777.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2006
Region: Western
State: Hawaii
Principal Investigator:
Craig Elevitch
Permanent Agriculture Resources
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Project Information


This project presents two 4-day workshops in Hawai‘i (primarily for Hawai‘i participants) and Guam and Palau (primarily for Pacific Basin participants). Each workshop consists of about 50% classroom-style presentations and 50% field visits. Resource professionals will present topics such as “agroforestry-friendly” NRCS standards, soil quality considerations with agroforestry, tree-crop competition, new perspectives in windbreak design, conserving traditional varieties and native species, and value-added and direct marketing strategies. This project gives NRCS personnel, cooperative extension agents, and other agricultural professionals firsthand experience of agroforestry systems, presentations from experts, and resources, thereby furthering the introduction of agroforestry throughout the region.

Project Objectives:

1) Audience

Based on consultations with NRCS staff in Hawaii and Guam, and UH cooperative extension staff in Hawaii, the following numbers of participants are expected:

NRCS personnel: 30–40 (15–20 each workshop)
Cooperative extension: 10–15 (5–8 each workshop)
Other extension professionals (ethnobotanists, ag consultants, NGO’s, etc.): 20–40 (10–20 each workshop)
Farmers, ranchers, nurserymen, etc.: 20–40 (10–20 each workshop)

The minimum expected at each workshop is 40, with a minimum total number of 100.

2) Activities and methods

Workshops will consist of three half-day classroom presentations followed by half-day field visits, and one full day of field visits. Classroom presentations will be scheduled to illustrate the day’s field tours as best as possible.

3) Products

An agroforestry resource list for Pacific islands will be produced. Each presenter (both speakers and farmers) will be asked to recommend agroforestry resources, including books, periodicals, internet sites, and organizations. The resource list will be given to workshop participants in hardcopy form, and posted at (and made available for posting to other web sites). Also, a photographic record of the field visits will be made consisting of photos taken by the project coordinator and photo contributions from participants. The photos will be compiled with captions into a virtual tour of the field visits and posted for free viewing at The resource guide and virtual tour will be distributed on CD to 100 NRCS, cooperative extension and other ag offices throughout the American-affiliated Pacific.


Agroforestry is defined as, “The deliberate incorporation of trees into, or the protection of trees within, an agroecosystem in an effort to enhance its short- and long-term productiveness, its economic and cultural utility, and its ecological stability” (Clarke and Thaman 1993). Agroforestry has received steadily increasing interest worldwide for the past 25 years. The 1st World Congress of Agroforestry was held in June 2004 in Orlando, Florida, with over 600 participants from 82 countries. The USDA NRCS was instrumental in organizing the congress and played a leading role in drafting the Congress Declaration. Reflecting a consensus opinion, the Congress Declaration (WCA 2004) states that, “Agroforestry will increase household income..., promote gender equity and empower women..., improve the health and welfare of people..., and promote environmental sustainability.” This shows increasing mainstream acceptance of agroforestry as a viable model for sustainable, ecological, and economic development.

Indigenous Hawaiians and other Pacific islanders had sustainable agroforestry systems that made them amongst the most well-nourished and self-sufficient peoples in the world. A wide diversity of tree species that provided food, building and crafts materials, medicine, and many other ecological and cultural services were planted and protected. The high diversity of useful local trees led to the development of numerous agroforestry practices that are found nowhere else in the United States (Friday and Wescom 1997). After European contact, and especially with the advent of industrial agriculture, the indigenous systems that once included trees were removed and replaced with monoculture plantations. Trees in urban areas were also removed to make way for industrial, commercial, and residential development. These trends are consistent throughout the Pacific islands (Clarke and Thaman 1993, Thaman and Whistler 1996). In many areas such as Hawai‘i and Guam, the old agroforestry systems, and the diverse trees they embraced, have nearly disappeared.

Producers are now recognizing the risks inherent in intensive monocultures (especially those involving high tillage), which include dependence on high inputs, environmental degradation, and the vagaries of the market. Interest is renewed in bringing back certain agroforestry practices to reduce dependence on fertilizers and pesticides, to stabilize soils and protect from wind, and to differentiate crops on the market. There is also enthusiasm for native trees as alternatives to potentially invasive exotics, and for traditional crop varieties (breadfruit, banana, etc.) that were selected over generations to suit the environment and cultural tastes. This renewed interest was confirmed in telephone interviews of NRCS personnel and cooperative extension agents, a portion of which are summarized below.

“Due to the shortage of land in many Pac Basin islands, people are beginning to farm increasingly steep areas. In American Samoa, for example, people are farming taro on very steep slopes of 60–85% and encountering serious erosion, and even landslides. For these areas we are beginning to recognize the value of perennial multistory cropping systems, an indigenous practice. In many ways it’s ironic that we are responsible for reintroducing the old practices. We hope to release a multistory cropping practice standard within the next few months. Field visits of successful agroforestry projects is exactly the kind of thing we need to do.”—NRCS Soil Conservationist, Guam

“Regarding our agroforestry education needs, these subjects are the priority:
• Alternative native species for windbreaks in Guam/CNMI.
• Noninvasive perennial groundcover for tree based agroforestry system.
• Plant species awareness, qualities and characteristics that are important to SOM.
• Agroforestry materials with our Plant Materials Center in Hawaii, what’s available?
• Agroforestry to treat critical areas and severe erosion areas.
• Economics of agroforestry. Need to consider labor cost by species and whether shrubs or trees in the system is or can be money makers.
• Agroforestry and no-till farming.”
—Pac Basin (Guam) NRCS consensus of technical staff submitted by District Conservationist

“In all agroforestry endeavors, economics is a key element to consider.”—Coordinator, UH Sustainable Agriculture Program, Honolulu

“How to grow coffee under shade is a frequent question, as is how to use grazing animals for weed control in an orchard. Many people are interested in organic certification. A few people are interested in integrating natives into production. Value-added strategies are also a common interest.” —Cooperative extension agent, Kealakekua, Hawai‘i

“Unfortunately, fifteen years ago nobody cared if you flattened native forest. Preserving native forest while allowing some kind of production is a priority as we now cannot condone mowing down native forest for crops. This stops us from working with farmers until the damage to the native forest is already done. We need models that integrate existing native forest.”—NRCS soil conservationist, Kealakekua, Hawai‘i
“We have native Hawaiian collaborators who would like to combine crops with trees. They are interested in tree selection. We need more information about how to guide them in choosing crop-tree combinations. We are very excited about sending our Hawaiian homesteaders to the Big Island for training in agroforestry.” —Cooperative extension agent, Ho‘olehua, Moloka‘i

“Due to the land shortage here, more and more marginal land and steeper slopes are being utilized. We need to have better techniques for farming these lands and for windbreaks. The marketing side of things is a critical priority.”—NRCS Soil Conservationist, Lihue, Kaua‘i

“Although we would like to cost-share agroforestry systems we cannot do so without proof the systems work. Questions I ask myself are: What are the attributes of an agroforestry system that work? How do we judge if a system is agroforestry? A focus of the Tropical Technology Consortium is to identify agroforestry and other technologies across American Tropics. We are looking for criteria to judge if a system is agroforestry.”—NRCS Trop Tech Specialist, Honolulu

“Agroforestry is a potential growth area for NRCS especially with sugarcane cultivation disappearing. Multiple cropping systems can be a solution. We want to see that people have access to the information.”—NRCS State Conservationist, Honolulu

“There is a big interest in restoration of native trees such as koa and sandalwood in farm systems, and getting native plants back into the landscape. Other priorities include selecting nitrogen fixing trees (noninvasive), weed management, and adaptive crop management. We have little background in practical aspects, and need more training.”—UH Cooperative Extension agent, Hilo, Hawai‘i

“There is more interest in agroforestry in places where the indigenous systems have been most altered, such as Hawai‘i, Guam and Saipan. A high priority is to promote missing and endangered legacy varieties selected by the native peoples.”—USDA Forest Service Forester, Hilo, Hawai‘i

“I would like to see some examples of silvopasture in ‘ohi‘a [native] forest. We receive many requests for drought and fire tolerant trees.”—NRCS Resource Conservationist, Waimea, Hawai‘i.

Literature cited
Clarke, W.C. and R.R. Thaman (eds.). 1993. Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for Sustainability. United Nations University Press, Tokyo.
Friday, K.S. and R.W. Wescom. 1997. Agroforestry in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Islands: Present Status and Future Potential. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu.
Thaman, R.R. and W.A. Whistler. 1996. A Review of Uses and Status of Trees and Forests in Land-use Systems in Samoa, Tonga, Kiribati and Tuvalu with Recommendations for Future Actions. South Pacific Forestry Development Program RAS/92/361. Working Paper 5. Suva, Fiji.
World Congress of Agroforestry, 1st (WCA). 2004. Orlando Declaration.


Click linked name(s) to expand/collapse or show everyone's info
  • James Boyd (J. B.) Friday
  • John Lawrence
  • Diane Ragone
  • Michael Robotham

Education & Outreach Initiatives



The workshops were planned in close collaboration with NRCS (through the Tropical Technology specialist for Hawai‘i and the Pac Basin, and the Pac Basin technical staff) and the University of Hawai‘i (through the extension forester) in order to ensure relevance to those organizations, which form the core audience of the workshops.

The workshops were designed to provide state-of-the-art presentations in Pacific island agroforestry together with ample field experience of successful agroforestry systems.
This project presented two 4-day workshops, one in Kona, Hawai‘i (primarily for Hawai‘i participants) and one taking place in both Guam and Palau (primarily for Pacific Basin participants). Each workshop consisted of presentations (approx. 50%) and field visits (approx. 50%). Resource professionals will presented topics such as “agroforestry-friendly” NRCS standards, soil quality considerations with agroforestry, tree-crop competition, new perspectives in windbreak design, conserving traditional varieties and native species, and value-added and direct marketing strategies. A wide range of field visits took place, including nontimber forest products grown within privately-owned native forest, shade-grown organic coffee with geese and sheep for weed control, processing and direct sales of produce from an agroforest, traditional Polynesian and Micronesian agroforestry, multistory agroforestry combined with wetland taro, contour hedgerows for organic matter production and erosion control, and many others. The project will produced an agroforestry resources guide and a photo guide from the field visits, both of which are freely available on the Internet. The workshop agendas are available for viewing at

Outreach and Publications

Publications produced by this project include:
• A web site containing presenter PowerPoint scripts in PDF format and photographic records of the field visits at
• A Pacific island agroforestry resource guide, also available for download in PDF format from the web site above.
• A CD containing the above web site, sent to key agricultural organizations in Hawaii and Guam.

The workshop agendas with PDF files and photos available at as indicated:

Tuesday, May 16–Friday, May 19, 2006
Keauhou (Kahalu‘u), Kona, Hawai‘i

Tuesday, May 16, 2006, Kona, Hawai‘i
7:30–8:30 Registration, coffee
8:30–9:00 Opening ceremony (photos), Kumu Keala Ching, Na Wai Iwi Ola
9:00–9:20 Welcome—workshop overview (photos), Craig Elevitch
9:20–10:00 Agroforestry—tree-based polycultures (pdf), Roger R. B. Leakey
10:00–10:30 Coffee break
10:30–11:00 Optimizing tree-crop interactions [Hawai‘i version] (pdf), J. B. Friday
11:00–11:30 Importance of mixed crop farming systems and agroforestry (pdf), Craig Elevitch
11:30–12:00 Integrating systems from ocean to mountain, Kauhane Morton
12:15 Leave hotel
12:30–1:30 Lunch, Nasturtium Cafe (photos), Kealakekua, Kona
2:00–3:30 ‘Ohi‘a Forest Farm (understory planting of commercial and noncommercial plants in the understory of a native ‘ohi‘a lehua forest) (photos) (tour handout pdf), Trisha and Denver Leaman
3:30–5:00 Mother Goose Farms (certified organic shade-grown coffee and other crops with geese and sheep weed control), Vicki and John Swift (photos) (tour handout pdf)
6:00 back at hotel

Wednesday, May 17, 2006, Kona, Hawai‘i
7:30–8:00 Coffee
8:00–8:30 Summary and day plan, Craig Elevitch
8:30–9:00 Practical approaches to species selection [Hawai‘i version] (pdf), J.B. Friday

9:00–9:30 Conserving traditional varieties of economic plants (pdf), Diane Ragone
9:30–10:00 Domestication and commercialization of agroforestry trees for AFTPs (pdf),
Roger R.B. Leakey
10:00–10:30 Coffee break
10:30–11:00 Value-added marketing (pdf), Ken Love
11:00–11:30 Direct marketing and value-added strategies for agroforestry (pdf), Debbie Ward
11:45 Leave hotel
12:00–1:00 Lunch, Kunitake Farm (photos), Holualoa, Kona
1:00–1:15 Kunitake Farm, traditional Kona coffee farm (photos) (tour handout pdf), Larry and Maxine Kunitake
1:15–1:30 Faleofa farm, mixed cropping Tongan style (photos) (tour handout pdf), Kamilo Faleofa
1:30–2:00 Orchard alley cropping (a 1995 WSARE project) (uncertified organic, fast-growing contour hedgerows of nitrogen-fixing trees for crop mulch) (photos), Craig Elevitch
2:00–2:30 Forest Stewardship Project (mixed plantings of native and exotic trees) (photos), Mark Kimball
2:30–3:00 Blue Sky Farm (coffee, macnuts, avocado, and other crops) (photos), Christian Twigg-Smith
3:30–5:30 Holualoa Kona Coffee (certified organic, shade-grown coffee with on-farm processing and direct sales) (photos), Desmond Twigg-Smith
6:00 back at hotel

Thursday, May 18, 2006, Kona, Hawai‘i
7:30–8:00 Coffee
8:00–8:30 Summary and day plan, Craig Elevitch
8:30–9:00 Agroforestry-friendly NRCS standards (pdf), Mike Robotham
9:00–9:30 Windbreaks for agroforestry: Fresh ideas with multi-use species (pdf), Bob Joy
9:30–10:00 Soil quality considerations with agroforestry (pdf), Mike Robotham
10:00–10:30 Plant materials available from the NRCS Plant Materials Center at Ho‘olehua, Moloka‘i (pdf), Bob Joy
10:30–11:00 Coffee break
11:15 Leave hotel
12:15–1:15 Lunch, Waimea
1:15–2:15 Tour of windbreak trials and forage tree trials at the UH CTAHR Mealani Experiment Station (photos), J. B. Friday
3:00–5:30 Ninole Orchards (diverse tropical fruit orchard and peach palm plantation with windbreaks) (photos), John Mood
7:00 back at hotel

Friday, May 19, 2006, Kona, Hawai‘i
7:30–8:00 Coffee
8:00–8:30 Summary and day plan, Craig Elevitch
8:30–9:00 Agroecology and sustainability (pdf), Roger R. B. Leakey
9:00–9:30 Poly- and mono-cultures, the good, bad and ugly (pdf), Scot Nelson
9:30–10:00 Biodiversity in traditional Pacific island agriculture (pdf), Diane Ragone
10:00–10:30 Coffee break
10:30–11:00 Introduction to vegetative propagation of trees (pdf), Roger R. B. Leakey
11:00–11:30 Guided tour of Pacific island agroforestry resources (pdf), Craig Elevitch
11:30–11:45 Concluding remarks and discussion
11:45–12:00 Closing

Monday, June 26–Tuesday, June 27, 2006
Koror, Palau

Monday, June 26, 2006, Koror, Palau
7:30–8:00 Registration, coffee
8:00–8:30 Opening welcome
8:30–8:45 Welcome—workshop overview, Craig Elevitch
8:45–9:30 Agroforestry—tree-based polycultures (pdf), Roger R.B. Leakey
9:30–10:00 Traditional Pacific island agroforestry systems (pdf), Harley Manner
10:00–10:30 Coffee break
10:30–11:00 Traditional Palauan agroforestry systems (pdf), Robin DeMeo
11:00–11:30 Biodiversity in traditional Pacific island agriculture (pdf), Diane Ragone
11:30–12:00 Optimizing tree-crop interactions [Guam-Palau version] (pdf), J. B. Friday
12:15–1:00 Lunch, hotel
1:00 Leave hotel on buses
1:30–2:30 Jack Masters (photos), Airai, Palau
2:30–3:30 Noni farm (photos), Airai, Palau
3:30–5:00 John Oiph (photos), Airai, Palau
6:00 back at hotel

Tuesday, June 27, 2006, Koror, Palau
7:30–8:00 Coffee
8:00–8:30 Soil quality considerations with agroforestry [Palau version] (pdf), Bob Gavenda
8:30–9:00 Practical approaches to species selection [Palau version] (pdf), J. B. Friday
9:00–9:30 Direct marketing and value added strategies for agroforestry (pdf), Diane Ragone
9:30–10:00 Coffee break
10:00–10:15 Poly- and mono-cultures, the good, bad and ugly (pdf), Scot Nelson (presented by J. B. Friday)
10:15–11:00 Introduction to vegetative propagation of trees (pdf), Roger R.B. Leakey
11:00–11:45 Domestication and commercialization of agroforestry trees for AFTPs (pdf), Roger R.B. Leakey
12:00–1:00 Lunch, hotel
1:00 Leave hotel
1:30–2:30 Marcello Brell (photos), Koror, Palau
2:30–3:30 OISCA farm (photos), Nekken, Palau
3:30–5:00 Nekken Ag Station Forestry Nursery (photos), Nekken, Palau
6:00 back at hotel, closing

Thursday, June 28–Friday, June 29, 2006
Hagåtña, Guam

Thursday, June 29, Guam
7:30–8:30 Registration, coffee
8:30–9:00 Opening welcome
9:00–9:15 Welcome—workshop overview, Craig Elevitch
9:15–10:00 Agroforestry—tree-based polycultures (pdf), Roger R.B. Leakey
10:00–10:30 Traditional Pacific island agroforestry systems (pdf), Harley Manner
10:30–11:00 Coffee break
11:00–11:30 Biodiversity in traditional Pacific island agriculture (pdf), Diane Ragone
11:30–12:00 Optimizing tree-crop interactions [Guam-Palau version] (pdf), J. B. Friday
12:00–1:00 Lunch, hotel
1:00 Leave hotel
1:30–2:30 Fruit trees, intercropped with vegetables and root crops with resource recycling (organic) (photos), Hugo Gange, Dededo, Guam
2:30–3:30 Multi-story, multi-crop commercial farm with extensive windbreaks and no-till fields, Bernard Watson (photos), Northern Guam
3:30–5:00 Complex cropping system on sloping land (small farm) (photos), Jose C. Santos, Piti, Guam
6:00 back at hotel

Friday, June 30, Guam
7:30–8:00 Coffee
8:00–8:30 NRCS “agroforestry friendly” standards (pdf), Bart Lawrence
8:30–9:00 Soil quality considerations with agroforestry (pdf), Bob Gavenda
9:00–9:30 Quantifying traditional agroforestry systems (pdf), Harley Manner
9:30–10:00 Conserving traditional varieties of economic plants (pdf), Diane Ragone
10:00–10:30 Coffee break
10:30–11:15 Introduction to vegetative propagation of trees (pdf), Roger R.B. Leakey
11:15–12:00 Domestication and commercialization of agroforestry trees for AFTPs (pdf), Roger R.B. Leakey
12:00–1:00 Lunch, hotel
1:00–1:30 Fresh perspectives in windbreak design (pdf), Bart Lawrence
1:30–2:00 Practical approaches to species selection [Guam version] (pdf), J. B. Friday
2:00–2:30 Direct marketing and value added strategies for agroforestry (pdf), Craig Smith
2:30–3:00 Coffee break
3:30–4:15 Agroecology and sustainability (pdf), Roger R.B. Leakey
4:15–4:30 Guided tour of Pacific island agroforestry resources (pdf), Craig Elevitch
4:30–5:00 Concluding remarks and discussion

3-Month evaluation comments highlights
In a follow-up survey approximately 3 months after the workshops, participants were asked these questions:
1. How has the workshop impacted your plans regarding agroforestry?
2. As a result of your workshop experience, which agroforestry practices are you considering implementing or recommending to others?

A selection of the responses:

I have started growing more species, and recommending species as windbreaks for multipurpose uses. I have been trying out a modified propagation chamber, for papaya and tea cuttings. Also, looking at different species for different non-conforming uses, such as cinnamon or clove for windbreaks.
A.Y., Nursery owner, Hilo

We receive many inquiries from small landowners that would like to start a small tree farm on their property that have very little knowledge or are not sure what they would like to do with their lands. We try to provide the landowners with some basic ideas that could be done, and the workshop provided me with the knowledge of the different practices that can be used for agroforestry when we speak with the landowners.
There are no specific methods that we would practice or recommend, it will all be dependent on the desire and location of the landowners. For myself, I was very interested in the use of the different types of windbreaks used at the various farms we visited.
A.K., DLNR DoFAW, Lihue

The workshop was excellent. The ideas and issues presented will be influential on site planning and community development planning for both urban and rural applications and will be incorporated into advanced design studios at the School of Architecture, University of Hawai'i at Manoa. The workshop accelerated plans in the advanced studio I teach to begin prototypes and testing of full scale building components using local woods. Many issues have arisen this semester about expanding a construction sector into the forest product industry. One of the goals is to develop appropriately scaled manufacturing operations that could allow communities or landowners to process local wood for local construction applications. This would keep resources close to origin and close to use.
A.A., UH School of Architecture, Honolulu

I especially appreciate the web site info because I was not able to attend the workshop this May.
A.T., Farmer, Haiku

I'm giving more thought about how the shrubs and trees that we are testing on the PMC can be used in agroforestry. We will be testing more plants for agroforestry use because this has been expressed as a high priority need by our field people.
Multi-purpose windbreaks primarily for fruit, fodder, and mulch to improve soil quality. Since the workshop, I've discussed using avocado trees for windbreak with a NRCS planner on Oahu and a farmer on Guam. Thanks for doing such a great job organizing the workshop. The web site looks good!
B.J., USDA NRCS, Ho’olehua

The workshop was perfect timing for my farm, we are in the stages of planning and planting. The workshop provided resources and great information on what we can possible do on our farm. It was very helpful to see the practices in action on the farm visits. The variety of farms we visited was great, all the diversity on the island.
We are planting nitrogen fixing cover crops and trees, after we get a fence up, getting into goose weeders, we have planted vetiver grass in our water way. Some different varieties of fruit we saw and tasted.
B.P., Farmer, Honaunau

It has fined tuned my thoughts on what to plan on planting. So much information was in that room with so much ways of making this world a Green one. My plan is that some day we can use this knowledge on the Hamakua coast and create Hawaii's most Awesome forests.
I think learning to make cuttings with Roger was cool. There are so many plants and trees here in Hawaii you can't get seeds from and cuttings just might help bring back some of our Native species. But the one that toped it off for me and many others I think was the Big bite of Noni! That was something that I shared with my friends and clients of mine.
C.A., Landscaper, Hilo

I hope that the practice of agroforestry, using noninvasive species, on abandoned or marginal agricultural lands might produce buffers between weedy areas and native forests.
I would recommend practices relating to my answer to Question 1.
D.C., USDA NRCS, Kealakekua

The workshop inspired me to add some new fruit and nut species to our list of agroforestry trees for our site in Kurtistown, and they are being planted out this week. We are working on a marketing plan to process and utilize our surplus fruit.
Our big challenge is the invasive weed trees, such as Albizia, Spathodea, Psidium, and Miconia. We are using selective methods such as girdling and basal herbicide application to reduce the weed species and we are planting native species in selected areas. We are planning to build a propagation box to start more native tree seeds.
We are sharing the information we gained from the workshop with the students in the Forest TEAM program at Hawaii Community College. We recently returned from Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean, where we shared what we learned at the workshop, and gave them the link to your website.

The workshop impacted my plans for agroforestry by providing me with ideas and practical applications for selecting and using new plants on my property. Particularly to integrate more food crop and utilitarian species in the plantings, as well as plants that attract wildlife such as birds and bees.
I would definitely recommend using no-mist vegetative propagation system taught by Dr. Leakey to propagate plants; would also suggest that farmers plant a diversity of crop varieties on their property, especially traditional or 'heritage' varieties. Finally, use of terraces on steep property, mulching, and composting.
D.R., National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo

The workshop has impacted my plans regarding agroforestry by:
-Broadening my vision, planting not just one thing but, utilizing my area.
-Using different plants that works for my area as well as using cultural trees.
I am using the planting box method. Just implementing a little of everything works for me.
F.T., UH CTAHR, Ho’olehua

The workshop helped me to plan both species and plant spacing in our work to add shade to our coffee plantation and integrate and improve diversity on our fruit and vegetable farm. It has also helped me to appreciate and avoid weediness as a negative characteristic of tree species and to be careful about which species we plant.
Having seen the green mulch/jak fruit intercropping experiment we are now using rows of pigeon pea and gliricidia as a mulch stock in between coffee trees and fruit trees. We trim the trees and lay the green mulch as a thin sheet around the bases of our trees. The more lignified parts of the trees used as feed stock for our shipper/shredder. Next week we will be having a CTAHR organic farming workshop visiting our farm and I plan to show people how the mulch rows has really improved the soil and plant health and generates a large amount of good mulch.
G.R., Kupa‘a Farm, Kula

The lectures and field trips presented current trends in agroforestry. This is a bolder and refreshing look than what I had been exposed to in previous years.
The concepts I found interesting is the use of different tree species to serve as the mechanism to minimize temperatures for the understory crop species and the use of animals for weed mitigation. I have also investigated using other tree species that are suitable to particular sites.
G.S., DLNR DoFAW, Wailuku

We are now establishing an agro forestry plot in our project area, integration of nitrogen fixing trees, fruit trees and crops. We are also planning to put in a block of timber trees.
With the rough terrain that I am working in, we are recommending crops with trees but I would personally like to do trees with livestock.
J.M., SPC/GTZ PGRFP, Suva, Fiji

I see more opportunities for non-industrial tree farmers to engage in agroforestry practices. One particular aspect was learning about how agroforestry practices can fit NRCS practice standards.
I definitely will be emphasizing more multi-species complex mixed garden agroforests, rather than simpler systems such as alley cropping. Dr. Leakey’s presentations convinced me that that was the way agroforestry is going, particularly in the Pacific. His emphasis on complex agroforests made sense in light of my experience in SE Asia and the Pacific. After hearing from the Mother Goose farms, I am also more open to coffee shade systems.

The workshop increased my enthusiasm to recommend agroforestry to landowners who are asking for options for landuse issues. We talk trees with nearly every land user with a focus of native trees. With the help of David Clausnitzer we developed a native tree brochure for Kona.
Include tree planting into every operation (if agreeable) even if just a very small acreage.
J.K., USDA NRCS, Kealakekua

One major purpose of my attending this workshop/field trips was to confirm quality and yield production of coffee grown under Ohia or other Hawaiian native trees. And does Hawaii "style" compare to other shade grown coffee areas. My perception is that most coffee grown under trees if managed properly will produce equally to monoculture sun plots, and over time revenues are actually increased under partial shade. As a result of the workshop I will be implementing more NFT windbreak species (for several cultural reasons) that fit my farm size and situation. Primarily, at the NE and S perimeter as well as more interior trees. Secondly, I am currently working with NRCS on a ground cover project to help control erosion and enhance fertility; this also will help prevent soil silting into my fish ponds. Of course weed control is probably my most persistent problem that several alternative control methods need to be investigated as was suggested.
Another workshop suggestion that is being implemented is building of the "non-misting vegetative propagation unit." Especially when considering energy conservation and labor management.
The facts are that every instructional word spoken at the workshop could be put to work by urban or rural farmers depending on their experience and situation.
This was one of the best workshop presentations I have attended in several years.
J.F., Ag consultant, Hilo

From your workshop with agroforestry, I'm able to utilize the information of what I learned whenever I work with my farmers and ranchers who are interested in native tree planting species. I can narrow down native species to what the landowner's objectives are, or if not, I know where I can go to for the information I need to select the species for the climate given.
Tree/Shrub Establishment, Critical Area Planting, Vegetative Barrier, Conservation Cover
K.S., USDA NRCS, Kealakekua

It provided a great list of people to network with, awesome new books, and seeing actual plantings gave me more an idea of what the end product or an established planting should look like and allows me to better service my clientele. Well, right now, my growers are implementing multi species tree plantings for agroforestry and wood purposes and some are planting blocks of only one type of tree.
K.A., UH CTAHR, Ho’olehua

It has enriched, crystallized and reinforced the information I gleaned by other means over the previous year, and provided new contacts and relationships that I might want to call upon in the years ahead as opportunities and problems arise. Nothing new; rather an increased confidence in ones I have undertaken to date.
K.C., Farmer, Holualoa

The workshop increased my awareness and appreciation for the possibilities for agroforestry in my farming system. We are looking very closely at peach palm in our system The propagation workshop has changed some of our practices in the nursery. We loved the high humidity chamber. And we started using the new fabric pots which are great.
M.S., Ola Honua Project, Hana

The knowledge and experience acquired from the various program topics taught, and also the field tours conducted, has benefited me in broadening my approach in future planning, e.g. to conserve water using trees; the use of hedgerows to reduce soil erosion and to preserve organic matter; to diversify income on farms; and also to conserve traditional varieties and native species.
The agroforestry practices that I considered to be encouraged and recommended for implementation are as follows: to conserve traditional varieties and native species; using trees to conserve water and soil; encourage use of hedgerows for preserving organic matter and to reduce soil erosion; to diversify income on farms; to choose tree species which will grow and produce well on site.
M.M., American Samoa CC, Pago Pago, Am. Samoa

Prior to the workshop I had a general landscape layout that included agroforestry areas. The workshop provided me with a wealth of resources and experiential examples of agroforestry in action!
Too many to count, but definitely- multi-species windbreaks; fodder
plantings; multi-storied home gardens.
M.S., Farmer, Mountain View

The workshop really hasn't impacted my plans, but I don't work directly with growers. I have had more questions from field staff about agroforestry issues.
I think that one of the most important points from the workshop was the need/opportunity to develop and recommend agroforestry systems where trees provide marketable products. These seem to have the highest potential for on-the-ground adoption.
M.R., USDA NRCS, Honolulu

a) conducted a mini hands-on workshop w/ Kali & CTAHR on propagating tree cuttings in a box, per Dr. Leakey; b) did a field trip to Maui DNLR for an on site, Polipoli Forests, hands-on demo of a portable mill with the Lucas Mill assembly. a) We, & other homesteaders, have ordered a diversity of trees to grow on our land; b) I have started to prep ground for forestry stands as multiple windbreaks and in sections, for hardwood production, for home sustainability and for education c) Have taken the same message to family on Maui that have 'space available' to do the same. d) Will continue to present to the community the positives of agroforestry, its need for open spaces, preservation of water sustainability and perpetuation of cultural lifestyle...for & on Molokai’s!!!!
M.K., Farmer, Kualapuu

Yes. I'm planning, along with the local RC&D Council, to develop a conservation corps on the Island of Tutuila. The Council has received funding, and are on to the (many) details of implementation. If they can pull it off, they will offer 10 positions for young people to learn about native plant propagation and agroforestry. I'll use your book as the general curriculum for the plants they will target. In particular, we hope to use the propagation box design that the Prof from Australia showed us. Individual villages on Tutuila will use that design for growing plants used for conservation and agricultural purposes.
P.V., RC&D American Samoa, Pago Pago, Am. Samoa

The workshop had a big impact on me. First of all, seeing what other people are doing reassured me that all the time and effort are worthwhile. Replacing Christmas berry with dryland native trees is definitely labor intensive and slow going but it is exciting to watch new saplings take hold. The workshop was a way of foreseeing what can happen over a period of 10 or 12 years. The workshop advice about selecting stock with desirable characteristics and about avoiding monocultures has been very helpful. The suggestions about making good use of edges to increase variety are also useful. I was also emboldened to try planting more food plants, primarily tropical "spinach" varieties but because of water requirements, these are near the house. Even so, it is satisfying to pop outside to get fresh greens for dinner. It seemed that the farmers who participated in the workshop were all willing to experiment to find out what works best for their particular location. They were keen observers and good stewards. Their example continues to motivate me.
P.S., Farmer, Kailua-Kona

I am a lot more informed and inspired. I thrive on learning. None at the moment, but agroforestry will a part of any new ag-related projects that come up.
S.A., Agro Resources, Holualoa

Regarding the impact on work plans has greatly impacted the adoptions of new ideas and practices to be implemented locally. It also given a range of visions focused to serve the locals needs to be encourage domestically beside the tradition values integrated with fast money crops. Most likely have gauged work plans to be fitted with the local culture and economic development. As a part time grower myself, very glad to have a wide range selections to work with to see which suit my needs best.
Experiences with the goose farming and the Ninole orchard arc my best options that locals would appreciate and accept with a few alterations of animals aid tree species to fit in locally. Citrus, valued tree species such as sandalwood, Alexia elliptica (mare) and goats seems to be implemented and locally recommended to others.
Meitaki and thank you very much for accepting me at the workshop. It has been a pleasure to experience practices in agro-forestry at an advance level. Once again thank you very much for the supports during my stay over there.
T.K., Mangaia Island Administration, Mangaia, Cook Islands

The workshop greatly broadened my knowledge of tropical agriculture, especially in providing justification for promoting biological diversity in food production and forestry systems. If and when Wayman Ranches plants trees on their property in Hawaii, I expect it will be a fairly diverse collection of species. The workshop gave me a increased appreciation of sustainable and organic farming practices. As the next generation becomes more involved in the operation of Wayman Ranches, I hope I can promote a more sustainable philosophy in their agricultural operations.
T.G., Wayman Ranches, Quincy, CA

The tree workshop mostly reinforced the choices I am making, probably because I did lots of my own research to gain a knowledge base which initially helped direct my choices. I did use it to test my choices against the professional knowledge at the conference. I gained some ideas for adding other species and seeing how the trees look in real life was very helpful. I plan to use windbreak, alley cropping, value-adding, woodlot, non-woody products, carbon sequestering, animals for weed control, soil erosion control, aquaforestry, brackish water irrigation, sustainability, and multi-use tree plantings in my project.
W.S., Farmer, Monterey, CA

Teaching: I added two lectures on agroforestry course in the course syllabus of FOR 202 “Tropical Forestry and Natural Resource” in this semester that was not included in the last semester. Research: Dr. Travis Idol and I submitted a proposal “Carbon Sequestration and Productivity in a Leucaena-Coffee Agroforestry System” to T-Star. I have never thought about studying C and productivity in Agroforestry systems before the workshop. I am sure about this question. In this semester I took my students to Mr. Zingiber's farm that the workshop group visited. I think it is a good agroforestry model in Hilo side of the Big Island at a local scale. However, in my humble opinion this model is not easy to be practiced by others because of its relatively higher technical requirements and probably small market needs? I did not see some Agro-silvo-culture examples (we might visited, I forget?), such as alley cropping, that I think could be prospective for meeting the needs of both food supply and environment protection, not just fruit producing tree farming. Peter Vitousek is proposing a research project on using N fixing plants (Erythrina sandwicensis and probably other legumes) or sugar cane to increase the productivities of sweet potato/dryland taro by studying several gardens in the Kohala landscape. I really do not know what agroforestry practices should be recommended to others before I learn more from you and others on agroforestry!
Y.L., UH Hilo Forestry, Hilo

The introduction to traditional agroforestry systems in the Pacific (practical and professional discussions as well as field visits) serve me in understanding present crop production systems and in particular will assist in the participatory development of improved AF systems.
In the whole the workshop strengthened my opinion of the local need to apply improved AF systems with the aim of soil protection, increase variety of marketable products to reduce economical risk, improved nutritional supply, improved health, etc.
Mixed cropping with trees: - in particular fruit trees (introduced species) for subsistence and for marketing purposes - high valued, however, partly neglected and / or heavily destructed indigenous tree species, e.g. Terminalia carolinensis, Metroxylon americanum and in particular Parkia korom, which is endemic to Pohnpei and seems almost extinct.
E.G., SPC/GTZ, Pohnpei

The training and networking with fellow instructors/participants generated a number of high quality presentations in a format that I can easily share with various partners to support forestry and agroforestry planning and application in the Pacific Islands Area. The marketing elements of this session was particularly helpful for NRCS and partners. There is a clear need for additional marketing support needed to further support developing agroforestry industry in the Pacific Islands. I use and recommend with increased frequency since the workshop the NRCS standard: Multistory Cropping. This practice supports a variety of "agroforestry" practices specific to the Pacific Islands Area. The training also increased my and NRCS Pacific Islands staff awareness and use of various practices (i.e.) tree and shrub planting, tree and shrub site preparation, mulching, small contour orchards, and residue management).
J.L., USDA NRCS Forester

It is great and it makes sense. Good example is to recommend fruit bearing trees for windbreak. This would provide additional income as well as protection. As mentioned in the first question I would recommend planting fruit trees for windbreak. It is not only for protection but also something to harvest. If the space is limited like we do in Guam, it is very important to practice agroforestry. It is economical and practical.
B.S., Dept. of Agriculture, Guam

We would emphasize more native fruit trees and added value trees, natives that would be more of a sustained ecosystem modeled more like a native forest.
Multi-storied tree systems.
D.L., Guam Forestry & Soil Resources Division

The workshop has changed my idea of what agroforestry is through the different examples that were provided in the powerpoints that were presented. Planning for agroforestry is not that different than traditional mixture of tree crops with other crops like banana and papaya. My initial thought for planning in agroforestry would be non productive or hardwood forest mixed in with productive crops.
As a result of your workshop experience, which agroforestry practices are you considering implementing or recommending to others? As an area biologist, I would consider implementing the practices to add habitat for wildlife purposes. The trees could be used for cover/shelter and food source.

It has given me new ideas to incorporate more diverse plant species into the farms layout. I would highly recommend to farmers on Guam farming orchard to incorporate more under story multipurpose crops into the fields. Also, incorporating a multipurpose windbreak in a crop field. J.S., USDA-NRCS Guam

Working with an agency that deals with conserving our natural resources out here in the Pacific Islands, it is important to maintain the practice of growing and using these agroforestry systems where the families in the smaller pacific islands can eat and use what is grown. Before this workshop I did know much about the different types of agroforestry systems and the great impacts they had on the environment. I think as a planner I will be looking out for these systems when ever I go out and meet new clients, and the recommendations that I will give to them would be to work around them as well as enhance them by encouraging them to plant more. I don't think that an traditional agroforestry system of the sizes grown out here is the CNMI would be enough to make a profit, but if a producer wanted to do an agroforestry system I would recommend alley farming. Our field office has been recommending that farmers who are interested in putting up a windbreak should consider a multipurpose windbreak. We have had many complaints that our windbreak designs take up farming area. So we mention that they can use approved fruit trees in combination in the windbreak design that they can eventually harvest and take to the market.
J.D., USDA-NRCS Saipan

At this time, I am unable to encourage and/or support agroforestry mainly because the workshop did not provide enough financial information as to the initial expense a farmer could expect to incur when converting from a monocropping system to agroforestry. As a farm loan officer, my loan decisions are based on whether or not the applicant/borrower has a feasible business plan. A feasible business plan needs to show a profit and repayment ability for the life of the loan which in the case of the CNMI, Palau, & FSM, is usually about 7 years.
L.T., USDA Farm Service Agency Guam

I always believed in agroforestry. It has strengthen most of the ideas that I had before and also very happy that others are practicing it. I don't like introducing new plants as cover crops because I feel that there are plants that are found locally that maybe people are not exploring it. Why bring something new and later becomes a very bad problem. Than you have to bring another tree or insect to control what you introduced.
T.F., College of Micronesia, Pohnpei

Information I obtained at the workshop was very useful for my work in constructing a model integrated small farm. Using fruit crops as hedge plants to protect vegetable crops in intercropping system is one of agroforestry concepts used at the farm. From the workshop, I was able to know more resource people and publications of agroforestry in this region. I would recommend farmers to plan more Ti plants in Guam as understory crops.
M.M., University of Guam, Horticulture

Primarily given us more resources to draw from for information. We are particularly excited about the new books we've obtained. The information concerning yield benefits from mulching has also led us to selling that particular practice more, especially now that we have the research to back it up. Besides Mulching, which we were already doing but are now pushing more, Multi-Story Cropping is another we've already begun to work with a producer on. We'll be working more with our Forester, Bart Lawrence on this practice.
S.C., USDA-NRCS Saipan

Web site hits

Virtual workshop page ( (Oct. 1–Nov. 16): 641
Presenter PowerPoint’s (July 1–Nov. 16): 7,553

Outcomes and impacts:

There was clearly a demand for the workshops, as there was no problem filling the workshops with the expected number of participants. In Hawaii, about 10 people could not be accommodated, as the field tours were filled to capacity 6 weeks before the workshop. Participants represented a wide range of groups including NRCS, Cooperative extension (U of Hawaii, U of Guam, etc.), academics, development organizations (Resource, Conservation, and Development, Palau Natural Resource Council, etc.), consulting firms, and farmers and ranchers. In other words, the workshops made an impact throughout a broad range of organizations that influence agricultural and conservation outcomes and policy. It is expected that the workshops presented information and experiences that will influence agricultural planning long into the future. Specifically (see 3-month evaluations below), NRCS and cooperative extension will increasingly recommend agroforestry practices to their farmer/rancher collaborators. Additional NRCS “agroforestry friendly” practice standards will be developed and existing standards will be revised to include agroforestry options. University and other research entities will increase their research of diverse agricultural systems that incorporate trees.

Project Outcomes

Project outcomes:

The Hawaii workshop was held in Keauhou (Kahalu‘u), Kona May 16–19, 2006. There were 66 participants, 10 presenters, and 9 field tours (with 9 field tour guides). Participants came from all Hawaiian islands, A. Samoa, California, Fiji, and the Cook Islands. The Palau-Guam workshop was held in Koror, Palau and Hagåtña, Guam June 26–29, 2006. In Palau, there were 28 participants, 7 speakers, and 6 field visits (with 5 field tour guides). In Guam, there were 29 participants, 8 speakers, and 3 field visits (with 3 field tour guides). For the Palau-Guam workshop, only 3 participants attended both workshops, meaning that there were 50 unique participants. Attending the Palau-Guam workshop were participants from Palau, Guam, Saipan, Rota, Pohnpei, and Nauru. In total for all workshops, there were 120 participants, 15 speakers, and 18 field tours (17 field tour guides).

Participants received copies of the resource guide for Pacific island agroforestry, speaker handouts, and a CD containing all the printed materials as well as PDF versions of speaker PowerPoint presentations. All of these materials as well as field tour photos are available online at In mid-November 2006, 100 copies of a CD containing all the workshop materials and the field tour photos were distributed to key agricultural offices in Hawaii and Guam.


Potential Contributions

Short term
• Participants have an increased ability to identify agroforestry systems.

• Participants have an increased knowledge and appreciation of traditional and native trees of cultural and economic value, and their role in agricultural systems.
• The economic and ecological implications of integrating trees, both the advantages and disadvantages, are better understood by participants.

Medium term
• NRCS and cooperative extension will increasingly recommend agroforestry practices to their farmer/rancher collaborators.
• Additional NRCS “agroforestry friendly” practice standards will be developed and existing standards will be revised to include agroforestry options.
• University and other research entities will increase their research of diverse agricultural systems that incorporate trees.

Long term
• Agroforestry practices implemented on many individual farms will begin to serve a watershed function, enhance wildlife habitat, and decrease use and export of chemical farm pollutants.
• Rural livelihoods will be improved through crop diversification reaching new markets.
• Farmer profits will increase due to informed use of value-added processing and direct marketing to consumers.

Future Recommendations

Based on the experiences in this project, it is clear that there is a substantial demand for this kind of information among a broad range of organizations. In particular, there is a demand for information on successful agroforestry operations; truly, seeing is believing. Many of our field tours changed minds about integrating trees into agriculture, e.g., in favor of adoption of shade-grown coffee. Additional field tour opportunities are needed. Future agroforestry workshops should stress economic analysis, value-added strategies, marketing, and distribution, in addition to the intangible benefits of agroforestry systems in soil conservation, watershed services, biodiversity, food security, and cultural integrity.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.