Professional Training for Developing a Hands-On Organic Weed Management Learning Center for Commercial Market Gardens in Local Communities

Final Report for EW08-016

Project Type: Professional Development Program
Funds awarded in 2008: $89,492.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2009
Region: Western
State: Colorado
Principal Investigator:
Beth LaShell
Fort Lewis College
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Project Information

Abstract:

The Organic Weed Management Learning Center has been very successful at providing educational opportunities for local professionals, students and community members. We hosted a large organic weed management symposium in February, an initial workshop in April and twelve hands-on workshops during the summer at our research market garden. The market garden demonstrated 14 different organic weed management techniques and offered workshop participants a chance to view ongoing results and learn more about methodology, soil and sustainability analysis, weed control efficacy and market garden production. A blog chronicling the different activities was maintained and a website was established.

Project Objectives:

For 2008-2009, the following activities were listed in the original proposal:

Host Organic Weed Management Strategies Symposium
Gather information on current producer practices and agricultural professional knowledge
Hire hourly students
Complete appropriate soil preparation and tests
Meet with regional Extension Agents to identify potential participants
Publicize establishment of Learning Center and host initial workshop
Create website, listserv and blog for Learning Center participants.
Schedule multiple workshops on methodology, soil and sustainability analysis, efficacy and production, and managing web-based information.
Create Learning Center plots for mulching, mechanical control, intercropping, solarization and organic herbicides.
Create training documents for each Learning Center workshop. Distribute and make available on website.
Collect appropriate data to document efficacy, sustainability and production differences.
Assess efficacy of organic weed management strategies
Continually update participants through website, listserv and blog
Conduct workshop on identifying and establishing on-farm demonstration sites

Introduction:

Colorado counties surrounding the San Juan Basin Research Center (SJBRC) include La Plata, Archuleta and Montezuma, and San Juan County, New Mexico to the South. According to the 2002 Census of Agriculture, all of these counties have not seen a dramatic loss of farmland, but rather a significant shift from large to small farms. La Plata County’s economic base still relies on agriculture with 52% of its land area in farms. Between 1987 and 2002 the number of large farms (1,000 acres or more) has dropped from 77 to 54, while the smaller farms (10 to 179 acres) have increased from 401 to 566. There are increasing pressures on farm viability in this transition from large, conventional ranch operations to smaller landholdings with a variety of uses, all of which may demand new approaches to the use and protection of their natural resources.
As our region changes, we as educators and resources for technical information must update our knowledge, enhance our skills and shift our research priorities. Small land owners may want to develop sustainable enterprises but may not be familiar with the challenges that occur in an arid climate at high elevations. Their attempts at agricultural production can be a frustrating experience for not only themselves but also the local Agricultural agencies that try to assist them. The development of a Learning Center for organic market gardens weed management strategies would address the needs of newcomers to the 4-Corners region and long time residents looking for more sustainable alternatives or methods to increase income. One example would be incorporating these commercial market gardens into traditional ranches.
According to the U.S. National Standards on Organic Agricultural Production and Handling, organic production is a system that is managed in accordance with the Organic Standards Act and regulations to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. While many of our small acreage market garden producers are not certified-organic, they still want to incorporate the most sustainable practices into their operation. While there are a broad range of weed management techniques, knowledge of organic-only strategies are needed by agents to assist producers who either are organically certified, organic-exempt under National Organic Program or otherwise are determined to use organic-only methods. As traditionally trained agricultural professionals, we need to become more familiar with alternative practices that may work in our region. The Learning Center will offer hands-on training in weed management methodology, evaluation procedures and instruction on developing site-specific demonstration areas in their respective regions.
The WSARE Professional Development State by State Report shows that Colorado extension agents indicated they have very limited knowledge in the areas of organic agriculture (32%) and ecologically-based weed management strategies (17%). These values were significantly higher for New Mexico agents, 53% and 24%, respectively. The training available at a Learning Center for organic weed management strategies would increase the knowledge in these two areas of Sustainable Agricultural Practices.

Cooperators

Click linked name(s) to expand
  • Jim Dyer
  • Gary Hathorn
  • Darrin Parmenter
  • Phil Shuler

Education & Outreach Initiatives

Objective:
Description:

Methods

The Learning Center was established at the San Juan Basin Research Center in Hesperus, CO at the site of a Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station. The Learning Center provided hands-on training to agriculture professionals, master gardeners, model farmers, agriculture students and progressive producers. Our target region included LaPlata, Montezuma, Archuleta, Dolores and San Miguel counties in Colorado as well as San Juan county in New Mexico. Participants were recruited with the assistance of San Juan Basin Extension agents by hosting organic weed management symposiums, initial workshops and hands-on workshops during the growing season. Additionally, five presentations were given in the region to increase awareness of the Learning Center and recruit participants. Once participants indicated an interest in the Learning Center, they were updated via email on upcoming activities.
Daylong winter (February) symposiums on organic weed management included university and extension personnel covering topics relevant to both agriculture professionals and producers. These presentations presented topic-related research results and practical recommendations. Initial workshops were held at the Learning Center (San Juan Basin Research Center) in April to provide in-depth information on a selected topic, gather baseline data on practices and to introduce participants to the Learning Center facility. Attendees at these workshops were asked to complete a survey on current weed management practices. This data is being analyzed by SouthWest Marketing Network.
With the help of Fort Lewis College (FLC) students a demonstration market garden was established. FLC students propagated transplants in their greenhouse and the Agriculture Field Techniques course designed and installed the organic weed management research plots. Students also assisted with data collection for the 15 different treatments throughout the summer and fall.
Multiple hands-on workshops were held at the Learning Center from June until October covering topics in soil analyses, methodology, efficacy, production and web-based information. Two or three of these two-hour workshops were held together so participants could be exposed to multiple topics in a shorter format.
In addition to symposiums and workshops, a blog ( www.organicweedmanagement.blogspot.com ) and website (www.colostate.edu/dept/sjbrc/owm ) have been maintained to post workshop presentations, weed management resources and provide updates on the research plots.

Outreach and Publications

Organic Weed Management- February 25, 2009
There were 72 participants, 5 speakers and 5 extension agents present. Of the participants, 5 were from Archuleta, 33 from LaPlata, 10 from Montezuma, 6 from San Miguel/Dolores, 14 from San Juan County, NM, and 4 from other counties in Colorado. In addition to a full program, recruitment material was distributed to encourage participants to become part of the Learning Center. Over 60 people completed a form indicating they would be interested in the Learning Center. Fifty-three of the participants rated their before and after knowledge on each of the presentations. The gain in knowledge (on a scale from 1 to 10) was Cover Crops (2.82), Weed Identification (1.82), Organic Weed Management Research Updates (3.55), Revegetation with Grasses (1.5), Hands-On Organic Weed Management Learning Center for Commercial Market Gardens in Local Communities (4.66),Organic Herbicides (2.78). The most significant change they planed to make was incorporating cover crops into their operations.
2009 Initial Workshop- April 28, 2009
The program consisted of three formal presentations and a survey by Jim Dyer from SWMN followed by a tour of the demonstration plots. On February 23, 2010, 18 additional surveys were collected at the Second Annual Organic Weed Management workshop in Farmington. Hourly students entered the data and it was turned over to SWMN for analysis

Conduct Hands-on workshops at Learning Center June 4, 19, August 13, October 7, 2009
Soil Analysis: ( June 4, 19, August 13, 2009) Soil analyses hands on topics included taking soil samples, using a penetrometer (measures soil compaction), infiltrometer (measures water percolation) and soil pH.
Methodology: ( June 4, 19, August 13, October 7, 2009) Methodology topics included working with different options for market gardens including barrier methods (black plastic, biodegradable options, weed barriers, mechanical tools) and alternative treatments (corn gluten meal, flaming, horticultural vinegar). Participants were also given the opportunity to try out several of the hand weeding tools that the Learning Center has been using in the plots.
Efficacy and Production: (June 19, August 13, October 7, 2009) Efficacy topics included visually inspecting the different treatments as well as reviewing production data from the different plots, showing participants how to take and interpret transect data. We also shared production data from the various treatments with participants.
Web-based Information: (August 13, October 7, 2009) Participants were given URLs for both the blog and website. Most of the discussion centered on accessing some of the technology that we were utilizing. In particular, they were interested in the thermacrons (www.embeddeddatasystems.com) that recorded temperature and sources for the various mulches and weeding tools. We do not have a local source of these innovative mulches and tools.
Attendance at the June 4th workshops was 16, June 19th was 13, August 13th was 18, and October 7th had 35 backyard gardeners. The June 4th workshop had 3 growers, 2 model farmers, 7 master gardeners, 2 extension personnel and 2 students. The June 19th workshop had 4 growers, 2 model farmers, 2 master gardeners, 2 extension agents and 3 students. The August 13th workshop had 6 growers, 5 master gardeners, 4 extension personnel and 3 students.

Collected data on 14 different organic weed management techniques in market garden at Learning Center

Organic Weed Management Symposium – February 23, 2010

Shiprock Ag Days Presentation – March 9, 2010
This venue gave me the opportunity to introduce both tribal member, extension and NRCS personnel in Northern New Mexico to our project. After the presentation, I toured potential demonstration sites at some of the Model Farmers gardens. As a result, we selected Yvonne Todacheene’s garden as the site for our Shiprock demonstration.
San Juan County Farmers Market – March 20, 2010
This venue gave me the opportunity to introduce this project to Master Gardeners from the Northern New Mexico region. We agreed to schedule a special tour and workshop for their group in the Summer of 2010.

A website was developed at www.colostate.edu/depts/sjbrc/owm
It was used to announce upcoming events and post presentations from the symposiums and workshops. We have also begun posting additional reference material related to some of the organic weed management techniques we are using.
A blog was established at www.organicweedmanagement.blogspot.com
The blog was designed to announce upcoming events and keep participants up to date during the growing season. We posted upcoming activities and updates (with pictures) of the 14 different treatments in 2009.

Copies of program agendas and evaluation results are included in the appendix.

Outcomes and impacts:

During the first year of this grant, we have introduced a lot of new information related to Organic Weed Management into the community and raised awareness for alternative methods of weed control in market gardens. The day long symposium and the initial workshop utilized the traditional means of formal presentations while the Learning Center workshops focused on hands-on activities. We were pleasantly surprised to have such a large turnout at the Symposium in February and our attendance numbers have shown great support for our project. The participants have responded well to the hands-on approach of the workshops. Our target audience of extension personnel, master gardeners, model farmers, progressive producers and students, have been actively participating. The Learning Center benefitted 43 growers, 16 model farmers, 29 master gardeners, 21 extension personnel and 18 students in 2009. We are actively working with different communities to establish demonstration sites in 2010 and have scheduled the Organic Weed Symposium for February, 23, 2010 in Farmington, NM.

Project Outcomes

Project outcomes:

Hosted Organic Weed Management Strategies Symposium
The Four-Corners WSARE Organic Weed Management Conference was held on February 25, 2009 at LaPlata County Fairgrounds in Durango, CO. There were 72 participants, 5 speakers and 5 extension agents present. Of the participants, 5 were from Archuleta, 33 from LaPlata, 10 from Montezuma, 6 from San Miguel/Dolores, 14 from San Juan County, NM, and 4 from other counties in Colorado. In addition to a full program, recruitment material was distributed to encourage participants to become part of the Learning Center. Over 60 people completed a form indicating they would be interested in the Learning Center. They were added to our participants list and emailed information on all scheduled workshops.

Gathered information on current producer practices and agricultural professional knowledge
On April 28, 2009, at the initial workshop for the Learning Center, Jim Dyer, SWMN, distributed the survey and thirty three participants completed the survey. On February 23, 2010, 18 additional surveys were collected at the Second Annual Organic Weed Management workshop in Farmington. Hourly students entered the data and it was turned over to SWMN for analysis.

Hired hourly students
The project hired a part time hourly during the Winter 09 to assist with data entry and Spring planning. During the summer, we hired a full time Fort Lewis College student to assist with data collection, plot maintenance, and workshop assistance. We were also able to work with our local Training Advantage program and hire two additional full time students who were paid by the Colorado Rural Workforce Consortium. These students assisted us with all aspects of the project. Once school started, one part time hourly employee was maintained to help with continued data collection and completion of the growing season. Additionally, a student from the FLC Summer Field Class completed a 3 credit internship during the Fall semester.

Completed appropriate soil preparation and tests
An initial soil test was done in the demonstration plot showing that we had 16.9% organic matter so no further soil amendments were necessary. Plant tests were conducted in July when the vegetables in the shredded paper plot were not growing and exhibiting chlorosis. Plant material was collected and analyzed for Nitrogen content showing that all existing plants (beets, beans, broccoli, cabbage and corn) had less than 2.62%.

Met with regional Extension Agents to identify potential participants
Each year the San Juan Basin (LaPlata, Montezuma, Dolores, San Miguel, Archuleta and San Juan, NM) agents meet to plan the upcoming workshops for the region. All of the agents contributed to the Organic Weed Management conference on February 25 and were in attendance. Each of the regional agents agreed to distribute information to current and former master gardeners, and publicize the Learning Center workshops in their newsletters. Contact with the Model Farmers was more difficult because most of them do not have emails and only receive information via mail. A small group of them attended the initial workshop in April and I was given access to the entire mailing list in mid summer. Three of the five agents also attended the initial workshop on April 28, 2009 and at least one additional workshop during the summer.

Publicized establishment of Learning Center and host initial workshop
Brochures and recruitment flyers were distributed to Model Farmers, master gardeners, FLC students and community members. Additional flyers and brochures were distributed through regional cooperative extension offices
Project details and the initial workshop were featured in Durango Herald weekly column by Darrin Parmenter, LaPlata County Extension Agent. All email correspondence sent to Darrin was forwarded to over 100 current and former Master Gardeners.
The initial workshop was held on April 28, 2009 at the San Juan Basin Research Center. There were 56 people who attended the workshop, 33 of them completed an initial survey by Jim Dyer, SWMN and 17 completed an evaluation form. Of the attendees, 24 were from LaPlata, 19 from Montezuma, 7 from San Juan County, NM, 4 from San Miguel and 1 from Dolores County. The program consisted of three formal presentations and a survey by Jim Dyer from SWMN followed by a tour of the demonstration plots. Evaluations indicated that knowledge gained for the various presentations were Welcome and Introduction to the OWM Learning Center for Commercial Market Gardens- 5.29, Certified Organic Process – 4.00, Alternative Control Methods and Organic Herbicides – 3.59 and Tour of Organic Weed Management Learning Center Research Areas – 3.59. The audience was made up of 30 growers, 8 model farmers, 10 master gardeners, and 8 extension personnel.
During the Winter of 2010, we hosted the second annual Organic Weed Management Workshop in Farmington to increase the number of participants in that region. In addition to this workshop, presentations were given at Shiprock Ag Days on March 9, 2010 and the San Juan County Farmers Market workshop on March 20, 2010. Both of these venues introduced the project to both tribal extension and NRCS personnel in Northern New Mexico.
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Created website, listserv and blog for Learning Center participants.
A website was established at www.colostate.edu/dept/sjbrc/owm The website was used to announce upcoming events, post presentations from the symposiums and workshops. We have also begun posting additional reference material related to some of the organic weed management techniques we are using.
A blog was established at www.organicweedmanagement.blogspot.com The blog was designed to keep participants up to date during the growing season. We posted upcoming activities and updates (with pictures) of the 14 different treatments. We found that it is difficult to keep the blog timely during the growing season. We’ll try to set aside one day a week this summer to blog.
A listserv was established but we only received three subscriptions. I think that many people have subscribed to a listserv that overwhelmed their inbox so they are leery of this method of communication.

Scheduled multiple workshops on methodology, soil and sustainability analysis, efficacy and production, and managing web-based information.
Our initial plan was to offer only two-hour workshops but we found that our participants preferred the option of a four hour activity covering more than one topic. We ask interested participants to complete a survey about days and times for the short workshops. Their comments caused us to change the way we offered the workshops. While most participants attended both workshops, some only attended one. We offered the June workshops from 8-10 and 10-12 followed by a one to two hour lunch and discussion. This post workshop time was rewarding to both the participants and the presenters.
Workshops began in June after the plots were established by the FLC Field Class during the month of May. The students assisted with the selection of the methods and each of the 10 students spent approximately 15 hours establishing their assigned plot.
In 2009, we experienced extreme heat in July so we decided not to host the outdoor workshops. This past Fall, we built a harvest shed next to the plots that can be used next summer during the hot weather. The August workshop was held from 3-5 and 5-7, followed by dinner and discussion. The afternoon time allowed some of our working participants to attend. The October workshop was attended by participants from the Backyard Gardening class hosted by LaPlata County. After a 5-7 pm workshop, we hosted dinner and a formal presentation of our WSARE project.

Soil Analysis: June 4, 19, August 13
Soil analyses hands on topics included taking soil samples, using a penetrometer (measures soil compaction), infiltrometer (measures water percolation) and soil pH.

Methodology: June 4, 19, August 13, October 7
Methodology topics included working with different options for market gardens including barrier methods (black plastic, biodegradable options, weed barriers, mechanical tools) and alternative treatments (corn gluten meal, flaming, horticultural vinegar). Participants were also given the opportunity to try out several of the hand weeding tools that the Learning Center has been using in the plots.

Efficacy and Production: June 19, August 13, October 7
Efficacy topics included visually inspecting the different treatments as well as reviewing production data from the different plots, showing participants how to take and interpret transect data. We also shared production data from the various treatments with participants.

Web-based Information: August 13, October 7
Participants were given URLs for both the blog and website. Most of the discussion centered on accessing some of the technology that we were utilizing. In particular, they were interested in the thermacrons (www.embeddeddatasystems.com) that recorded temperature and sources for the various mulches and weeding tools. We do not have a local source of these innovative mulches and tools.

Attendance at the June 4th workshops was 16, June 19th was 13, August 13th was 18, and October 7th had 35 backyard gardeners. The June 4th workshop had 3 growers, 2 model farmers, 7 master gardeners, 2 extension personnel and 2 students. The June 19th workshop had 4 growers, 2 model farmers, 2 master gardeners, 2 extension agents and 3 students. The August 13th workshop had 6 growers, 5 master gardeners, 4 extension personnel and 3 students.

Created Learning Center plots for mulching, mechanical control, intercropping, solarization and organic herbicides.
In 2009, fourteen different organic weed methods were established. In addition to a Control, barrier methods included biofilm, black plastic, ecover, garden blanket, NRCS and Sunbelt weed fabrics, planters paper, shredded paper and Weedguard plus, mechanical methods included flaming, glasier wheel hoe, and horticultural vinegar. Within each treatment, 4 reps were planted of beans, beets, broccoli, cabbage and corn.
The FLC summer Field Experiences in Agriculture course assisted with planning, layout and planting of the 14 plots. Each student was assigned a specific strategy to research and implement. They were responsible for laying out repetitions, applying initial treatments and planting crops. This was an outstanding experience for them because they took ownership of their strategy and learned about experimental design through a hands-on experience. Plot signs were erected at the beginning of each 80 foot row with beans, beets, broccoli, cabbage and corn planted in four replicates of 5 feet each.

Created training documents for each Learning Center workshop. Distribute and make available on website.
The primary training document was developed by Dr. Phil Shuler on Soil Analysis. This was definitely our most popular hands-on workshop because they were able to work with pH meters, infiltrometer and penotrometer. We provided cost analyses handouts for the 14 different methods being studied, potential sources for purchasing tools and barriers and websites for technology like thermocrons.

Collected appropriate data to document efficacy, sustainability and production differences.
Data collected on the research plots included journal entries documenting planting and germination dates for the various crops as well as any unique observations (severe chlorosis in shredded paper), recording production data by treatment, replicate and crop, and mid-season transects to characterize plant populations within treatment and replicate. During the first week of June, thermacrons were placed 4 inches into the soil in each of the treatments to record temperatures. They were initially programmed to record temperatures every hour. Thermacrons were removed September 29th and data was downloaded. Upon downloading it was discovered that some thermacrons recorded temperatures every 30 minutes and to allow rollover data. Unfortunately, this combination caused the early data to be written over. The resulting data was inconclusive.

Assessed efficacy of organic weed management strategies
In addition to numerical data, pictures of each plot were taken at least once a month. Pictures were also used to document unique events such as severe chlorosis in the shredded paper plots and an aphid infestation on the west side of the garden. These pictures were placed in the blog and will be used in project presentations.
Vegetables were harvested at appropriate maturity and weights and counts of each rep and treatment were recorded. Summary data indicate that vegetables grown using the Ecover mulch produced the most vegetables (21.3 pounds) while the least amount was produced in the shredded paper (.8) and the control (2.2). Other treatment production numbers in pounds were Planters Paper – 19.9, CGM – 18.6, Glaser Wheel Hoe – 18.2, Sunbelt Weed Fabric – 17.4, Biofilm – 15.6, Flaming – 13.3, Hort Vinegar – 12, Black Plastic – 11.4, Garden Blanket – 7.5, Weed Guard Plus – 6.3, and NRCS Fabric – 5.1. Additional analyses within replicate and crop will be done at the completion of the project.
A 20’ transect line was used to record weed, crop or bare ground every 12 inches. Three transects were taken in each replicate for a total of 240 data points per treatment. Preliminary results indicated that shredded paper and glaser wheel hoe treatments had the highest percentage of bare ground at 83 and 75, respectively. While shredded paper certainly served an excellent weed barrier, we did experience severe chlorosis in all of the crops. Research indicates that any fresh, light-colored, unweathered organic mulch will tie up nitrogen during the early stages of decomposition. Germination time was much longer than other treatments and transplants did not prosper either. We first recorded pH of soil, paper much and soil outside treatment. There were no observed differences in pH so we sent plant tissue samples to Servi-tech laboratories. Results indicated low levels of Nitrogen in the tissue.

Continually updated participants through website, listserv and blog
The website and blog are being updated with post-season production results. Once all of the data has been posted, we’ll send an email to all participants and place an announcement in extension newsletters. Because many of the model farmers do not have access to email, we will be working on a fact sheet that we’ll distribute via the February Symposium and mail.

Conducted workshop on identifying and establishing on-farm demonstration sites
We have been working with San Juan Basin agents to identify sites for 2010. San Miguel County has requested a site at their high altitude location and we’re working with their agent to find a site. We will be hosting the second Organic Weed Management Symposium on February 23, 2010 in Farmington, NM. We would like to increase the participation of the Model Farmer participants and locate a suitable demonstration site in the Shiprock area. Because their growing season starts so much earlier than CO sites, we will complete their location first.

Recommendations:

Potential Contributions

The symposium in February, 2009 provided research updates on cover crops, potential organic weed management techniques, and organic herbicides to producers and extension agents. The initial workshop presented information on the organic certification process as well as alternative herbicides to master gardeners, Model Farmers from Shiprock, NM along with tribal extension personnel. In addition to the formal presentations, attendees were given a tour of the research market gardens to encourage participation in future Learning Center workshops. The summer workshops provided extension agents, model farmers, master gardeners, students and producers with field training on soil analyses, research methodology and results from the field trials. Additionally, the website and blog are available as resources for both ag professionals and producers. Posting all of the presentation on the website allow participants to review information presented. At the symposium in 2010, we saw a dramatic increase in participation by NRCS professionals, tribal employees and model farmers.

Future Recommendations

As the first year of this project completes, there are several observations that have surfaced. First, most people realize that their soil is their most important asset. Our most popular workshop was soil analyses. It was a two hour workshop that often ran over because of all the questions. They loved the hands-on aspect of working with the probes and testers. One of the changes we made for our first soil workshop of 2010 is to ask them to bring a jar of their own soil with them.
Both agriculture professionals and producers thrive in the hands-on environment. It takes a lot of preparation to make this type of workshop successful. A few hints I would have are: groups of less than 10 are ideal, provide plenty of shade, water and snacks if you are outside, remind people to wear comfortable shoes because they will be walking on uneven ground, provide clipboards and notepads for them to take notes and provide chairs for only the people that really need them. An interesting thing we noticed is that when we set up chairs near the garden, people would sit in them and not participate as much in the activities. It quickly became a lecture environment and defeated the purpose of being in the field. At the end of all of our workshops (usually about 3-4 hours), we would come back inside and have something to eat while we debriefed everyone. This was the time where we always got the most questions and saw the most interaction between participants.
To increase participation and recruitment for the learning center, we invited special interest groups to the facility for a tour. Last year we hosted the backyard gardening class s at the end of the season and made some great contacts. This year we have the Backyard Gardeners coming for a soil workshop, and the San Juan County Master Gardeners coming for a tour.
Additionally we learned that people love gadgets that save them time. Last year it was the thermacrons that we placed in the plots to record soil temperature. We were able to show them the units, give them an example of a temperature graph and then take them to the website where they could be purchased. Since they were now on the web, we could lead them to our blog and website so they were familiar with our resources.
This project has successfully focused on organic weed management for market gardens. However, we have found a large interest in organic weed management for the 35 acre parcels where they do not have knowledge, implements, fences or appropriate livestock to assist them. We as agricultural professionals need to work more with these people who may not use their land for revenue generation but they are certainly affect our weed seed bank which affects us all.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.