Final Report for EW97-003

Project Type: Professional Development Program
Funds awarded in 1997: $64,295.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2001
Matching Non-Federal Funds: $16,000.00
Region: Western
State: Hawaii
Principal Investigator:
John Craven
Common Heritage
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Project Information

Abstract:

This completion report is accompanied by 8 videos featuring sustainable agriculture practices for the Pacific Region. In producing these videos, the project leaders determined the important topics to be covered and identified and used farmers and other professionals in the area as resource personnel. These people and farm sites filmed are identified in the respective videos and in the list of cooperators presented earlier.

The dissemination of findings from the video series will be continuous now that these resource materials are available for Pacific based extension agents to share with clients through one on one consultations, workshops, and public access television series. The Core SA video group has developed professional links with other SA resource personnel and farmers in the region that continues to reinforce the need for extension personnel to bridge the link between traditional “chemical” farmers and sustainable farmers employing more natural techniques. Additionally, production of the video series heightened the awareness that sustainable farming practices are being implemented in both small and large scale commercial farms in Hawaii.

The five videos produced by CHC (Hawaii) have been aired a number of times on TV on the Big Island of Hawaii. Positive feedback from the viewing audience has been reported. Copies of the CHC videos will be provided to other Pacific islands states on request.

Plans are underway to air the videos at the four other public access television stations throughout the State of Hawaii. CHC is currently negotiating to determine if the three videos produced by Guam, Saipan, and Pohnpei can be shown on Hawaii public access stations to target Micronesian populations residing in Hawaii. Copies of the Guam and Saipan videos are being distributed to extension clients, local middle and high schools, libraries and other government agencies. Plans include also distribution through the video rental stores on island. The Pohnpei video will be distributed to agencies dealing with tile environment and the ecosystem, and animal and plant production, the local TV channel for airing and to schools.

Project Objectives:

The Common Heritage Corporation, Guam Cooperative Extension Service, and the Federated States of Micronesia Cooperative Extension Service looked to this video grant as serving two purposes:

1. To develop sustainable agriculture (SA) video training tapes, emphasizing hands on applications of SA practices, for dissemination to extension agents, agricultural professionals, and farmers in the Pacific Island Region.

2. To identify and develop local expertise in video production during the taping of specific SA topics in Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, and Hawaii.

Introduction:

Interest in sustainable agriculture topics has been increasing in the islands served by the Pacific Region Cooperative Extension agents and National Resource Conservation (NRSC) field staff from the islands of Hawaii, Guam, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), and Pohnpei (Federated States of Micronesia) as a result of sustainable agriculture training sessions completed in 1997. However the response to these sessions was that while the Pacific region’s agriculturalists needed to develop sustainable agriculture, the practices featured in the training sessions did not fit regional needs. The resource materials available featured temperate crops and species and did not address the unique concerns of tropical ecosystems, farming practices, and cultural heritage. It was proposed that a series of educational videotapes featuring tropical sustainable agriculture themes appropriate to the region be developed utilizing talent within the region. Utilizing email and satellite teleconferencing through PEACESAT, a Pacific island team formulated an action plan to produce eight videos on tropical sustainable agriculture topics. This plan resulted in the present grant.

Soon after the funds were made available to initiate the work, several of the original project personnel left the Pacific region or moved to new locations within the Pacific Island states and nations. This made it necessary to restructure the format for the videos. The proposed changes were documented in the Annual Report of September 30, 1999, and reaffirmed by a February 7, 2000, CHC memo. It was requested, and approved, for this memo to serve as an attachment to Amendment #2, USU Subcontract 98-067.

Because of the delays in getting approval for this amendment and some problems in completing work in the Pacific, a third extension was sought and granted. The work on the videos was officially completed October 31, 2000, with copies of the eight videos on the list approved under Amendment #2 (and #3) submitted to Dr. Phil Rasmussen at USU. This document provides the completion and annual report for this contract.

Education & Outreach Initiatives

Objective:
Description:

The dissemination of findings from the video series will be continuous now that these resource materials are available for Pacific-based extension agents to share with clients through one-on-one consultations, workshops, and public-access television series. The Core SA video group has developed professional links with other SA resource personnel and farmers in the region that continue to reinforce the need for extension personnel to bridge the link between traditional “chemical” farmers and sustainable farmers employing more natural techniques. Additionally, the video series heightened the awareness that sustainable farming practices are being implemented in both small and large scale commercial farms in Hawaii.

CHC (Hawaii) has aired the five videos they produced on a show called “Hawaii Aloha,” which is produced twice weekly by Rosey Rosenthal. Mr. Rosenthal was the narrator for each of the five Hawaii produced videos. To date, each video, has been aired four times on the three channels (2 [Hilo] , 14 [Kona], and 23 (Ka’u]) operated by Na’Leo O’Hawai’i, the public access television station on the Big Island of Hawaii. It is estimated that over 5,000 people have watched each airing of the sustainable agriculture videos, and Mr. Rosenthal reports positive feedback from his viewing audience. In fact, the audience, of which a good portion are involved in agricultural businesses on the Big Island, would like to see additional sustainable agriculture topics included on “Hawaii Aloha” produced by Rosenthal in the future.

Plans are underway to air the videos at the four other public access television stations throughout the State of Hawaii. CHC is currently negotiating with Na’Leo O’Hawaii to determine if the three videos produced by Guam, Saipan, and Pohnpei can be shown on Hawaii public access stations to target Micronesian populations residing in Hawaii even though these videos were not produced using the local station’s facilities or producers.

Currently, Guam and Saipan are distributing copies to extension clients local middle and high schools, libraries, and other government agencies. Once a minimum collection of ten or more videos is developed, the Guam team plans on distributing them through the video rental stores on island.

In Pohnpei, FSM, the video will be given to other agencies dealing with the environment and the ecosystem, and animal and plant production. Copies will also be provided to the local TV channel for airing. Copies will also be provided to the Micronesian High School in Pohnpei and to the Pohnpei Agriculture & Trade School (PATS). Copies of the CHC videos will be provided to other Pacific islands states on request.

Project Outcomes

Project outcomes:

Objective One:
To develop sustainable agriculture (SA) video training tapes, emphasizing hands on applications of SA practices, for dissemination to extension agents, agricultural professionals, and farmers in the Pacific Island Region.

In the project, eight educational videos were developed under the direction of the project leaders and the teams they assembled. The Hawaii (CHC) group developed five videos.

1. An Introduction to Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropical Pacific (RT: 00:29:45).
This video introduces the concept of sustainable agriculture in the tropical Pacific through the eyes of farmers, professionals, and students. The video targets the following sustainable agriculture concepts: enhancement of environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends; making the most efficient use of nonrenewable and on farm resources and where appropriate, integrate natural biological cycles and controls; to sustain the economic viability of farm operations; and to enhance the quality of life for farmers/ranchers and society as a whole.

2. An Introduction to Soil Fertility in the Tropics (RT: 00:39:16).
This video introduces the concept of soil fertility in the tropics. Step by step instructions for conducting soil tests and interpreting the results are provided, as well as how to improve soil fer tility by using compost. The characteristics of tropical soils are discussed, and steps to amend nutrient imbalances using natural products locally available in the
tropics are provided.

3. An Introduction to Integrated Pest Management in the Tropics (RT: 00:34:27).
This video introduces the procedures to develop an integrated pest management (IPM) program in the tropics. Identification, observation, and monitoring skills are shown, in addition to systematic techniques for quantifying data. Case studies are featured that show commercial IPM practices in use in the profitable cut flower industry in Hawaii.

4. An Introduction to Integrated Animal Waste Management in the Tropics.
This video features steps to incorporate animal waste management into tropic farming situations to increase soil fertility and crop production. Case studies feature tropical coffee farms that utilize geese and sheep as part of an integrated waste management program, and a commercial poultry egg farm that produces and markets organic compost from chicken manure and macadamia nut husks. These systems have proven to be profitable arms of each business.

5. Innovative Agriculture Technologies and Alternative Crops for the Pacific Island.
This video features the use of deep ocean water (DOW) pumped to shore from a depth of 2000 feet to develop sustainable habitats in coastal desert regions worldwide. This innovative use of DOW produces all the requirements to pursue life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, by creating a cool soil environment (48-55° F) that can support the production of temperate crops in desert tropical regions. The increased thermal gradient generated between the root and the fruit allows the plants to grow at an increased rate, which is commonly seen during springtime conditions in temperate climates. The multiple use and reuse of the DOW for industrial cooling, freshwater production, coldwater agriculture, aquaculture and energy production makes this technology energy efficient and environmentally sustainable for coastal development.

The University of Guam developed the following two videos with support from Saipan.

6. An Introduction to Windbreaks, Hedgerows and Alley Cropping (RT: 00: 19:23).
This video provides an overview of tropical windbreak hedgerows, and alley cropping strategies. Several methods are discussed to reduce damage by wind and salt spray in the tropics. These methods can increase crop value while providing shelter for additional crop species

7. An Introduction to Recirculating Aquaculture (RT: 0026:28).
This video features an overview of recirculating aquaculture systems in the tropics. Case studies utilize aquaculture farm sites on Guam to show the benefit of recirculating systems, particularly where fresh water resources are limited. Additionally, examples are given on how farmers can use the “waste water” from an aquaculture system as a source of nitrogen if incorporated as foliar sprays or supplemental watering of vegetable crops.

The College of Micronesia (Pohnpei) produced the following video with assistance from the Guam Extension Service.

8. An Introduction to Agroforestry (RT: 00:20:37).
This video features a presentation on traditional agroforestry techniques in the Pacific. The video case study centers around the planting and harvesting of Sakau (Piper methysticum ) [Ed. note: Kava-kava] on Pohnpei Island, in the Federated States of Micronesia. The video emphasizes that improper handling of natural resources, particularly soil and water resources, will negatively affect the environment by causing deforestation, and ultimately social and economical opportunities.

Objective Two. To identify and develop local expertise in video production during the taping of specific SA topics in Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, and Hawaii

At the start of the project each team surveyed their in-house video resources to determine what skills were available and what needed to be developed or enhanced to achieve the project goals. The Guam, Northern Mariana and Pohnpei teams decided that it would be more beneficial in the long term to hire a video professional to act as a consultant and trainer rather than hiring a professional team to produce a video at $1,000 per minute. A list was developed of the minimal needed equipment, software, skills and expertise that would be needed to set up a sustainable video production effort. Resources within the college were identified and brought together. Then resources in other parts of the University were also brought on board through collaborative understandings.

The needed equipment was acquired using a small part of the grant funds as seed money and funds from many different projects (over six different current projects provided matching funds). Trainings were held online by the consultant on script and shot list development. Local University resources (the Communications Division of Arts and Sciences) provided support and training on camera techniques and field assistance. The consultant provided the editing skills for the development of die videos. The music departments recording studio and faculty provided the voice talent for the narration and much of the background sound.

Since the completion of the project the consultant was brought to Guam and a weeklong workshop was held and attended by more than 22 faculty and staff. The college now has permanent editing expertise and equipment. Currently, two sustainable 10-20 minute videos are being developed (one on sustainable hog waste management and another on micro-irrigation); also short 2-10 minute video clips are completed or nearing completion on grafting, air layering, sun hemp as a green manure, and data collection techniques for production monitoring on tropical islands. All of these are being developed using resources of the GCE and College of Agriculture and Life Sciences resources that were developed based on the seed funds, and experiences that were provided by this initial SARE video grant.

The Hawaii Team utilized video expertise currently existing within the Common Heritage Corporation staff and sent several staff members to video photography and editing training courses at the Na Leo O’Hawaii public access television station in Kailua Kona. The script and shooting lists were developed using standardized guidelines published on the web page of the Video Media 300 Class in the Department of Communications at the University of Hawaii. Technical questions were answered by the UH Communications Department and by staff at Na Leo O’Hawaii. In-house computer editing expertise is now available at the Common Heritage Corporation as a result of this SARE video grant. Future videos are planned on sustainable cold water agriculture and aquaculture topics that utilize deep ocean water (DOW) at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority.

Recommendations:

Potential Contributions

The potential benefits from this program are enormous: there are now in the region a close knit group of agents dedicated to sustainable agriculture for the Pacific islands. These videos will extend the outreach capabilities of the extension faculty in Hawaii, Guam, Saipan, Pohnpei, and other Pacific Island states. The videos provide the ability to reach far more clients than could be reached by holding one or two workshops a year on these subjects. The video resource materials provide farmers, ranchers, educators, and decision makers with quality information to begin implementing sustainable farming techniques throughout the region.

Impacts on Agricultural Professionals

Region-wide extension agents are now better equipped to respond to producers’ requests for sustainable agriculture information as a result of these training videos. The GCE faculty, particularly the Agriculture and Natural Resources faculty, now know that the development of education videos is something that they can do with the skills and equipment available in-house.

Reactions from Farmers

The interest from farmers and ranchers region-wide associated with the SA video series is tremendous. Farmers clearly showed how sustainable agricultural practices in the Pacific could be beneficial and profitable on both small and large scale commercial farms in addition to family subsistence levels. Farmers enjoyed having the opportunity to showcase their experiences, and seeing themselves, their kids, and friends in these videos. They also like the flexibility of being able to watch them at home when the ‘feel like it’ allows. Airing the videos on public access television has helped the farmers gain credibility within the community.

Future Recommendations

There needs to be funding and manpower allocated to the development of future videos on a whole range of extension subjects in the Pacific region. These videos need to be broken into shorter messages or clips and placed on the Internet in streaming video format for Web-based video tips, much like the old call up Tele-Tips of the 1980s.

There is definitely a need to translate the video into the six languages of Micronesia and into Hawaiian to make the videos more user-friendly and to acknowledge the importance of traditional farming practice and cultural heritage within these island communities.

Future work on Deep Ocean Water (DOW) applications for the Pacific Islands needs to be encouraged, supported and developed. These technologies offer an unparalleled opportunity to support sustainable economic development, including agriculture development in the region. (See www.commonheritagecorp.com).

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.