Organic No-Till- The Ultimate Cropping System For Soil Health and Farm Sustainability

Final report for FNC08-738

Project Type: Farmer/Rancher
Funds awarded in 2008: $18,000.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2009
Region: North Central
State: North Dakota
Project Coordinator:
Linda Grotberg
Prairie Farm Pilot Project
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Project Information

Summary:

PROJECT BACKGROUND
Lead Organizers: Dick and Linda Grotberg, and Dick Lovestrand, Bethany Prairie Farm. (2333 99th Ave SE, Wimbledon, ND 58492. Phone: 701-435-2333. Email: lindag@daktelwb.com Website: www.bethanyprairie.com)

The Bethany Prairie Farm consists of 440 acres, 400 of which are tillable, and livestock which consists of 160 Scottish Highland Cattle, milking goats, grass-fed lambs, and pastured poultry. The farm is in the 3rd year of organic conversion. The farming plan, which promotes healthy soil = healthy plants = healthy animals = healthy meat, eggs, and milk = healthy people, is bio-diverse, holistic, synergistic, and organic. The Grotbergs and Dick Lovestrand are the lead organizers of The Prairie Farm Pilot Project, whose purpose is to increase sustainability in the small and mid-sized farming community. Farmer Partners in this project are: Mark and Joan Gehlhar, (9464 41st St. SE, Ypsilanti, ND 58497. Ph. 701-489-3438). The Gehlhar’s operate a custom grazing operation on half of their 1,500 acres and holistic grain farming on the other half. John and Helen Olson, (11025 48th St SE, Litchville, ND 58461, Phone 701-762-4498) are 25 year integrated certified organic crop and livestock farmers, who use conventional tillage.

The Prairie Farm Pilot Project is involved in the journey of converting small and mid-sized conventional farms to the 1950’s farming model (SARE FNC06-625) which was agriculture before the wide spread use of chemicals and basically organic. Upon the first visit (2007) of the Soil Science Team (see PEOPLE) in late June, we had just plowed a field in preparation for seeding millet. Their reaction to our having killed untold billions of creatures and microbes in that black soil, cooking in the summer sun launched the next leg of our journey! That quest encompassed searching, researching, conversations, telephone calls, reading, listening, field days and workshops to learn how to farm cooperating with and caring for the billions of creatures and microbes that build healthy soil and therefore care for us. We will continue the organic conversion of the Bethany Prairie Farm, but kick it up a notch with a “do or die” attitude towards organic no-till.

PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND RESULT
Goals: Marrying the two approaches to sustainable farming – organic and no-till – is of extreme importance to us. The true mission of organic sustainability is to restore soil to health in order to grow healthy plants to feed healthy animals which produce healthy meat, milk, and eggs to provide food to sustain healthy people. The Prairie Farm Pilot Project is committed to achieving this by using a sustainable organic, holistic, synergistic, biodiverse farming plan and by teaching the concept to others. We believe that part of the plan must include organic no-till. Our goal is to change the concept of organic no-till, from being an oxymoron, to the idea that it is the farming choice of the future.

Process: Our plan encompassed three control sites: the John Olson farm, which is certified organic and uses traditional tillage; the Mark Gehler farm, which is a holistic grain farm/custom grazing operation; the Bethany Prairie Farm, which is in transition from conventional agriculture to sustainable organic farming. The Bethany Prairie Farm was the treatment site for most of the organic no-till practices.

Eleven fields were used for the organic no-till treatments. The treatments included synergistic companion crops (field peas with oats and spring wheat with lentils), cocktail mix cover crops (radish, turnip, millet, oats, wheat, peas) on each field after harvest, winter crops (winter rye, triticale, and winter wheat), solid plant row crops (oil seed sunflowers), crimping/rolling biomass (triticale) before no-till seeding (buckwheat). Fields were grazed immediately after seeding to control weeds already growing. Cattle were then removed before crops immerged.

Phase II Observation: We are using Farm Works software to record notes and observations of the problems and the successes in each of the fields and the treatments used in order to give recommendations for organic no-till practices in East Central ND. The hand held GPS iPAQ will allow us to map fields within a field to compare diverse treatments in similar situations. Bethany Prairie field mapping was done initially and personalized by Barnes County NRCS.

The Soil Science Team (see PEOPLE) began monitoring the fields in this project in 2007 and will continue to monitor the soil health of the fields. According to Susan Samson-Liebig, “this study will monitor changes in soil quality in contrasting land management practices over time. In particular, this study will examine the transition from conventional to organic farming in the Midwest and the corresponding changes in soil biology, fertility, etc. Evaluations will be conducted on-farm for paired no-till organic, conventional tillage, and pastureland on the Dick and Linda Grotberg Bethany Prairie Farm.” The Soil Science Team meets twice a year at Bethany Prairie to observe and discuss plans, difficulties, and progress of the project.

Phase III Documentation: Samson-Liebig continues, “The soil study will increase understanding regarding the current state of soil quality in North Dakota as well as a baseline for a system converting from conventional agriculture to organic. The study will also increase understanding of contrasting land management effects on soil quality over time. Additionally, data collected during the course of the study will help in understanding carbon sequestration potential and nutrient movement under organic no-till, conventional tillage, and grazed pastureland and cropland, thereby expanding the knowledge base regarding the environmental sustainability of each management system. Evaluation sites will be used to demonstrate benefits of conservation-oriented management practices on soil quality, carbon sequestration, and agricultural productivity”.

PEOPLE
Cooperators and Mentors:

Carol Peterson, Regional Coordinator, USDA Resource, Conservation and Development program, in cooperation with the local Sheyenne James RC&D Council. Ph.701.252.2521. Carol helped with grant resources and technology contacts.

Steve Zwinger, Agronomy Research Specialist, 633 Hwy 281 North, Carrington, ND, Ph. 701.652.2951. Steve provided research and expertise NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center, with organic no-till and with the roller/crimper.

Randy Grueneich, County Agent, NDSU Extension Service, Barnes County, Phone 701.845.8528. Randy was the contact person for Extension resources.

North Dakota Grazing Lands Coalition Gene Goven, holistic grazer and no-till grain farmer, (Turtle Lake, ND, Ph 701-720-7792), Ken Miller, holistic grazer, no-till grain farmer, and District Technician for the Burleigh County Soil Conservation District, (1511 E Interstate Ave, Bismarck, ND 58503, 701-663-9350) and Gabe Brown, holistic no-till farmer innovator, (3752 106th St NE Bismarck, ND 58503, Ph 701-222-8602) teamed to mentor the cocktail mix cover crops, holistic no-till, and grazing aspects of the project.

Paul Overby, (Value Added Mgmt Solutions, 5237 78th St, Wolford, ND 58385, Ph 701-656-3654) Paul, provided training for the Farm Works software.

Soil Science Team: Susan Samson-Liebig, Soil Quality Specialist, USDA-NRCS, Bismarck, ND; Laura Overstreet, Soil Microbiologist, NDSU, Fargo, ND; Fred Aziz, Area Soil Scientist Area II, USDA-NRCS, Jamestown, ND; Lance Duey, Soil Scientist, MLRA 55 A & B, Devils Lake, ND; Earnie Jenson, MLRA 55A&B Soil Survey Leader, Devils Lake, ND; Kris Nichols, Soil Microbiologist, USDA-ARS, Mandan, ND; Advisors: Mark Liebig, Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Mandan, ND and Dick and Linda Grotberg.

Paul DuBourt, District Conservationist, USDA/NRCS, Cooperstown, ND 58425, Ph 701-797-2240, provided technical assistance for conservation planning and participation in the Organic EQIP Initiative.

Foundation for Agriculture and Rural Resources Management and Sustainability (FARRMS), 301–5th Ave SE, Medina, ND 58467, Ph 701-486-3569, provided technical assistance in farming organically and additional funding for the Farm Works GPS system.

RESULTS
Soil samples taken in April 2010 are reported as follows by Samson-Liebig:
“A couple pictures from field #6&7. Photo #6041511 is a nematode swimming around organic matter eating up bacteria and other critters. He was pretty cool to watch! Photo #641511 showing a fungal spore in the middle. One of several. Plenty of biology in this soil sample. Very active so doing very well. Other fields were not as active, however, all had plenty of bacteria and fungal spores (these will eventually hatch). Some protozoa as well. Will take a look this fall and see where things are. I have pictures of all samples for comparison later on. Overall, your biology is on the right track. With continued no-till and use of cover crops, fungi counts will increase along with other critters which will give a nice balance of diversity in your soil biology.”

Commercial soil tests were taken on five fields. Organic matter was very good. Nitrogen was low. It was noted at the Soil Health meeting that the nitrogen reading was only a snap shot in time and not necessarily what will be available to the plants during a growing season.

Drought from May to August, caused the late crops, buckwheat, corn, and sunflowers to have poor emergence. Those fields were grazed rather than harvested. Weeds were controlled and feed was gained.

Grazing the wheat fields right after planting as well as seeding the wheat in two directions, resulted in good weed control and a 25 bu/acre yield. This was considered to be good considering lack of rainfall.

Fall cover crops were seeded into dry ground. The small seeds (turnip, radish, millet) grew, but the hard red spring wheat and oats sown as cover crop did not germinate until spring. This was reported as a common problem across the region.

Organic No Till powerpoint

SARE Press Release 2009

DISCUSSION
Our journey into organic no-till sustainability is a work in progress.

We are always learning, ever changing in our approach to achieve the goal of a truly sustainable family farm.

Healthy soil is our ultimate goal. We believe that organic no-till is the best way to achieve this goal. We may have a long way to go to overcome weeds, probably the biggest challenge, in this system. We have made significant strides, however, by the use of diversity in crops, cover crops, and grazing.

The advantages and disadvantages of implementing a whole farm organic no-till system – “do or die”, were so close together that it was hard to say if the glass was half full or half empty.

ADVANTAGE, DISADVANTAGE
Mentally stimulating, Mind boggling
Challenging, Overwhelming
Cool, Weird
Innovative, Naïve
Out of the box, Off the wall
Success is long lasting, Success is long term

If I could, I would no-till for several years reducing chemical inputs, building fertility and soil cover, through the use of diverse cover crops before I went to organic no-till. We went organic for two years before beginning to exclusively no-till, which is definitely harder. Organic no-till in this manner is not impossible, but it is a long term project that will only be considered a general practice as research is continued on actual organic farms.

PROGRAM EVALUATION
I can’t say enough good things about this program! It meets a need that few other programs do – that of on-farm research by farmers themselves. The only change that I would make is to add more dollars to the budget, in order to fund more farmer/rancher research.

Research

Participation Summary

Educational & Outreach Activities

3 Workshop field days

Participation Summary

24 Farmers
18 Ag professionals participated
Education/outreach description:

OUTREACH
The Central ND Pastured Poultry Institute and Prairie Farm Pilot Project Field Day and Bethany Prairie Farm Tour was held June 30, 2009 at the Bethany Prairie Farm rural Wimbledon, ND. The theme of Bethany Prairie is “one farm’s journey to sustainability”. Dick Lovestrand and Dick and Linda Grotberg were the lead organizers.

The registered attendance was 77 and included 24 farmers/ranchers, 5 RC&D Coordinators, 8 NRCS staff, 8 city dwellers, 3 ARS staff, 3 Carrington Research Extension personal, and 2 media representatives, . Of those attending 27 were women, 25 were men, and 25 were youth. Participants came from North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Canada and West Africa. The USDA staff members were the primary presenters for the workshops.

This year’s Field Day was a showcase for Bethany Prairie Farm’s “Organic No-Till” and Kelly Severson’s “Sustainability through Diversity & Photosynthesis” NCR-SARE Farmer/Rancher Grants.

The workshops on Soil Health, Cover Crops, No-till, and Weeds, were presented in the field by Dr. Kris Nichols, Soil Microbiologist with the USDA-ARS, and Susan Samson-Liebig, Soil Quality Specialist with USDA-NRCS, and Fred Aziz, Area Resource Soil Scientist, NRCS, Jamestown. Linda Grotberg told of Bethany Prairie’s long range plans to build healthy soil to be able to grow healthy food.

The soil health workshops were held at two sites. Field #9 was observed “that while this is the poorest soil on the farm, the measures that are being taken to improve the soil quality are beginning to show some effect”. Field #2, third year tall lush multi species pasture was examined. Special note was made as to how much the soil was improved over just three years.

A prescribed grazing workshop was conducted during the wagon tour by Ron Wiederholt, Nutrient Management Specialist, Carrington Research Extension Center.

In the afternoon Kris Nichols and Susan Samson-Liebig showed examples and discussed the life in the soil. Using a student microscope, participants had an opportunity to see what is living below ground. There was also information about how management affects soil biology and other soil properties along with the use of compost and compost teas.

Lance Duey, Soil Scientist, Devils Lake, ND, presented a Power Point on the Web Soil Survey. These afternoon workshops were held in Bethany Prairie School

The Rodale Bio-mass Roller/Crimper was demonstrated by Steve Zwinger, Collaborator in the Rodale Institute Organic No-Till Project and Research Specialist-Agronomy, North Dakota State University, Carrington Research Extension Center. Dick Grotberg, Bethany Prairie Farm, was available for comments and questions.

The pastured poultry workshop was a self-guided tour of chicken tractors, and equipment, with questions on breeds, cost of raising, rations, chicken tractors, and processing answered by Linda Grotberg.

A two-hour oil pressing demonstration and biofuels workshop was held in the afternoon at the Bethany Prairie farm shop. Dick Lovestrand, Bethany Prairie Farm conducted this demonstration and answered questions concerning Bethany Prairie’s future plans and uses for the small scale renewable fuels.

Approximately 75 Scottish Highland roast beef dinners with all local food trimmings were served at noon by Bethany Prairie Fellowship. Midwest Dairy Dist #5 served soft serve ice cream throughout the day. Mark Gehler’s horses and wagon were used to transport participants to the pasture workshops.

Co-sponsors of the event were: Barnes Co Equipment, FARRMS, Miller Elevator, Midwest Dairy District 5, Andrew Heinze Organic Springs Farm, Bethany Prairie Ministries, Walder Mfg, ND Ag Department, Kelly Severson, NCR-SARE, Dufner Potatoes, Barnes County Farm Bureau, and Mark Gehler.

Partners included: Sheyenne James RC&D Council, Burleigh Co Soil Conservation Dist, Stutsman Co Soil Conservation Dist, USDA-ARS, Carrington Research Extension Center, and USDA-NRCS.

Advertising included announcements in the NPSAS Germinator and The Wimbledon News, a feature story in the Valley City Times Record, state, regional, local email list serves, mailed personal invitations, flyers posted in USDA offices, Extension and local businesses, and word of mouth.

Future plans are to continue the annual Bethany Prairie Field Day and Farm Tour. We will encourage other partners to join us and will offer to host state and regional educational events.

Bethany Prairie Brochure 2009

Field Day Hand Out 2009

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.