We have a 36 acre farm that we grow a small amount of corn on for feed. We have approximately 12 acres of hay ground and the rest is wooded pastures. We do utilize our hay fields for some early and late season grazing. We rotationally graze our hair sheep through 4 pastures that can be subdivided further depending on the weather and needs. We have been operating with sheep since 2018 but have been farming the ground since 2016 and have used the ground for u-pick strawberry and pumpkins in the past.
The accelerated 8-month lambing cycle has been proven to increase the production and profitability of a flock over time but why is it not widely used in production? Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) allows for detailed, digital records to be kept of animals throughout their lives and accessed quickly when questions arise. This technology has been successful in other parts of animal agriculture but has not been uniformly adapted by the sheep industry. Adaption of RFID tags and data analyzation will be economically viable for the long term because through data analyzation we will retain the most productive ewes who raise lambs that make a profit. This project is socially responsible by making our work easier and more streamlined. Through RFID data collection and analyzation, we will determine benchmarks for success in commercial hair sheep production related to individual ewe production.
- Improve record keeping through digital RFID system
- Streamline jobs and their associated timelines (ie. Hoof trimming, vaccinations, pregnancy checking, etc.)
- Better analyze each ewes production through data recorded
- Share experience and findings through social media, blogs, and field days.
- Create data supported criteria for replacement ewe retention
For this project we will split our sheep flock into 3 groups and manage each group on an 8 month accelerated lambing cycle. We will be focusing on recording as much data as possible to assist in making management decisions for the individual animals as well as the flock as a whole going forward. We will be using our current barn and pastures. Pastures will be utilized on a weekly rotation throughout the growing season for all sheep during maintenance periods of the lambing cycle. We will blood test every group of ewes 6 weeks following the end of breeding so we are aware of conception rates and can make management decisions for ewes that are not bred. Each time a ewe is blood tested for pregnancy and the test results are negative, meaning not pregnant, she will be moved to the next group for a chance to breed again. Using our data collected prior to the start of this project and throughout this project, if a ewe does not breed during three consecutive breeding cycles she will be culled. Other management we will be conducting during this project will be vaccinating and hoof trimming 6 weeks before the beginning of lambing. At the recommendation of our vet we will be vaccinating for Clostridial Diseases and Tetanus (CD&T) and Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL). When lambs are born, each will be given a RFID tag and birth weight, number in the litter, and sex will all be recorded in the digital system. After weaning lambs will be marketed at the Mt. Hope Livestock Auction in Ohio.
Note: the Activities and Timeline table shown above details the events of one accelerated cycle. This will be repeated five more times over the course of the project.
General Information About Our System
We are working with a group of 62 Katahdin hair sheep ewes as well as a Katahdin ram and White Dorper ram. Our overall goal is to create and maintain 3 breeding groups throughout the calendar year on an accelerated lambing cycle. We originally learned of the accelerated 8 month lambing cycle through research done at Michigan State University. See related Powerpoint by Dr. Richard Ehrhardt. There is also the STAR Management system developed by Cornell University. We chose to work with the 8 month Accelerated System by Michigan State University. The main advantages to working with an accelerated lambing system are spreading out the labor of lambing in smaller groups more frequently throughout the year and spreading out marketing your lambs so that there is a more consistent income stream from those lambs throughout the year. Katahdin hair sheep are known to be able to breed out of season naturally but it is expected that the breeding rates and lambing rates will be lower than a natural breeding. See related Article from Virginia State University Study We will begin our project breeding naturally in each of the 3 breeding groups however we are aware that during one or more of the off season breeding groups we may need to invest in hormone therapy (CIDRs) to assist with breeding rates.
Actual Portions of Project
Breeding Group 1 of 2020
For our first round of breeding we had 7 ewes who were open or aborted early from the previous breeding group before our project began. These 7 ewes were put into our first breeding group with the rams. They were with the rams for 2 cycles and those who caught were due to lamb in August 2020.
Only 1 of the 7 ewes were bred from the March breeding group. When time got near, she was brought into the barn to lamb. Unfortunately, she got out of her pen and gorged herself on corn (which was being used to feed the market lambs born Feb-March 2020 from before the start of our project), she aborted her lamb early and died.
Breeding Group 2 of 2020
We found out we were pregnant with our second baby in May of 2020 which made us adjust our breeding times to avoid lambing close to the time our baby would be born. Christine spent about 2 hours working through our Shearwell Data Systems records from the lambing that began before our project started to divide the flock into two groups based on the weaning weight and litter size of each ewe. We chose this group to plan ahead for some replacement ewe lambs that we would like to keep out of this group. Our criteria for the ewes in the second breeding group were – 1) a litter of two or more and 2) weaning at least 50 pounds of live lamb. Based on this criteria the group was set to be 19 ewes. These ewes would be bred in June and due to lamb in October/November.
Levi and Christine separated the ewes selected for the breeding group out of the rest of the flock. We used a printed copy of the ewes chosen based on our data collected in the Shearwell Data Systems records.
We turned the group of ewes out with one ram for two heat cycles (34 days). Daily observation of the group during breeding showed only two ewes being covered by our ram (wearing a marking harness). This led us to two possible conclusions 1) our ewes were not cycling during this time or 2) our crayon for the marking harness was defective.
Dr. Luke Morrow came to scan via ultrasound the ewes for pregnancy. The scan resulted in 0 pregnant ewes solidifying the hypothesis that our ewes were not actually cycling during the breeding cycles in June. During the scan, Christine kept records directly within the Shearwell Data System to record ewes that remained open.
Breeding Group 3 of 2020
Due to both previous groups having zero lambs Levi and I chose to put all the ewes together for a large lambing group of natural breeding in the fall of 2020. We are still farmers who need to make something off of each of our ewes to remain in business so although it deviates from our original project timeline and plans the ewes need to produce lambs. We are still hopeful to keep some replacement ewe lambs out of our ewes this year so the flock was split into two groups for this breeding. Based on the same criteria as breeding group 1 (a litter of more than 2 and weaning more than 50 pounds of live lambs) as well as a couple ewes we think have the potential to produce high quality lambs we came up with two groups. The 19 ewes from breeding group 1 were sorted as well as 7 additional ewes and put with our White Dorper ram for a total of 26. Ewe lambs born from these ewes we will consider keeping as replacements. The remaining 36 ewes were put with our Katahdin ram.
We used the same printed sheet for breeding group 1 as well as our notes for the additional 7 ewes and turned out the White Dorper ram. This group was separated from the Katahdin breeding group by staying in the barn. The Katahdin group remained rotating pastures. Both rams wore marking harnesses of different colors during the entire breeding cycle.
After two breeding cycles the rams were removed from the ewe groups. Through physical observation, we estimate that 95% of our ewes were covered by the rams. Ewes bred during this breeding will be due to lamb starting March 7 and go through April 16 of 2021. We have scheduled for an ultrasound to done in early to mid January to detect pregnancy in the ewes.
Breeding Group 1 of 2020
This group resulted in no lambs. Throughout Group 1s time (March – August 2020) we became familiar with the new equipment we are using (Shearwell Data Systems and Tru-Test Weigh Scales) and are excited about the possibilities for record keeping and data collection through the RFID system. We knew ahead of time but the idea was reinforced that RFID technology may be the future of the industry but it will never be able to replace the physical time you need to spend in the barn and with the animals making physical observations of each animal to detect any possible sickness or abnormalities in the flock.
Breeding Group 2 of 2020
This group resulted in no lambs. Although as farmers, this group is a failure, we did learn more about the RFID record keeping system we are using and piloting in this project. The work ahead of time to sort the ewes based on the above criteria was much quicker than it would have been had I needed to flip through every page of notes I had taken during the previous lambing. I do not think any time was saved during this groups particular ultrasound and we would have been able to move at the same pace had we been using a traditional pen and paper because after scanning each ewes ear tag with the Shearwell Reader it was one simple check box as to whether the ewe was pregnant or not. The same time could have been taken to record a physical tag number in a column of pregnant or open.
Breeding Group 3 of 2020
To Be Determined
Educational & Outreach Activities
Throughout 2020 our YouTube channel has grown to about 420 subscribers but each video has varying amounts (above or below) our actual subscriber count. We have made a playlist of videos specific to our SARE Grant in which we discuss applying for the grant, what our project is about and receiving the new equipment. We also included some videos of us recording weaning weights and market lamb weights to show us using our equipment even though those are not specific to our project.
Our Facebook and Instagram pages reach 1,500 and 630 people respectively. On these platforms we share when new videos are posted to our YouTube channel but also share daily or weekly updates about what is happening on our farm.
I left all the boxes above as 0 because it is hard to quantify the number of people we reach outside of the number of followers for each platform and also because each post, photo and video has a unique reaction.
We continue to try and grow all three of these platforms and the audience we reach with them. A goal of mine is to make our Facebook and Instagram accounts more interactable with our followers and answer their questions related to agriculture and farming.