Final Report for FW09-302
This project demonstrated the feasibility of integrated sustainable agriculture and livestock production systems for small-scale farmers in the island conditions. The project optimized overall agricultural and livestock production by using locally available resources through an integrated technology which employed multipurpose crops, animals and recycling of residues and byproducts as nutrients for animals and crops. The project not only provided opportunities for income generation and profitable self-employment to the participating farmers but also provided an example to other farmers and rural communities to get same benefits on successful duplication of the project. The project team attracted, encouraged and trained farmers through field days and hands-on training workshops and distributed sustainable farming, swine production and composting guides. A video of project activities was telecasted on local channel and distributed to non-subscribers of cable.
The Federated States of Micronesia is made up of 607 small islands spread over a million square miles of the Western Pacific Ocean. However, the total land area is only about 271 square miles. The islands of Micronesia are striving towards self-sufficiency while mindful of high malnutrition and an enormous trade imbalance attributable to importing foods. Very little food crops are cultivated at the local level, and most of the foods available at local markets are imported. Due to high shipping costs, these are very expensive and unaffordable for average local people. And even after paying high prices, people are not able to get fresh produce because of long transportation time. Although current agriculture programs are mostly on subsistence level, food crops and swine production are considered primary and important industries in Micronesia. Almost every household on the island has swine production operations, with capacities that range from a few animals to about twenty-five animals and backyard gardening. These operations may be small, but they are numerous. Local people mostly rely on banana, breadfruit and taro as main sources of food for themselves and also for livestock; however, their needs are usually much greater than the available food supplies.
Taro and pigs are part of many traditional and cultural practices. Value of taro and pigs is closely related with demands during funerals, annual feasts and daily community functions and activities. To meet this ever-increasing demand for food and feed, there is a crucial need to increase agricultural production by generating the ability to successfully raise livestock and grow food and feed crops for sustenance by training local farmers in the appropriate and skillful use of sustainable and integrated agriculture systems.
This project was specifically designed to implement and demonstrate integrated farming systems involving crop and swine production by using local resources, thus providing a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers and the environment.
The overall goal for this project was on-farm implementation and demonstration of integrated sustainable agriculture and livestock production systems for small-scale farmers in Micronesia. Specific objectives for the project were to
1) develop, implement and demonstrate cropping systems for multipurpose crops to maximize production in sustainable manner;
2) develop, implement and demonstrate swine production systems based on locally available resources for small-scale farmers;
3) develop, implement and demonstrate simple techniques to optimize the use of different components of crops for different end purposes, such as food, feed and nutrients for plants;
4)implement and demonstrate recycling of animal wastes and crop residues through composting;
5) educate and train farmers and rural communities in on-farm implementation of sustainable agriculture systems through demonstrations, training workshops and field days;
6) develop, publish, and distribute sustainable farming and swine production guides, easy-to-understand handouts and informative brochures in English and local language; and
7) record, develop and telecast project’s success stories in English and local language.
The key concept of this project was to implement and demonstrate to small-scale farmers a successful integrated sustainable agriculture and livestock production system that is promising in island conditions and is safe for the environment and workforce. This project utilized on-farm composting techniques of manure, along with crop residues, for land application and crop utilization to prevent the contamination of surface and ground water. This project employed multiple integrated activities to minimize external inputs.
This project provided adequate opportunities to educate and train farmers and rural communities in on-farm implementation of sustainable agriculture systems through training workshops (including PowerPoint presentations and hands-on trainings) at the pilot site and field days (demonstrations at pilot and producer sites). The project team produced various multi-color guides on sustainable farming, swine production and manure management. These guides were distributed to the participants and local farmers during training workshops, field days and demonstrations, and also through municipalities and state offices. The project team also produced a video on integrated sustainable agriculture and livestock production, and telecasted it several times on local channel. The video was also flashed multiple times through LCD projector on a big screen for group viewing on-demand. The copies of video were provided to the national telecommunication company for on-demand telecast throughout Micronesia. Multiple copies of video were distributed to non-subscribers of cable. The project team collected evaluation data from participants through questionnaires, observations, interviews and site visits. Evaluation data were analyzed. The response and outcomes of the training workshops, hands-on trainings and project activities, and graphical summary is presented in evaluation and data analysis section of this report.
The project increased knowledge, created awareness and developed skills of 78 participants of training workshop and 124 participants of field days about integrated sustainable agriculture and livestock production. The project also attracted and encouraged more than 2,000 people through indirect contact such as video telecast, cultivation guides and video distribution. The project made participants capable to organize trainings, teach other farmers and provide assistance, and apply gained knowledge and skills in the field. Ultimately, the project developed positive attitudes, zeal for learning techniques and farming aspects and changed the behavior of the participants.
The project coordinator, producers and participants maintained a high level of interest for development, implementation and demonstration of multiple integrated activities for cropping systems and swine production in a sustainable manner. Demonstration plots developed at the pilot and producer sites were used for demonstration of planned outreach activities to encourage establishment of integrated sustainable agriculture and livestock production systems. At the project sites, vigorously growing crops; harvest of excellent sweet potatoes, bananas, eggplants, taro and papaya; and swine production, along with sustainable and fast composting techniques, attracted much attention of local communities. Harvested eggplants from the project’s pilot site were showcased during State Agriculture Fair 2010 and 2011 and were awarded with the first and second prize for vegetable/eggplant category.
The successful implementation of the skills and technology gained by the farmers through this project will not only lead to long-term availability of fresh food crops and swine at affordable prices in Micronesia but also serve as a model for the region. This will also serve as a means to ensure food security and income generation. This project will help small farmers comply with existing and anticipated regulations to protect the environment from contamination by manure.
Education and Outreach
Seven multi-color guides on banana cultivation, soft taro cultivation, sweet potato cultivation, eggplant cultivation, papaya cultivation, modified swine diet and composting were developed in English. These farming guides have all useful facts for cultivation such as land preparation, planting material preparation, planting material storage, methods of planting, time and distance of planting, replanting, fertilizer or compost application, cultivation, weeding, control of diseases and pests, harvesting and storage. Titles of guides are as follows:
i) Banana cultivation guide
ii) Soft taro cultivation guide
iii) Sweet potato cultivation guide
iv) Eggplant cultivation guide
v) Papaya cultivation guide
vi) Modified swine diet guide
vii) Composting guide
Six field days were organized at the pilot and producer sites, and 124 participants from Lelu, Tafunsak, Malem, Utwe and Walung municipalities attended and participated in the field days. The participants included enthusiastic small-scale farmers, producers, agriculture students, youths, extension agents, state government agricultural staff and agricultural professionals. They visited pilot and producer demonstration sites and observed successful demonstration trials of banana, taro, sweet potato, kangkong, papaya and eggplants. Finished compost was also showcased. During the field days, technical assistance and support were provided. Participants were encouraged to ask questions and appropriate answers were provided. All the participants showed great interest in the project and expressed willingness to participate in week-long training workshops. Schedule of field days organized is as follows:
i) July 25, 2011
ii) July 26, 2011
iii) July 27, 2011
iv) July 28, 2011
v) July 29, 2011
vi) August 1, 2011
Two training workshops of one-week duration each were organized at the pilot site, and 78 participants from Lelu, Tafunsak, Malem, Utwe and Walung municipalities attended and participated in the training workshops. The participants included enthusiastic small-scale farmers, producers, agriculture students, youths, extension agents, state government agricultural staff and agricultural professionals. PowerPoint presentations were given on land preparation, planting material preparation, planting material storage, methods of planting, time and distance of planting, replanting, fertilizer and compost application, watering and maintenance, weeding, harvesting and storage for sweet potato, soft taro, banana, papaya, eggplant and kangkong. PowerPoint presentations also included detailed hot composting techniques and modified swine diets based on local resources. Extensive hands-on trainings were organized on cultivation and composting techniques. Schedule of training workshops organized is as follows:
i) November 21-25, 2011
ii) November 28-December 02, 2011
Project activities were recorded and produced as a video on Integrated Sustainable Agriculture and Livestock Production.
i) The video was telecasted several times through local TV channel, and
ii) Flashed through LCD projector on a big screen for group viewing on-demand.
iii) In addition to this, copies of video were distributed to interested community members who are non-subscribers of cable.
Accomplishments of the project activities were presented in the Soil Carbon Sequestration Conference at the University of Guam and were also published in the conference proceedings. An abstract of project activities was submitted for Regional Symposium: High Value Vegetables in Southeast Asia: Production, Supply and Demand. The abstract was accepted and the conference committee invited the project coordinator for an oral presentation of accomplishments during the conference in Thailand. List of conference/symposium publications:
i) Verma, V.M. (2011) On-Farm Implementation and Demonstration of Integrated Sustainable Agriculture, Livestock Production, Composting and Soil Improvement Systems for Small-Scale Farmers in Micronesia, Proceeding: Soil Carbon Sequestration Conference, Guam.
ii) Verma, V.M. (2012) On-Farm Implementation and Demonstration of Integrated Sustainable Vegetable Production, Composting and Soil Improvement Systems for Small-Scale Farmers. Abstract in Regional Symposium on High Value Vegetables in Southeast Asia: Production, Supply and Demand, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Education and Outreach Outcomes
This project demonstrated the feasibility of integrated sustainable agriculture and livestock production systems for small-scale farmers in the island conditions. The project optimized overall agricultural and livestock production by using locally available resources through an integrated technology which employed multipurpose crops, animals and recycling of residues and byproducts as nutrients for animals and crops. This project not only provided opportunities for income generation and profitable self-employment to the participating farmers but also provided an example to other farmers and rural communities to get same benefits on successful duplication of the project.
In Micronesia, where available resources are very limited, the project was a great success. The project generated and demonstrated an integrated sustainable agriculture approach of farming among the usually under-served population of Micronesia. Duplication of project activities in other states of Micronesia will greatly help local populations to improve their knowledge, understanding and skills about integrated sustainable agriculture and livestock production systems and will encourage them to adopt sustainable and whole-system approaches.
The report may provide the foundation for additional grants such as the Research and Education Grant through SARE in addition to other sources.