Effect of copper oxide wire particles compared to copper sulphate on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs

Final Report for GS09-083

Project Type: Graduate Student
Funds awarded in 2009: $10,000.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2010
Grant Recipient: Louisiana State University
Region: Southern
State: Louisiana
Graduate Student:
Major Professor:
Dr. James Miller
Louisiana State University
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Project Information

Summary:

Infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites, particularly Haemonchus contortus, a blood-feeder, is the most important constraint to profitable small ruminant production in the southeastern US and worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance is widespread and alternative control methods are needed. Two studies were conducted to compare the efficacy of COWP and CS treatment. on naturally acquired H. contortus infection and potential toxicity. The first study was a short-term (14 day) fecal egg count reduction study which showed that COWP was more efficacious than CS. The second study was a long-term study that compared the efficacy of COWP and CS administered 2 times over a 16 week summer grazing period and any associated copper toxicity. That study showed that COWP was more efficacious than CS after the second treatment only, and there was no observed toxicity. Results have been disseminated to scientific and producer groups via producer workshops, the Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control web page (SCSRPC.org), and various scientific and extension publications.

Introduction

Infection with the blood feeding nematode Haemonchus contortus is an important problem for small ruminant production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance is widespread and alternative control methods are needed. Weanlings are especially susceptible to infection during their first grazing season. Infection with H. contortus can rapidly lead to lost production and even death. Over use of anthelmintics (dewormers) has resulted in high levels of dewormer resistance in GIN throughout the southeast and other regions where H. contortus is a problem. The problem has become so severe that it is threatening viability of small-scale and limited-resource small ruminant farm operations in this region despite continued high demand for sheep and goat products. A more sustainable approach to parasite control involves integrating targeted, limited use of anthelmintics with non-chemical alternative control methods that reduce GIN numbers in the host animal and lower pasture contamination with eggs and larvae. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have been shown to reduce H. contortus infection in sheep and goats. Preliminary evidence has shown that copper sulphate (CS), as a drench, may also be useful. Since copper can be toxic to sheep, the question of which has the least impact on toxicity has also become an issue.

Project Objectives:

1) Determine the effect of COWP compared to CS on H. contortus infection in grazing lambs and 2) Determine the liver copper accumulation of COWP compared to CS in grazing lambs.

Cooperators

Click linked name(s) to expand
  • Javier Garza

Research

Materials and methods:

For Study 1, 21 lambs were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups [COWP (2 g/hd), CuSO4 (1% solution drench, 35 ml/22.7 kg) and a control (CONT). Each group had 7 lambs. Fecal egg count (FEC) was conducted on day 0, 7 and 14 after treatment. For Study 2, Thirty weaned lambs were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups [COWP (2 g/hd), CS (1% solution drench, 35 ml/22.7 kg) and a control (CONT). Each group had 10 lambs. Initially (week 0), the lambs were dewormed with levamisole (8 mg/kg) and albendazole (10 mg/kg) to remove existing infections. All animals grazed together and COWP and CS treatments were administered on weeks 5 and 10. Feces and blood were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, over a period of 15 weeks during the summer, 2011. Individual animals received a salvage deworming with anthelmintics when PCV was below 15. Blood serum samples were collected at 2 week intervals for liver enzyme AST determination. Animals were weighed at 28 day intervals. For both studies, FEC was log transformed and a repeated measures ANOVA over time was conducted for FEC, PCV and weight, and means were adjusted for the variables in the model.

Research results and discussion:

For Study 1, there was no significant difference between groups (p>0.05) on day 0. On days 7 and 14, there was no difference (p>0.05) between CONT, and CuSO4 groups, and the COWP group was significantly (p<0.05) lower than the CONT group. Results indicated that COWP was effective in reducing infection, and CuSO4 was not. For Study 2, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in FEC between groups on week 0 through week 5. After the first COWP and CS treatments, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in FEC between COWP and CS groups and both were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the CONT group through week 10. After the second COWP and CS treatments, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in FEC between the CS and CONT groups and both were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the COWP group through week 15. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in PCV between any group throughout the study, but the COWP PCV tended to be higher than the other two groups after the week 10 treatment. There were 8, 2 and 8 salvage dewormings for CONT, COWP and CS groups, respectively. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in weight gain between any group throughout the study. Results indicated that COWP was overall more effective in controlling infection than CS over a summer grazing period with no advantage in weight gain. Serum AST levels were similar between all groups at the beginning and end of the study and remained within normal limits. This indicated that neither COWP nor CS treatments, administered 2 times at 5 week intervals, compromised liver function.

Participation Summary

Educational & Outreach Activities

Participation Summary

Education/outreach description:

Scientific Proceedings

Miller, J. E., Garza, J., Callahan, S., Burke, J. M., Terrill, T. H., 2011. Comparison of copper oxide wire particles, copper sulfate and anthelmintic treatment for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs. Proc USDA SCC-81, 16-17.

Miller, J. E., Burke, J. M., Garza, J., Terrill, T. H., Callahan, S., 2011. Comparison of copper oxide wire particles, copper sulfate and anthelmintic treatment for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs. Proc. 23th International Conference World Association Advancement Veterinary Parasitology, 290.

Miller, J. E., Burke, J. M., Garza, J., Callahan, S., Terrill, T. H., 2011. Comparison of copper oxide wire particles, copper sulfate and anthelmintic treatment for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs. J Anim Sci 89 (E-Supple. 2), 16.

Miller, J.E., Garza, J., Burke, J.M., Terrill, T.H., 2012. Comparison of long term use of copper oxide wire particles and copper sulfate for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs. Proc SCC-81,

Presentations

Integrating FAMACHA, drugs and other alternative measures for controlling worms. Louisiana Meat Goat Association meeting, September 11, 2010, Crowley, LA.

Small ruminant integrated parasite control. GoatCamp, October 26, 2010, Lohn, TX.

Small ruminant integrated parasite control. Goat producer meeting, January 2, 2011, St. Martinville, LA.

Comparison of copper oxide wire particles, copper sulfate and anthelmintic treatment for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs. Annual Meeting Southern Section American Society of Animal Science, February 6-8, 2011, Corpus Christi, TX.

Integrating FAMACHA, drugs and other alternative measures for controlling worms, Southern University Goat Field Day, April 30, 2011, Baton Rouge, LA.

Comparison of copper oxide wire particles, copper sulfate and anthelmintic treatment for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs, World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. August 21-25, 2011, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Integrating FAMACHA, drugs and other alternative measures for controlling worms, USDA ARS, October 8, 2011, Booneville, AR.

Integrating FAMACHA, drugs and other alternative measures for controlling worms, GoatCamp, October 25, 2011, Lohn, TX.

Project Outcomes

Project outcomes:

Copper treatment in the form of COWP appears to be preferable to CS for controlling infection over a summer grazing season in lambs. Both Cu formulations appeared to be safe as used under the conditions of this study. Neither treatment benefitted production (weight gain).

Economic Analysis

Not done

Farmer Adoption

We have had numerous inquiries (phone and email) from producers about using COWP for controlling H. contortus infection. Positive feedback is encouraging and there has been no negative feedback to date.

Recommendations:

Areas needing additional study

Using COWP in an integrated long-term (2-3 years) control program.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.