Final report for LS19-310
Although planting a cool-season annual forage for soil stability and mitigation of environmental change has been highly adopted, little has been done to investigate the relationship between cool-season annual forage systems and their use as a livestock feed resource, and resulting impacts on soil health. Moreover, with beef producers facing continuous increases in feed and fertilizer costs, and rising pressures from public interest groups to become more sustainable, a winter annual forage plan that targets environmental stewardship and efficient plant and animal production is necessary. The utilization of cool-season annual grass, grass-forb, and grass-legume mixtures in beef cattle production systems has the potential to increase forage availability, productivity, and promote an environmentally sustainable farm agroecosystem. This proposal investigates the use of cool-season annual forages and forage mixtures at the plant, animal and environmental interfaces. The project team, consisting of both a forage and a livestock specialist, will establish field plots and a live animal experiment to determine soil health parameters, forage agronomic characteristics, harvesting techniques, and digestibility attributes of cool-season annual grass, grass-forb, and grass-legume mixtures. Collectively, these experiments will provide Southeastern beef cattle producers with science-based information and recommendations on utilizing cool-season annual forage systems profitably and sustainably.
- Evaluate cool-season annual grass, grass-forb, and grass-legume forage systems for yield, forage distribution, and nutritive quality.
- Determine the effects of a bacterial silage inoculant on forage nutritive value of ensiled cool-season annual forage and forage mixtures.
- Determine in situ fiber digestibility from cool-season annual forage systems.
- Quantify changes in soil health and nutrient management in cool-season annual forage systems.
- Develop a comprehensive educational program for beef producers on the use of cool-season annual forages for grazing and ensiling.
- - Producer
- - Producer
- - Producer (Educator)
- Mikey Henry was originally identified as a farmer cooperator for this project. Owning a custom baler operation, Mike's role in this project was to advise forage growers on best management practices to ensure that quality is preserved before, during and after the ensiling process. At field days, Mike was going to demonstrate harvesting equipment and how diversifying cool-season annual forage species can impact the final ensiled forage product. Mike, with his custom baling operation, would work with Alabama extension personnel to collect balaege samples in order to asses cool-season annual balaege quality in Alabama. We are so sad to report that Mr. Henry has passed away unexpectedly. He was a key person in this grant, from both a research and extension standpoint. We collobarated with Area and County livestock extension agents in both North Carolina and Alabama to try and fill the void that Mr. Henry left. We worked with the extension agents to collect a select number of baleage samples to assess forage quality of winter-annuals throughout the southeast.
- COVID-19 caused major impacts on meetings, travel, research collection and direct communication with farmers. This caused major set backs and reduced operations for deliverables of this project. In general, expected outcomes and final reports, abstracts, and publications have been extended into 2023.
Cool-Season Annual Forage Variety Selection Tool For The Southeastern United States
Cool-season annual forage varieties of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), cereal rye (Secale cereale), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.) are often chosen on the basis of availability and affordability rather than performance. The objective of this study was to create a source of collaborative data that would aid producers in selection of superior varieties of cool-season annual forages that perform well across varying years, geographic regions, and environments. Forage yield data was collected from forage variety trials conducted in the years of 2015 – 2020 by University of Georgia, University of Tennessee, Pennsylvania State University, University of Kentucky, and Mississippi State University. Testing occurred at 18 different sites and across 7 states in the Eastern United States. Data from 166 annual ryegrass, 35 cereal rye, 93 wheat, and 48 triticale individual varieties were collected and standardized by expressing yields as a percentage of the mean within a given testing site-year. Standardized means were averaged across all available site-years for each variety within a species and a coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated. Varieties in each species were categorized by their relative mean yield and CV and varieties that had above average relative means and low CV’s were considered desirable. The desired annual ryegrass varieties included: Marshall, K014-WLS, K0140-WEMA, FL Red 4X LATE, Angusta, RM exp-2013A, and FL AT-3. The limitedly tested but qualifying varieties of cereal rye were Wintergrazer 70, Wrens Abruzzi, NF99362, Bates RS4, and Goku, wheat were FLLA10033C-6, GA-09129-16E55, GA-051207-14E53, GA-04417-12E33, GA-03564-12E6, GA-071518-16E39, W010025-H2, PGX-16-4, AGS 3040, Oglethorpe, AGS 3030, PGX 16-1, SS EXP 8629, W010025R1, GA-09377-16LE18, GoWheat 2032, SRW 9410, and GA-071630-12LE9, and triticale were Wintermax, and TriCal 815. Results from this study will aid producers in the identification of desired cool-season annual forage varieties that consistently perform well in varying environmental conditions.
Exploring Inoculated Cover Crops For Silage Abstract:
Opportunity exists for cool-season annual forages to extend the grazing season and provide high quality feed for beef cattle in Appalachia. The objective of this 3-year trial is to determine forage mass, botanical composition, and nutritive value of four cool-season annual grasses seeded with and without crimson clover and ensiled with and without a grass/cereal inoculant. In the fall of 2017, 2018 and 2019, forage treatments of rye, ryegrass, wheat and triticale were seeded in small plots with and without crimson clover. Plots were harvested in the spring when grass reached the flowering stage, and was ensiled with and without PioneerTM 11G22 Silage Inoculant into mini pvc silos. Silage forage mass was greatest for triticale and least for ryegrass (9,292 and 8,037 lb./acre, respectively), but did not differ among any other forage treatment. Clover inclusion had no effect on forage mass. Crude protein (CP) content did not differ among clover or ensiling treatment. However, wheat had greater CP than rye and ryegrass (9.26, 8.48 and 8.47%, respectively). Wheat had the greatest total digestible nutrients (TDN; 60.33%), followed by triticale (57.78%) and was least for rye and ryegrass (55.53 and 54.80%, respectively) which did not differ from one another. The addition of crimson clover also increased TDN concentration compared to plots without clover (57.68 and 56.55%, respectively). Silage fermentation parameters of pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA), lactic acid and acetic acid were impacted by main treatment effects of grass, clover and inoculant. The results of this study indicate that the benefits of including a legume and silage inoculant are negligible and producers should choose a winter-annual forage species that will best fill a forage gap in their production system.
Grazing Cover Crops Soil Abstract:
Coastal Plain soils are often characterized by low soil organic carbon (SOC) as a result of natural and anthropogenic factors. A rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under conventional tillage is typical in this region, but an opportunity to increase SOC and improve soil health by incorporating winter grazing of cover crops exists for producers with row crop and livestock operations. A study to assess winter grazing impacts on soil health was established in the U.S. Coastal Plain. Three cattle removal dates and an ungrazed control were evaluated for impacts on selected soil health indicators: SOC, permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC), water stable aggregates (WSA), penetration resistance (PR), microbial biomass C (MBC), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization rates. After two years, MBC was highest in the control treatments, likely due to greater cover crop biomass on the soil surface at termination. No differences were observed between treatments for SOC, POXC, WSA, PR, or AMF. Increased cotton lint yield was observed in control and mid-February treatments in 2019, likely due to greater cover crop residues on the soil surface following grazing, which may have conserved soil moisture during the growing season. Peanut yields were unaffected by treatments in 2020. Lack of differences in soil health indicators suggests that integrating winter-grazing livestock does not negatively nor positively impact selected dynamic soil properties in the short-term, but more time under grazing treatments is needed to thoroughly evaluate how winter-grazing livestock impacts soil health and crop yield.
Grazing Cover Crops Cattle Abstract:
Grazing of cool-season cover crops has been shown to be a viable tool in extending the grazing season while mitigating environmental risks associated with row crop farming systems. Grazing cover crops is not novel, but most information available on this practice focuses on soil health as opposed to forage production and animal performance. A 3-yr study was conducted in Headland, AL to evaluate the effects of cattle removal date on steer performance, forage yield, and forage quality in grazed cover crop systems. Twelve 1.2-ha pastures were established in a forage mix consisting of ‘Cosaque’ oats (Avena strigose), ‘FL401’ cereal rye (Secale cereal), ‘AU Sunrise’ crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), and ‘T-raptor’ brassica (Brassica napus × B. rapa) and randomly allocated to be grazed through either mid-February (FEB), mid-March (MAR), or mid-April (APR) with an un-grazed control (CON). Three tester steers were randomly placed in each paddock with the exception of CON. Put and take steers were added to maintain a forage allowance of 1 kg DM / 1 kg BW. Differences in yield were detected between CON and FEB (P < 0.001), CON and MAR (P < 0.001), and CON and APR (P < 0.001). A difference in CP was detected between MAR and CON (P < 0.02). No differences in animal performance were detected, but multiple regression analysis results indicate that NDF has the greatest influence on ADG of all forage quality and stocking parameters. Results indicate that grazing of cool-season annual cover crops can reduce winter supplementation needs, may not be as advantageous when managed under continuous grazing for stocker cattle production. An additional study conducted at the Auburn University Ruminant Nutrition Laboratory evaluated the digestibility, VFA production, and CH4 production of cool-season cover crops harvested at the beginning of either January (JAN), February (FEB), March (MAR), or April (APR). The objective of this study was to determine if digestibility and subsequent products of digestion changed as forage physiology changes within a growing season. Samples were digested in vitro for either 2, 4, 8, 24, or 48 h. It was found that JAN harvested cover crops had greater IVDMD than FEB (P = 0.009), MAR (P = 0.008), and APR (P = 0.01) following 48 h digestion. No difference in total VFA production were present, but in was found that JAN harvested forages produced less CH4 than FEB (P = 0.01), MAR (P = 0.003), and APR (P = 0.01). Data from both studies indicate that cool-season annual cover crops can be a suitable grazing crop for beef cattle. Management of grazing in cover crops must be properly managed properly to maximize efficiency of the system, however.
In vitro digestibility of baleage Abstract (North Carolina Data):
This study evaluated ruminal in situ digestibility and nutritional value of monoculture cool-season annual grass baleage with and with-out combination silage inoculant in beef heifers. Four cool season annual grasses: rye (RY: Secale cereale ‘Wrens Abruzzi’), triticale (TR: Triticum secale ‘NCPT01-1433’), wheat (WT: Triticum aestivum ‘SRW8340 croplan’), annual ryegrass (AR: Lolium multiflorum ‘Jumbo’), were grown and ensiled in Waynesville, NC in cooperation with North Carolina State University. A grass/cereal silage combination inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium was applied to 50 % of the forages. Forage cut at flower stage of maturity was ensiled in laboratory mini silos for 296 ± 1 days before sampling and sending to Auburn University. Two cannulated beef heifers were used to conduct an in situ ruminal digestibility study in Auburn, Alabama at Auburn University. Forage samples were placed in each cow for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours to determine in situ digestibility. After removal, samples were analyzed for neutral detergent fiber using the Van Soest technique. Ruminal in situ digestion kinetics were statistically analyzed for forage species and inoculant status. Forage nutritive values were statistically analyzed for forage species and inoculant status. Overall, WT baleage had the greatest forage nutritive value and in situ digestibility in this study, and the nutritional value was satisfactory for a dry pregnant cow 60 days pre-calving. Rye baleage was not adequate to feed to cattle with-out supplementation. Annual ryegrass and TR maintained intermediate nutritional values throughout the study. Inoculation treatment had a greater effect on in situ digestibility fractions and mineral concentrations than non-inoculated forages. Non-inoculated forages had a greater effect on energy values and soluble carbohydrates than inoculated forages.
In vitro digestibility of Baleage (Auburn DATA):
In southeastern USA, the use of baleage has increased as an alternative technology to hay production, thereby allowing for a timelier harvest of the conserved forage. A series of studies were conducted to determine the nutritive value, fermentation parameters, and in situ disappearance of the cool-season annual forage mixtures that were ensiled with or without silage inoculant for up to 120 d. The forage mixtures were wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) + brassica hybrid (Brassica rapa L. × napus L.) (WB), wheat + crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) (WC), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) + oat (Avena sativa L.) + crimson clover (ROC). The inoculant strategy affected the CP concentration (p < 0.05), with it increasing in WB and decreasing in ROC. Among the mixtures, the DM concentration decreased by up to 5%, and the NDF and ADF concentrations decreased by up to 10% during the ensiling period. The pH averaged 5.0, 5.0, and 5.5 for the WC, WB, and ROC mixtures, respectively. Based on our results, the baleage of the cool-season annual forage mixtures may provide a viable high-quality option to sustain animal growth and performance.
- Peer-reviewed Research Articles:
- Shoup, S.L., R.B. Muntifering, M.K. Mullenix, L.S. Silva, S.L. Dillard. 2022. In situ ruminal digestion, fermentation parameters, and forage nutritive value of cool-season baleage ensiled under contrasting inoculant strategies. Animals. 12(21): 2929. Doi: 10.3390/ani12212929.
- Dillard, S.L., A. Rabinowitz, A.V. Gamble, D. Russell, J. Sawyer, K. Kesheimer, W.K. Kelley, M.K. Mullenix, S.L. Dillard, L.S. Silva, M. Runge, R. Prasad, and S. Rodning. Alabama Forage Guide. ANR-2845. In Press.
- Mullenix, K., S. Rodning, L. Kriese-Anderson, M. Elmore, B. Goodrich, S.L. Dillard, K. Kelly, M. Runge, A. Tigue, R. Prasad, and K. Stanford. 2018. Alabama Beef Handbook. ANR-1323. National NACAA Communications Award Winner.
- Peer-Reviewed Extension Articles:
- Boyd, B., P. Moss, and S.L. Dillard. 2021. Management and Care of the Dry Dairy Cow. Alabama Cooperative Extension. ANR-0289.
- Dillard, S.L., K. Mason, M.K. Mullenix, and D.M. Ball. 2019. Alabama Planting Guide for Forage Legumes- Revision. ANR-0150.
- Dillard, S.L., C. Chappell, and D.M. Ball. 2019. Alabama Planting Guide for Forage Grasses- Revision. ANR-0149.
- Shoup, S.L. 2019. In situ ruminal digestion, fermentation parameters, and forage nutritive value of cool-season baleage ensiled under contrasting inoculant strategies. M.S. Thesis. Auburn University, Auburn, AL.
- Carrell, R.C. 2022. Evaluation of Cover Crops as an Alternative Forage Source for Beef Cattle. Ph.D. Dissertation. Auburn University, Auburn, AL.
- Strain, K.N. 2022. In Situ Ruminal Digestion and Forage Nutritive Value of Cool Season Annual Grass Baleage. M.S. Thesis. Auburn University, Auburn, AL.
- National and regional popular press articles:
- Harmon, D.D. North Carolina visits Kansas: A trip to Cowtown and the American Forage and Grasslands Council’s 2022 Annual Conference. The Carolina Cattle Connection. 36(2):4-5.
- Harmon, D.D. Big year for NC at the American Forage and Grasslands Council’s 2020 annual conference. The Carolina Cattle Connection. 34(2): 2-3. February 2020.
- Harmon, D.D. The ultimate guide to current forage research in North Carolina. The Carolina Cattle Connection. 34(2): 8-9. February 2020.
- Dillard, S.L. and R.C. Carrell. 2022. Grazing Cover Crops. Alabama Cattleman’s Association Magazine, Jun.
- Horton, E. and S.L. Dillard. 2021. Minimize days on hay by maximizing winter forage. Gulf Coast Cattleman’s Magazine. Jun.
- Dillard, S.L. and K. Kesheimer. 2021. Challenges to establishing cool-season forages in 2021. Alabama Cattleman’s Association Magazine. Oct.
- Dillard, S.L. 2020. Brassicas for Fall Grazing. Carolina Cattleman Connection Magazine. Oct.
- Dillard, S.L. 2020. Are adding clover to food plots worth it? Buckmasters Magazine.
- Mills, B. and S.L. Dillard. Pasture Rx. Gulf Coast Cattleman’s Magazine. Interview.
- Shoup, S.L.* and S.L. Dillard. 2020. When should I consider making baleage? Carolina Cattleman Connection Magazine. Feb.
- Mullenix, M.K. and S.L. Dillard. 2020. Summer annual grasses for baleage production- planning now for quality forage this winter. Alabama Cattleman’s Association Magazine. Jul.
- Dillard, S.L. 2020. Is baleage right for me? Alabama Dairy Newsletter. April.
- Shoup, S.*, L. Dillard, K. Mullenix, and R. Muntifering. 2019. Fermentation characteristics of different cool-season annual mixtures with or without silage inoculant. ACES website.
- Dillard, L. 2019. When is it too late to seed cover crops?. Agfuse.com. Interview.
- Dillard, L. 2019. Benefits to cool-season annuals. Alabama Cattleman’s Association.
- Dillard, S.L. 2018. Late planting cool-season annuals. Alabama Cattleman’s Association Magazine. Dec.
- South, M., L.L Dillard, D.D. Harmon. 2022. Cool-season annual forage variety selection tool for the Southeastern United States. Anim. Sci. 100 (Suppl. 1):2-3.
- Henderson, E.G., K.P. Phipps, M.H. Poore, and D.D. Harmon. Utilizing cool-season annual grass and grass-legume mixtures for grazing and silage in Appalachia. 2022. Proceedings of the 2022 American Forage and Grasslands Council Annual Meeting.
- Henderson, E.G., D.D. Harmon, M.H. Poore, A.D. Shaeffer, J.R. Rogers and A. Franzluebbers. Utilizing cool-season annual grass and grass-legume mixtures for grazing and silage in Appalachia. Proceedings of the 2020 American Forage and Grasslands Council Annual Meeting.
- Carrell, R.C., S.L. Dillard, M.K. Mullenix, A.V. Gamble, and R.B. Muntifering. 2022. Grazing cover crops: effects of cattle removal date on forage production and cattle performance. Southern Section American Society of Animal Science. Fort Worth, TX.
- Carrell, R.C., S.L. Dillard, M.K. Mullenix, A.V. Gamble, and R.B. Muntifering. 2021. Grazing cover crops: effects of cattle removal date on forage production and cattle performance. American Society of Animal Science National Meeting. Louisville, KY.
- Carrell, R.C., M.K. Mullenix, A.V. Gamble, and S.L. Dillard. 2021. Forage and animal performance of steers grazing cover crops in a cotton-peanut rotation. Auburn University College of Agriculture Graduate Student Symposium and Competition. Auburn, AL.
- Carrell, R.C., M.K. Mullenix, R.B. Muntifering, A.V. Gamble, and S.L. Dillard. 2021. Impact of cattle removal date on animal and cover crop performance. American Forage and Grasslands Conference. Savannah, GA.
- Dillard, S.L., R.C. Carrell, M.K. Mullenix, A.V. Gamble, R.B. Muntifering, K.B. Mason, M.L. Marks, J.J. Tucker, C.G. Nichols, J. Yeagar, D.S. Miller, S.J. Thompson, A. Jacobson, M.L. Cole, and D.W. Held. 2020. Grazing and Forage Systems for Beef Cattle Production in Alabama: A Review of Current Research and Demonstration Activities in the Department of Animal Sciences at Auburn University. Auburn University Beef Cattle Conference. Auburn, AL.
- Carrell, R.C., A.V. Gamble, M.K. Mullenix, and S.L. Dillard. 2020. Grazing Cover Crops: Effects on Animal and Cover Crop Performance. American Forage and Grasslands Conference. Greenville, SC.
- Shoup, S.L., M.K. Mullenix, S.L. Dillard, and R.B. Muntifering. 2020. Fermentation kinetics of different cool-season annual mixtures with or without silage inoculant. Southern Section American Society of Animal Science Meeting. Chattanooga, TN.
- Carrell, R.C., S.L. Dillard, M.K. Mullenix, A.V. Gamble, and R.B. Muntifering. 2020. Effects of grazing cool-season cover crops on forage and animal performance. Southern Section American Society of Animal Science Meeting. Chattanooga, TN.
- Shoup, S.L., M.K. Mullenix, R. B. Muntifering, and S.L. Dillard. 2020. Fermentation characteristics of cool-season annual mixtures with or without silage inoculant. American Forage and Grasslands Conference. Greenville, SC.
- Shoup, S.L., R.B. Muntifering, M.K. Mullenix, and S.L. Dillard. 2019. Agronomic and nutritive value of cool-season annual mixtures for baleage production. University of West Alabama Research Symposium, Livingston, AL.
- Shoup, S.L., R.B. Muntifering, M.K. Mullenix, and S.L. Dillard. 2019. Fermentation characteristics of cool-season annual baleage. American Forage and Grasslands Conference. St. Louis, MO.
- Dillard, S.L., S.L. Shoup, R.B. Muntifering, and M.K. Mullenix. 2018. Agronomic and nutritive value of cool-season annual mixtures for baleage production. Auburn University Faculty Research Symposium.
- Shoup, S.L., S.L. Dillard, R.B. Muntifering, and M.K. Mullenix. 2018. Forage yield and quality of cool-season annual mixtures for baleage production in Alabama. Auburn University College of Agriculture Graduate Student Symposium and Competition. Auburn, AL.
- Shoup, S.L.*, M.K. Mullenix, R.B. Muntifering, and L. Dillard. 2018. Nutritive value of cool-season annuals for baleage production. Auburn University Beef Cattle Conference. Auburn, AL.
- Graduate Students
- Kathryn Strain. S. Student – December 2022
- Russell Carrell. D. Student – August 2022
- Kendra Phipps. S. Student – May 2021
- Ethan Henderson. M.A.S. Student – December 2021
- Sarah Shoup. M.S. Student – December 2019
- Undergraduate/Internship Research Mentor
- Charles Berry – Summer 2021 Forage Intern
Educational & Outreach Activities
- Extension Communications:
- Dillard, S.L. 2021. Extending winter grazing with cool-season annual mixtures.
- Dee, V. and S.L. Dillard. 2021. Preparing pastures for spring. Interview
- Dillard, S.L. 2020. 2020-2021 Small Grains Variety Recommendations.
- Shoup, S.L.*, M.K. Mullenix, R.B. Muntifering, and S.L. Dillard. 2019. Evaluation of cool-season annual baleage.
- Dillard, S.L., J. Elmore, and M. Griffin*. 2019. 2019-2020 Forage Small Grains Variety Recommendations.
- Dillard, S.L., K. Mullenix, J. Gladney, and S. Shoup. 2018. Producing and Feeding Baleage in Alabama. ANR-2511. Alabama NACAA Communications
- Extension Presentations
- Calibrating a sprayer and grain drill. Tri-County Hay Field Day. September 22, 2022. Attendance = 65.
- Winning with winter-annual forages. Stokes County Forage Walk. August 09, 2022. Attendance = 33.
- Beef and forage research programs in Animal Science at NC State. 2022 Southern Pasture and Forage Crop Improvement Conference. July 26, 2022. Attendance = 91.
- Forage research update. Mountain Research Station Field Day. July 21, 2022. Attendance = 104.
- Winter-annual forages. Regional Southern SARE Forage In-Service Agent Training. April 12, 2022. Attendance = 74.
- How you make and store your stored forages matters. Western NC BQA Training. March 04, 2022. Attendance = 41.
- The world of forages. Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College Agronomy Club Meeting. February 17, 2022. Attendance = 29.
- Beef and forage research update. Statesville Area Beef Conference. January 27, 2022. Attendance = 65.
- Winning with winter-annual forages. Yadkin County Cattlemen’s Meeting. September 07, 2021. Attendance = 29.
- The wild and wonderful world of cattle research and extension. Henderson County 4-H Ag Career Day. July 27, 2021. Attendance = 33.
- Making baleage the right way. Piedmont Hay and Baleage Field Day. April 22, 2021. Attendance = 20.
- Forage research update for new NC Cooperative Extension agents. February 18, 2021. Attendance = 11.
- Forage Research Update. February 10, 2021. WNC Livestock Agent Meeting. Attendance = 14.
- Backgrounding cattle on pasture. Southeast Cow-Calf Conference. November 12, 2020. Attendance = 38.
- How to utilize winter-annual forages in your beef herd. Have You Herd Webinar Series. September 15, 2020. Attendance = 19.
- Getting to the basics of stored forages. Biltmore Farms Training. September 02, 2020. Attendance = 12.
- How to calibrate a no-till drill. Tall Fescue Renovation Workshop-NC. March 12, 2020. Attendance = 34.
- NC forage and beef cattle research update. Shelby Area Beef Conference. February 19, 2020. Attendance = 43.
- NC forage and beef cattle research update. NC Forage and Grassland Council’s Winter Conference Series. January 21 – 23, 2020. Attendance = 165.
- NC forage research update. Statesville Area Beef Conference. January 09, 2020. Attendance = 89.
- How to calibrate a no-till drill. Improving Pastures Field Day. November 19, 2019. Attendance = 43.
- WNC research update. Beef Commission Steak Supper. November 07, 2019. Attendance = 49.
- Harvested and stored forages. Biltmore grazing school. October 25, 2019. Attendance = 10.
- Update on winter annual small plot study. OVT Whistle Stop Tour. May 13, 2019. Attendance 18.
- Calibrating a no-till seed drill. Alliance for Grassland Renewal NC Tall Fescue Workshop. March 12, 2019. Attendance 38.
- Annual forages. NC Cattlemen's Association Annual Meeting. February 23, 2019. Attendance 58.
- Amazing Grazing research and extension update. NC Forage and Grasslands Council Winter Conference Series. January 25, 2019. Attendance 49.
- Amazing Grazing research and extension update. NC Forage and Grasslands Council Winter Conference Series. January 24, 2019. Attendance 54.
- Amazing Grazing research and extension update. NC Forage and Grasslands Council Winter Conference Series. January 23, 2019. Attendance 75.
- Amazing Grazing research and extension update. NC Forage and Grasslands Council Winter Conference Series. January 22, 2019. Attendance 60.
- Livestock research update. Western District Ag Agents Training. January 17, 2019. Attendance 42.
- Dillard, S.L. and R.C. Carrell. 2022. Grazed Cover Crops. Wiregrass Research and Extension Center Beef and Forage Field Day. n = 68
- Dillard, S.L. 2022. Renovating with Grazed Cover Crops. Laurens, SC. n = 92. Invited Presentation.
- Dillard, S.L. 2022. Selecting Forage Species for Baleage Production. Wiregrass Baleage Workshop. n = 22.
- Dillard, S.L. 2021. Putting Into Practice: Hands on Demonstration. Moultrie, GA. n = 74. Invited Presentation.
- Dillard, S.L. 2021. Cover crops for cattle. Beef and Forage Field Day. Waverly, AL. n = 19.
- Dillard, S.L. 2021. Baleage production. Wiregrass Baleage Workshop. n = 18.
- Dillard, S.L. and R.C. Carrell. 2021. Taking your forages to the next level. Alabama Cattleman’s College. n = 105.
- Dillard, S.L. 2021. Baleage production. Extension agent In-service Training. North Carolina State University. n = 37. Invited Presentation.
- Dillard, S.L. 2021. Baleage production. Rockingham County Extension Meeting. North Carolina. n = 27. Invited Presentation.
- Dillard, S.L. 2021. Using cool-season annuals in bermudagrass hayfields: can it be done? Bermudagrass Hay Grower Summit. Virtual. n = 36.
- Dillard, S.L. and R.C. Carrell. 2020. 2020 Wiregrass Beef and Forage Field Day. Virtual. n = 443.
- Dillard, S.L. Alabama Forage Conference. 2019. Forage Hot Topics. Rogersville, AL. n = 105.
- Dillard, S.L. Alabama Forage Conference. 2019. Grazing cover crops. Rogersville, AL. n = 105.
- Shoup, S.L. and Dillard, S.L. 2019. Lee County Forage Field Day. Forage Species Selection. Auburn, AL. n = 25.
- Dillard, S.L. 2019. Women in Agriculture. Gulf Coast Research and Extension Center. Implementing a Grazing Management Strategy. Fairhope, AL. n = 16.
- Dillard, S.L. 2018. Baleage production tips and tricks. North Carolina State AREA Beef Conference. Waynesville, NC. December 7. n = 76. Invited Presentation.