Integration of Freshwater Prawn Nursery and Growout Systems Into Diversified Farm Systems

Final Report for LS97-089

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 1997: $155,197.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2000
Matching Non-Federal Funds: $162,728.00
Region: Southern
State: Kentucky
Principal Investigator:
James H. Tidwell
Kentucky State University
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Project Information

Abstract:

The U.S. had a trade deficit of over $3 billion in shrimp products in 1999. A series of studies has shown inland production of freshwater prawns to be feasible and profitable. Adding substrate to the ponds, and improved feed and feeding has increased production rates over 170% during the grant period. Since the initiation of this project over 100 acres of production in four states has been initiated with rapid expansion expected. Budgets developed as part of the project indicate the net profits in excess of $2,000 per acre are possible. Regional nurseries appear profitable and are needed to provide seedstock.

The U.S. imports in excess of $3.0 billion in shrimp products each year. This figure is expected to continue to increase. To address this demand, the culture of a freshwater prawns is being evaluated. Despite obvious economic incentives, shrimp farming in the U.S. has never developed substantially, largely due to requirements that farms be located in coastal regions where wetlands protection laws and competition from recreational uses make land costs prohibitive. Also, production methods for marine shrimp have not been sustainable and water quality and disease problems have decimated production.

Recent research on the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (known as prawns) has found that they grow well at lower temperatures than previously thought. In fact, regional temperatures actually provide a production advantage by delaying sexual maturation and the slowing of growth associated with it. Freshwater prawns can be raised in inland ponds, are self-limiting in their production (lbs/acre) so that a sustainable production level is maintained, and are not susceptible to the devastating marine shrimp diseases.

Freshwater shrimp also lend themselves to utilization of small ponds and integrate well into diversified operations and schedules of full and part-time farmers. Funding of this grant made possible the development of greenhouse nursery capabilities, commercial adoption and utilization of local by-products and indigenous forage species as feed, and integration with finfish and hydroponic vegetable production. Also, integration and diversification of pond growout through polyculture with finfish species, and development of seasonal rotation utilizing coldwater species, and evaluation of innovative marketing channels and techniques.

Promising results have been disseminated by a series of training sessions and farm field days for pond procedures and are being utilized by commercial growers. Appropriate data has been published in refereed journals. Marketing and processing information has been disseminated through fact sheets, research bulletins, and the internet. The research funded by this grant has stimulated an increase in commercial production and the new techniques are being utilized by a number of farmers.

Project Objectives:

1. Determine whether indigenous zooplankton and distillery by-products hold potential as supplemental diets in prawn nursery tanks.

2. Evaluate the integration of hydroponic vegetable production with prawns during the nursery phase, and growth of finfish species in those nursery tanks after prawns are stocked into ponds.

3. Evaluate the biological and economic viability of pond polyculture of freshwater prawns with tilapia in cages, yellow perch in cages, and winter rotation of rainbow trout.

4. To determine the effects of freshwater shrimp stocking density and pond habitat structures on average harvest size, total production of shrimp, and the availability of natural foods under coolwater conditions.

5. Evaluate the economics of production and marketing of freshwater shrimp, including the influence of various intercropping strategies and local breeding stock facilities.

6. Evaluate different marketing strategies, market potentials, and distribution strategies and methods for different product forms (live, fresh, and frozen).

Introduction:

Import sales of shrimp have grown dramatically in the U.S. over the last five years, increasing from $1.8 billion in 1991 to almost $2.6 billion in 1995. Thailand, the leading source for imported product, more than doubled the value of their U.S. sales during that period. (U.S. Bureau of the Census Trade Data, October 1996.) Recent research has greatly enhanced the potential of inland production of shrimp utilizing the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (D’Abramo et al. 1995; Tidwell et al. 1994; Tidwell et al. in pressb).

For the past five years Kentucky State University’s Aquaculture Research Center has conducted a series of studies on the evaluation and development of practical diets and culture procedures for freshwater shrimp raised under Kentucky Conditions. Studies have shown that by-products from the state’s many distilleries represent a high quality protein source (28% crude protein) which closely matches the nutritional needs of pond-raised shrimp (Coyle et al. 1996, Tidwell et al. in pressb). One study found that shrimp growth in ponds could be improved 148% (from 370 to 920 lbs/acre) by spreading unpelleted distillers grain on the ponds (Tidwell et al. in pressb). Findings also indicate that even when fed, shrimp may receive as much as one third of their nutrition from natural pond organisms. Efficient use of natural foods could improve production efficiency, profitability, and sustainability by moving away from the feed-lot approach to aquaculture. Recent marketing studies indicate that smaller target sizes (20 g) may be more desirable and profitable for a tail market than the 35 g average shrimp currently produced. Higher stocking rates and alternative culture methods were evaluated as means to increase the per unit production (lbs/acre) of 20-30 g shrimp.

During 1995, a series of field trials from ponds in Covington, Morehead, Berea, Bowling Green, Central City, and Island, Kentucky were also completed. All cooperators indicated that the management schedule for the prawn was amenable to both full-time and part-time farm schedules. All also indicated they would be willing to cooperate further and that freshwater prawn production justified further efforts and consideration as a supplemental crop in Kentucky.

Based on the five years of research at KSU’s Aquaculture Research Center, and the 1995 field projects, several areas important to the long-term viability of the freshwater prawn production have become evident. These include: (1) dependable availability of high quality seedstock, (2) optimum utilization of prawn hatchery/nursery facilities, and (3) optimum utilization of pond growout facilities, and (4) complimentary utilization of by-products and waste products, and (5) producer based marketing strategies for fresh and even live product.

The production concepts were designed to be sustainable and environmentally low impact by maximizing the contribution of natural foods and reducing the need for prepared diets. They emphasize a holistic approach by utilizing and integrating multiple crops, such as through polyculture and seasonal crop rotations. The application and utilization of natural biological and geochemical cycles to increase production efficiency and enhance water quality through aquacultural/hydroponics integration is also emphasized. Recent marketing experiences among producers suggests significant market opportunities with local distribution.

Restaurant buyers have expressed an interest in extending the period of freshly harvested deliveries, which would require improved coordination among the producers. Marketing the prawns in live tanks also appears to have some potential. Successful trials have been employed with local retail supermarkets. Interest in this form of delivery were explored with selected ethnic populations that have demonstrated a preference for live seafood. Shrimp production budgets developed over the past three years show strong potential for increasing the economic viability of small farmers and daily management fits well into the daily operation of integrated or part-time farms. This should help to strengthen the family farm system by offering a new crop option, increasing diversification, and decreasing the local dependence on one crop, tobacco.

Objective 1. The ability of prawns larger than larvae to utilize zooplankton has been difficult to assess, due to difficulties in identifying stomach contents of crustacea (Brown et al. 1992). Brown et al. (1992) demonstrated that third instar red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, fed zooplankton alone or in combination with other food items grew at higher rates than crayfish fed other foods. Huner and Naqvi (1984) reported that juvenile and adult Procambarus spp. were able to consume zooplankton. Mitchell and Collins (1989) reported that Daphnia were nutritionally important to juvenile yabbie, Cherax destructor albidus. Hird et al. (1986) suggested that cannibalism (the primary cause of mortality in prawn nurseries) in crustaceans may be a method of satisfying the dietary need for arginine. According to Ivleva (1969) Daphnia are a rich source of arginine (10.92%). Also, zooplankton remain nutritionally intact for a long period of time while prepared diets may leach nutrients and break down more rapidly. This is important for slow feeders such as prawn. In research at KSU, Coyle et al. (1996) found that prawns fed live zooplankton, primarily Daphnia, produced higher growth rates than those fed other natural foods or a prepared, pelleted diet. The addition of live Daphnia to prawn nursery tanks was evaluated as a means of increasing prawn growth and survival.

Objective 2. The stress and expense of hauling stocker size juvenile prawns long distances suggest a need for nursery facilities. In areas, such as Kentucky, where the growing season is climatically restricted, intensive nursery systems may be a prerequisite for viable commercial production (Sandifer and Smith 1977). Since the nursery phase under these conditions occurs in winter and spring, recirculating systems are recommended to conserve water and heat (D’Abramo et al. 1993). In recirculating aquaculture systems non-toxic nutrients and organic matter accumulates which can be channeled into secondary crops that have economic value (Rakocy et al. 1992). These are known as integrated systems and can be used for hydroponic culture of high value cash crops. Integrated production continues to expand, particularly in cool climates, where greenhouse production can provide year-round sustained yields of fresh produce (Sweig 1988). Water quality for the main aquatic crop is also improved. Rakocy (1989) reported that in Tilapia production and feed conversion were improved by integration with hydroponics. Also, hydroponic production can be used as a method to treat aquaculture effluents and reduce environmental impact (Adler et al. 1996). Vegetable crops which have been raised successfully in integrated systems include tomatoes, chinese cabbage, lettuce (Rakocy et al. 1989), cucumbers (Zweig 1986), sweet basil (Rakocy 1992), and strawberries (Adler et al. 1996). Integration of hydroponics into a greenhouse nursery system for freshwater prawns was investigated as a method of diversifying production, increasing income, and reducing effluents.

Objective 3. Prawns are suitable candidates for commercial polyculture (New 1990). They have been experimentally reared with mullet (Martinez-Silva et al. 1981), catfish (Heinen et al. 1989), Tilapia (Mires 1987), baitfish (Perry and Tarver 1987), and carps (Lia and Chao 1982). Prawn polyculture has a potentially higher net return than prawn monoculture (Rouse and Stickney 1982). Some polyculture experiments indicate that the growth and survival of fish and prawns are independent (Wohlfarth et al. 1985) so that their production would be additive, increasing total pond production. Tidwell et al (in press) found that using only unpelleted distillery by-products prawn production > 1,200 kg/ha was possible. These by-products are approximately 28-30% protein (Lovell 1989) closely matching the protein requirements of prawn (25-35%) (New 1995) and Tilapia (25-35%) (Lovell 1989). Also, Tidwell and Mims (1990) and Tidwell et al. (1991) found that rainbow trout could be grown to market sizes in the winter period when catfish ponds (a prawn ponds) may lie fallow. Polyculture, seasonal rotation, and use of by-products as feed were evaluated as a means of increasing pond efficiencies.

Objective 4. Freshwater prawn production is limited by the two dimensional space available to the individual prawns. Sandifer and Smith (1978) demonstrated that by providing artificial structure the entire water column of a nursery tank could be utilized. Cohen et al. (1983) found that artificial submerged substrates in ponds increased total marketable yield by 14%, but that survival and marketable proportion were unaffected. Ra’anan et al. (1984) reported that in intensive systems with aeration and high stocking densities net substrates markedly increased both overall, and marketable, percentages. New (1990) stated that further work was needed to elucidate the value of artificial substrates for prawns. The effect of different types and amounts of structure at different prawn stocking densities were evaluated.

Objective 5. There have been relatively few economic evaluations of freshwater prawn growout systems (New 1995). Falguierre et al. (1991) reviewed several management and cropping systems in bioeconomic terms and concluded there was no one best system, but that each system depended on its local economic context. There are conflicting reports on the cost effectiveness of producing seedstock locally. Smith et al. (1981) stated that purchasing post-larvae from commercial hatcheries, then nursing to juveniles locally, would be the most cost method of securing seedstock. However, Fuller et al. (1992) reported that the cost of producing seedstock was 60-80% less than commercial prices for post-larvae. Tidwell et al. (in press) reported net returns in this region of $5,300/acre at a selling price of $7/lb. D’Abramo et al. (1991) indicated that marketing and selling price had stronger effects on profitability than feed and seed costs. Liao and Smith (1982) found that direct marketing to consumers was the most profitable marketing method due to reduction in processing, packaging, storage, and transportation cost. Factors such as management strategies, seedstock strategies, and market development strategies most ideally suited for economic profitability in this region were determined so as to be able to identify break-even costs of the enterprises over a range of different production schemes and market scenarios.

Objective 6. Demographic characteristics of the region were employed to determine location and characteristics of specific ethnic groups which were targeted as niche markets (D’Abramo et al. 1991). Between 1980 and 1990 the Asian population in the U.S. increased 97% (USDC 1990). Kentucky recently welcomed its 200th Japanese company to begin doing business here. With an understanding of their needs, taste, and product preferences management strategies were designed to provide desired sizes and product forms (D’Abramo et al. 1991). There also appears to be increasing potential for the export of freshwater prawns (New 1995). Freshwater prawns generally have distinct markets from marine shrimp and most find the taste and texture of freshwater prawns superior (New 1995). Producers in Kentucky have already addressed export markets with one producer selling his entire production to a broker in Toronto, who markets them live to ethnic markets. In the U.S. mainland prawns are being marketed to upper-scale restaurants in Chicago and other major cities in a market niche quite separate from marine shrimp (New 1995). Chauvin (1992) expects the U.S. market for prawns did continue toward the usage of larger tails in the frozen market segment. However, LaCroix (1991) found that profitability depended on active promotion and buyer information on product identify and origin. The sizes, forms, and approximate annual demand for product was evaluated.

Research

Materials and methods:

Objective 1. The potential benefit of maintaining indigenous Daphnia spp. as live forage in shrimp nursery tanks were evaluated. Post-larvae were stocked in nine 1,600-l tanks at 5 postlarvae/l (D’Abramo et al. 1995). Shrimp in four tanks were fed a commercial trout diet (Treatment 1) according to a schedule presented by D’Abramo et al. (1995). This treatment did serve as the control. In Treatment 2, procedures identical to control tanks were followed, but live Daphnia were maintained at a daily concentration of 5 organisms/ml. For Treatment 3, Daphnia were maintained at a density of 5/ml, and distillers dried grains with solubles were fed at a rate isonitrogenous with the feeding of Treatment 1.

After 60 days, juvenile shrimp were harvested, counted, and weighed in each tank. Treatments were compared in terms of growth and survival using ANOVA procedures (Statistix 1994) with means separation by LSD (Steele and Torrie, 1980). Research results were tested by Bluegrass Shrimp Farm to determine the best procedures for their nursery the following year.

Objective 2. The effects of stocking density of juvenile shrimp in nursery tanks on growth of shrimp and hydroponically grown lettuce were evaluated. Post-larval (PL) shrimp were stocked into nine identical 340-l round polyethylene tanks at 0 (control), 5, and 10 post-larvae per liter with each density replicated in three tanks. Shrimp were fed a commercial trout diet according to rates and schedules presented by D’Abramo et al. (1995). Each culture tank did have connected with it a deep flowing channel hydroponic culture unit consisting of a 1.4 m x 0.7 m x 0.3 m polythene tank as described by Rakocy et al. (1992). Each hydroponic unit were stocked with 45 Summer Bibb lettuce seedlings supported in polystyrene sheets (Rakocy et al. 1992). Lettuce were harvested and new seedlings started every three weeks. Total duration of the experiment were nine weeks. Treatments were evaluated in terms of shrimp growth and survival, and lettuce survival and production (kg/m2) using ANOVA with means separation by LSD (Steel and Torrie 1980). Lettuce quality in the three treatments were judged and compared by a cooperating produce marketer as to their relative qualities and marketability.

After the shrimp nursery phase was completed, nursery tanks were stocked with Tilapia nilotica fingerlings, weighing approximately 20g, at 500, 1000, and 2000/m3 and fed 36% protein floating catfish pellets at rates of 4-7% of total bodyweight based on response. The associated hydroponic culture units described previously were stocked with sweet basil at the same rates as state previously for lettuce. Treatments were evaluated in terms of fish growth, survival and feed conversion and basil survival and production (kg/m2) using ANOVA procedures with means separation by LSD (Steel and Torrie 1980).

Objective 3. The studies under Objective 3 did evaluate polyculture and seasonal crop rotation, and were conducted in cooperator ponds. The first study utilized a 0.2-ha prawn pond production owned by Ms. Susan Harkins and evaluated the potential use of locally available distillery by-products in diets of Tilapia raised in cages suspended in prawn production ponds. Tilapia were stocked into nine 1-cubic meter cages at 200 fish/cubic meter. Each cage was equipped with a demand feeder as described by McGinty and Rakocy (1989). In three cages the fish were fed unpelleted distiller’s dried grains (DDGS) with solubles (28% protein), in three cages steam pelleted DDGS, and in three cages fish were fed a 28% protein commercial catfish diet as a control. Feeder capacity were adjusted so that total pond input did not exceed 85 kg/ha, to prevent water quality degradation. Shrimp in the pond were stocked at 40,000/ha and initially received no additional feed input based on nutrient inputs from feeding the fish. After reaching 20 g, shrimp were fed a custom formulated 32% protein shrimp diet containing 40% DDGS (Tidwell et al. 1993b) at 28 kg/ha. Treatments were compared on the basis of weight gain, survival, and feed conversion of shrimp and fish using ANOVA procedures with means separation by LSD (Steel and Torrie 1980).

The second study utilized a 0.2-ha shrimp production pond owned by Mark and Carolyn Straw of Straw Hill Farm. Procedures were similar to the previous study except that yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were evaluated at three cage densities (100, 200, and 400/m3). Perch in all cages were fed a 38% protein hybrid striped bass diet to satiation twice daily. Analyses were as described for the previous study.

Approximately one month after shrimp harvest, ponds at both locations were stocked with rainbow trout at 5,000/ha (Tidwell and Mims 1990). Trout were fed according to procedures in Tidwell, et al. (1991) with harvest in mid-April. Resulting trout were utilized to assess marketing of fresh whole product directly to local consumers.

Objective 4. Four 0.12-ha ponds located at Bluegrass Shrimp Co. were prepared and managed according to Tidwell et al. (1993a). Post-larval shrimp were shipped by air from a commercial hatchery during April and nursed in on-site nursery facilities to a weight of approximately 0.5-g by early June. Shrimp were stocked into two replicate ponds at a density of 60,000/ha. Two additional ponds were stocked at 60,000/ha, but provided with PVC net habitat structures to increase available surface area in the ponds by approximately 50%. Monthly, shrimp in each pond were sampled by seine. Population densities of macrobenthos, which serve as natural forage for shrimp (Tidwell et al. 1995), were sampled monthly using an Ekman dredge and two standard net sweeps of shallow edges. Organisms retained by a #30 U.S. series sieve were stored in 10% formalin for subsequent identification and enumeration as described by Tidwell et al. (1995). Harvest procedures were as outlined in Tidwell et al. (1993b). A total of 200 shrimp per pond were individually weighed and morphotyped. Shrimp production, shrimp population characteristics, and macroinvertebrates populations in the two treatments were evaluated using Student’s t-test (Steel and Torrie 1980).

Objective 5. Production cost considerations were examined along a number of input and market development strategies. Emphasis were on shrimp production, but the study did also emphasize identifying environmentally and economically sound aquaculture systems. Partial enterprise budgets were constructed based on the historical costs observed at 6 commercial sites in the state as well as utilizing economic engineering methods (Boelje and Eidman 1984). These were used as the basis for a break-even analysis under different production and market scenarios. Establishment costs, operating costs and revenues, and salvage value were estimated in order to estimate an internal rate of return for the investment under different conditions (Robinson and Barry 1996). A benefit/cost ratio was estimated for shipping live product (air and truck) to selected markets.

Objective 6. A consumer potential test market study did focus on estimating consumer demand for freshwater shrimp within selected populations (such as ethnic Asians). The market evaluation did focus on estimating quantity demanded and willingness-to-pay among principal potential purchases of the prawns from the farmers. Ethnic foodstores in Lexington, KY, Louisville, KY, and Cincinnati, OH were approached through a personal survey. Chefs (or the principle purchasing agent) from a sample of white tablecloth restaurants within these areas were surveyed. Finally, a sample of seafood department managers for retail foodstores were surveyed. Relative preferences for live, fresh, and frozen product were elicited from each buyer group.

Two consumer focus panels were organized to investigate qualitative preferences for live, fresh, and frozen product. Product in each form were presented to the panel in a simulation of how they would expect to find it at their point of purchase. Individual and then group evaluation of the product were assessed with a view toward informing the farmers’ decision making with respect to marketing. One panel were designed to represent local ethnically Asian consumers, the other representing a cross section of all consumers.

Research results and discussion:

Objective 1. Determine whether indigenous zooplankton have potential as supplemental food in prawn nursery tanks. This study was conducted in 20 L aquaria where post-larval prawns were fed supplemental (to a prepared diet) indigenous zooplankton at maintained densities of either 25 or 50/L. Results indicated increased growth in the treatment receiving zooplankton at the high density (50/L). This manuscript is in preparation.

Objective 2. Evaluate the integration of hydroponic vegetable production with prawns during the nursery phase, and growth of tilapia species with Echinacea after prawns are transferred into ponds. Trials were conducted using bibb lettuce and sweet basil. Prawns were evaluated at 0, 5 and 10/L. Vegetables grew significantly larger with prawns stocked at 10/L. Sweet basil had improved growth compared to bibb lettuce due to greater heat tolerance. Echinacea growth was greater at a tilapia stocking density of 16 fish/ft3, compared to 8 fish/ft3. These data were published in the Kentucky Fish Farming Newsletter.

Objective 3. Evaluate the biologic and economic viability of pond polyculture of freshwater prawns with tilapia in cages, yellow perch in cages, and winter rotation of brook trout in commercial ponds. Tilapia were stocked into 9 cages in a prawn pond and fed one of three diets: unpelleted distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), steam pelleted DDGS or a commercial catfish diet. The commercial catfish diet resulted in improved growth; however, both DDGS diets provided more economical growth due to a 60% reduction in feed costs. For yellow perch average weight and percentage of fish reaching market size was higher for fish stocked at 320 fish/m3 than for fish stocked at 80 fish/m3. Brook trout fingerlings (35g) were stocked at 4,000 fish/acre in November and harvested in April at 3/4 lb. Total production was approximately 2,000 lbs./acre. Each of these trials were successful in increasing pond efficiencies. Polyculture and crop rotation provide prawn producers a way to diversify and intensify pond production.

Objective 4. Determine the effects and interactions of prawn stocking rates and added substrate on prawn production. Prawns were stocked at two densities, 24,000/acre or 48,000/acre, with or without substrate (80% increase in surface area). Compared to previous recommended culture practices (16,000/acre without substrate), increasing stocking rates to 24,000 with added substrate increased production 38%, feed conversion efficiency 25%, the number of harvestable shrimp (> 20 g) by 47%, and premium shrimp (> 30 g) by 41%. Paper accepted for publication, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. Field trials of this research at Bluegrass Shrimp Farm yielded 964 lbs/acre in ponds without substrate and 1,672 lbs./acre with substrate.

Objective 5. Evaluate the economics of production of freshwater shrimp. Dr. Timothy Woods has now completed the report: “Kentucky Freshwater Shrimp: Production Economics and Market Development Strategies” (enclosed). Freshwater shrimp appears to offer potential as a viable enterprise in Kentucky. Successful production systems have been established on 20 farms around the state. Enterprise budgets suggest net profits can be reasonably expected to reach $2,600 per pond acre.

Objective 6. Evaluate different marketing strategies, market potentials, and distribution strategies and methods for different product forms (live, fresh, frozen). Also contained in Dr. Woods report. Consumer research has indicated strong receptivity to the product.

Participation Summary

Educational & Outreach Activities

Participation Summary:

Education/outreach description:
Publications

Tidwell, J.H., Coyle, S.D., and Schulmeister, W.G. 1998. Effects of added substrate and increased stocking density on the production and population structure of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 29:17-22.

Tidwell, J.H., Coyle, S.D., Weibel, C., and Evans, J. 1999. Effects and interactions of
stocking density and added substrate on production and population structure of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 30:174-179.

Coyle, S.D., and J.H. Tidwell. 1999. Production characteristics of rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, under seasonal pond conditions. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 9(3):47-56.

Coyle, S.D., J.H., Tidwell, A., VanArnum, and C. Weibel, 1999. Evaluation of the suitability of
Orthocyclops modestus as a replacement for Artemia in the diets of intensively reared larval freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Kentucky Academy of Science, Annual Meeting. Agricultural Science Section Abstracts.

Tidwell, J.H., Coyle, S., Weibel, C., and Evans, J. 1999. Effects and interactions of stocking density and added substrate on production and population structure of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii. World Aquaculture ‘99. Book of Abstracts: 767.

Tidwell, J.H., S., Coyle, C.,Weibel, and J. Evans. 1999. Effects and interactions of stocking density and added substrate on production and population structure of freshwater prawns. Aquaculture America ‘99. Book of Abstracts: 195.

Tidwell, J.H. 1999. Interest growing in freshwater prawn production in Kentucky. Aquaculture News 8(2):10-11.

Tidwell, J.H., Coyle, S., Weibel, C., and Evans, J. 1999. Effects and interactions of stocking
density and added substrate on production and population structure of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, Vol. 30(2):174-179.

Tidwell, J., Coyle, S., Van Arnum, A., and Weibel, C. 1999. Addition of artificial prawn production ponds. Kentucky Fish Farming Newsletter, Vol. 12(1).

Coyle, S., Straw, M., Orr., Van Arnum, A., Weibel, C., and Tidwell, J. 1999. The effect of
stocking density on growth and feed conversion of yellow perch reared in cages in polyculture with freshwater prawns. Kentucky Fish Farming Newsletter, Vol. 12(1).

Tidwell, J.H., Coyle, S.D., and Van Arnum, A.T.* 1999. Winter production of rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook char (Salveliuus fontinalis) in Kentucky. A comparison of growth rates. Abstracts of Mid-Year Technical Meeting of the Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society.

Tidwell, J.H. 2000. Culture of Macrobrachium in temperature climates. Aquaculture America
Book of Abstracts. Pg 326.

Tidwell, J.H., S.D. Coyle, A. Van Arnum, and C. Weibel. 2000. Response of freshwater prawns
to different amounts and orientations of artificial substrate. Aquaculture America Book of
Abstracts. Pg 327.

Tidwell, J.T., S.D. Coyle, A.VanArnum, C. Weibel, and S.Harkins, 2000. Growth, survival, and body composition of cage-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed pelleted and unpelleted distillers grains with solubles in polyculture with freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society.

Tidwell, J.T., C. Weibel, S.D. Coyle, and A. VanArnum. 2000. Response of Freshwater Prawns to Artificial Substrate in the Form of Plastic Mesh. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress for Plastics in Agriculture and the 29th National Agricultural Plastics Congress. The Pennsyvania State University, Hershey, PA., Page 82.

Vitatoe, L.A., A. VanArnum, S. Coyle, and J. Tidwell. 2000. Relative effectiveness of plant and animal source oils for control of air breathing insects. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21. Agricultural Science Section Abstracts.

Coyle, S.D., J.H. Tidwell, A. VanArnum, C. Weibel and A. Schuester. 2000. Suitability of the copepod Orthocyclops modestus as a live food for larval freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21. Agricultural Science Section Abstracts.

Lemon, M., S.D. Coyle, J.H. Tidwell, A. VanArnum, and C. Weibel. 2000. Growth, survival, and body composition of cage-culture nile tilapia, Oreochromis nilotica, fed pelleted and unpelleted distillers grains with solubles in polyculture with freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21.

Weibel, C., Coyle, S.D., J.H. Tidwell, and A. VanArnum. 2000. The effect of transport density on survival of juvenile freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21. Agricultural Science Section Abstracts.

VanArnum, A., S. Bale, J. H. Tidwell, S. Coyle, and C. Weibel. 2000. The integration of hydroponic vegetable production with nursery production of juvenile freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, stocked at two densities. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21. Agricultural Science Section Abstracts.

Johnson, S., B. Wang, C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and J. Tidwell. 2000. The texture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under refrigerated and frozen storage in relation to rigor mortis. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21. Agricultural Science Section Abstracts.

Tidwell, J.H. and L.D. D’Abramo. In press. Grow-out systems – culture in temperate zones. In Freshwater Prawn Farming: The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Ed. M.B. New and W.C. Valenti). Blackwell Scientific. Oxford.

Education and Outreach

Tidwell, J.H., Coyle, S., Weibel, C., and Evans, J. 1999. Effects and interactions of stocking
density and added substrate on production and population structure of freshwater prawns. Aquaculture America ‘99. Tampa, FL. January 28.

Tidwell, J.H. 1999. Freshwater Shrimp. Invited presentation in the special session. Successful
Production Practices in Aquaculture: A Multi-Species Review. Sponsored by the National Aquaculture Association. Aquaculture America ‘99. Tampa, FL. January 30.

Tidwell, J.H. 1999. Production of freshwater shrimp in temperate climates. Invited presentation to the North Central Region Aquaculture Conference. Columbia, MO. February 25.

Tidwell, J.H., Coyle, S.D., and Van Arnum, A.T.* 1999. Winter production of rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook char (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Kentucky. A comparison of growth rates. Mid-Year Technical Meeting of the Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society. Chattanooga, TN. February 26.

VanArnum, A., J. Tidwell, S. Coyle, and C. Weibel. 1999. Effect of transport density on
survival of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Kentucky Academy of Science, Annual Meeting, Agriculture Science Section, November 5.

Vitatoe, L., A. Vanarnum, S.D. Coyle, and J.H. Tidwell. 1999. Relative effectiveness of plant
and animal source oils for use in eradicating predaceous air breathing insects. Kentucky Academy of Science, Annual Meeting, Agriculture Science Section, November 5.

Tidwell, J.H., S.D. Coyle, and A.T. Van Arnum. 1999. Winter production of rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook char (Salveliuus fontinalis) in Kentucky. A comparison of growth rates. Mid-Year Technical Meeting of the Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society. Chattanooga, TN. February 26.

Coyle, S.D., J.H., Tidwell, A., VanArnum, and C. Weibel, 1999. Evaluation of the suitability of
Orthocyclops modestus as a replacement for Artemia in the diets of intensively reared larval freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Kentucky Academy of Science, Annual Meeting. Agricultural Science Section Abstracts.

Tidwell, J.H., Coyle, S., Weibel, C., and Evans, J. 1999. Effects and interactions of stocking density and added substrate on production and population structure of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii. World Aquaculture ‘99. Book of Abstracts: 767.

Tidwell, J.H. 1999. Production of freshwater shrimp in temperate climates. Invited presentation to the North Central Region Aquaculture Conference. Columbia, MO. February 25.

Tidwell, J.H. 1999. Freshwater prawn culture in Kentucky. Kentucky State University Farm
Field Day. September 16.

Coyle, S.D. 1999. Hydroponics/Aquaponics in the classroom. 1999 Vocational Agriculture
Teachers – Aquaculture Training. Kentucky State University Aquaculture Research Center. July 6.

Van Arnum, A. 1999. Procedures for freshwater shrimp production. Woodford County Farm
Field Day. Henton Farm. July 26, 1999.

Aje, B. 2000. Effects of added substrate on social structure of freshwater prawns. Biology
Seminar Series. Kentucky State University. March 3.

Tidwell, J.H. 2000. Freshwater shrimp production. Breckinridge County Cooperative
Extension. March 7.

Tidwell, J.H. 2000. Culture of Macrobrachium in temperature climates. Aquaculture America 2000. February 2-5.

Tidwell, J.H. 2000. Production of freshwater shrimp in Kentucky. Kentucky State
University/Kentucky Aquaculture Association Annual Conference. March 10.

Vitatoe, L.A., A. VanArnum, S. Coyle, and J. Tidwell. 2000. Relative effectiveness of plant and animal source oils for control of air breathing insects. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21.

Coyle, S.D., J.H. Tidwell, A. VanArnum, C. Weibel and A. Schuester. 2000. Suitability of the copepod Orthocyclops modestus as a live food for larval freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21.

Lemon, M., S.D. Coyle, J.H. Tidwell, A. VanArnum, and C. Weibel. 2000. Growth, survival, and body composition of cage-culture nile tilapia, Oreochromis nilotica, fed pelleted and unpelleted distillers grains with solubles in polyculture with freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21.

Coyle, S.D., J.H. Tidwell, and C.D. Webster. 2000. Response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) to dietary supplementation of the amino acids lysine and methionine and highly unsaturated fatty acids under controlled conditions. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21.

Weibel, C., Coyle, S.D., J.H. Tidwell, and A. VanArnum. 2000. The effect of transport density on survival of juvenile freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21.

Weibel, C., J. Tidwell, S. Coyle, and A. VanArnum. 2000. The effect of water temperature on the survival of adult freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, held in tanks. Kentucky Academy of Science.

VanArnum, A., S. Bale, J. H. Tidwell, S. Coyle, and C. Weibel. 2000. The integration of hydroponic vegetable production with nursery production of juvenile freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, stocked at two densities. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21.

Johnson, S., B. Wang, C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and J. Tidwell. 2000. The texture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under refrigerated and frozen storage in relation to rigor mortis. Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium, April 19-21.

Tidwell, J.H. 2000. Culture of Macrobrachium in temperature climates. Aquaculture 2000. May 2-6.

Tidwell, J.H., S.D. Coyle, A. Van Arnum, and C. Weibel. 2000. Response of freshwater prawns
to different amounts and orientations of artificial substrate. Aquaculture 2000. May 2-6.

Tidwell, J.H. Freshwater Shrimp. Kentucky State University Farm Field Day. June 15.

Awards

Aaron VanArnum was awarded first place in the New and Enabling Technologies division student competition at Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium. The integration of hydroponic vegetable production with nursery production of juvenile freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, stocked at two densities.

Charles Weibel was awarded second place in the Poster Section student competition at Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium. The effect of transport density on survival of juvenile freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

Monique Lemon was awarded second place in the Small Farms and Rural Development section student competition at Association of Research Directors, Inc., 12th Biennial Research Symposium. Growth, survival, and body composition of cage-culture nile tilapia, Oreochromis nilotica, fed pelleted and unpelleted distillers grains with solubles in polyculture with freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

Cooperative Efforts

This project was the catalyst for an extremely productive effort between Kentucky State University’s Aquaculture program and Dr. Tim Woods, Agricultural Economist at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Woods economic analysis and marketing studies are a large and essential part of the production of prawns actually being adopted by a large number of farmers in the region. Other important cooperative efforts include working with KSU entomologist to evaluate the utilization of natural foods by prawns. Cooperation with KSU extension specialists and especially private producers were essential to project success.

Project Outcomes

Project outcomes:

Research is not completed until the information generated is disseminated. As a direct result of these studies there are approximately 100 producers involved in prawn production in Kentucky, Georgia, Tennessee, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Arkansas. It is apparent that this production is continuing to increase rapidly. The research needs now shift from growout methodologies to seedstock production, processing, transport, and marketing information.

Recommendations:

Areas needing additional study

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.