Missouri 2019-20 SARE State Plan of Work

Final report for NCMO19-001

Project Type: PDP State Program
Funds awarded in 2019: $150,000.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2020
Grant Recipients: University of Missouri; Lincoln University
Region: North Central
State: Missouri
State Coordinator:
Dan Downing
University of Missouri
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Project Information

Abstract:

The 2019-2020 Missouri State SARE PDP plan of work will focus on initiatives identified by the MO SARE PDP Advisory Board in association with the University of Missouri and Lincoln University Extension priorities.  These SARE initiatives include:  Integrated Pest Management, Sustainable Crop Production, and Sustainable Livestock Production.  The advisory board also elected to participate in the North Central Region’s focus on beginning farmers & ranchers.  We will plan to send several representatives of our state to regional professional development events organized by NC-SARE with the understanding they will implement a beginning farmer & rancher program upon their return.  Additionally since this plan of work covers a two year time frame and it is difficult to predict future needs the Advisory Board added another initiative entitled  “Emerging Issues”.  Two PDPs will be carried out under this initiative as described below.  One additional PDP, with content to be determined will also be carried out under this initiative.  This PDP has been calculated into the two year budget with a total expense based upon the total costs for the other PDPs.  The content of this PDP will be determined as the need emerges and based upon critical training needs that arise over the next two years. 

Each of the four initiatives carried forward from the 2017-2018 POW by the MoSARE Advisory Board has action themes that will provide continuity from one year’s POW to the next.   Holistic farm management themes will be carried out through each initiative and PDP.  These include:  Diversity as indicated by biological and cultural diversity, Profitability as indicated by net profit, Energy balance, Community interactions, and Environmental considerations.

The Missouri State Sustainable Agriculture Co-Coordinators are (currently vacant), Lincoln University and Dan Downing, Extension Associate, University of Missouri.  The Professional Development Program will utilize both the Lincoln University Cooperative Extension’s (LUCE) and the University of Missouri Extension’s (MU) plans of work specifically with “Economic Value” and “Environmental Quality” as a guideline supporting the priorities identified by the Advisory Board for all SARE PDP activities across the state.

Project Objectives:

Initiative 1: Integrated Pest Management

  1. PDP number 1A, 2019 – The Missouri Tomato School will take place in May 2019 in Jefferson City, MO.   Face to Face, one day. The School will include a day of educational sessions, featuring national and regional tomato experts.  The second day of the School is a tour of successful tomato farms.  This workshop will include modules on pest and disease management.  The ISE request is to fund attendance at the school by MU and LU Extension specialists.  – Patrick Byers, lead.
  2. PDP number 1B, 2019 – The Missouri Blueberry School will take place in February-March 2019, in Springfield, MO.  Face to Face, one day. The School will include a day of educational sessions, featuring national and regional blueberry experts.  This workshop will include modules on pest and disease management. The second day of the School is a tour of successful blueberry farms.  The ISE request is to fund attendance at the school by MU and LU Extension specialists.  – Patrick Byers, lead.

 

Initiative 2: Sustainable Crop Production

  1. PDP Number 2A, 2020 – Hydroponics in Missouri –Hydroponics is a growing trend in our Missouri.  This Face to Face PDP will take place over 2 days; the first day will include educational sessions and the second day will include tour stops to learn about area hydroponic production.  Nationally known experts on this subject to will be brought in as presenters to help us better understand the hydroponics process and future opportunities. Patrick Byers, Robert Balek and Kelly McGowan would be the principal planners for this ISE. – Kelly McGowan, lead.                                                                     
  2. PDP Number 2B, 2020 – Alfalfa Production in Missouri – Face to Face, 2 days,

May or June 2020.  To be held in the central Missouri area.  This is envisioned as a 2 day program beginning at 11:30 a.m. on day one and ending at 2:00 p.m. the second day.  It will likely included a field tour of the MU Dairy Farm and/or other alfalfa plantings in the area. Presenters will include state specialists, possibly out of state presenters and regional specialist.  The PDP will be coordinated by; Pat Miller – lead, Tim Schnakenberg, Craig Roberts, Wesley Tucker Patrick Davis.

 

Initiative 3:  Sustainable Livestock Production

PDP Number 3A, 2019 – Production & Maintenance of Quality Forage in Missouri – Face to Face, two days – Columbia vicinity

Missouri typically ranks second or third in the total number of cattle behind the state of Texas.  We also have a significant number of sheep producers.  Meat goat production continues to increase.  All of these animals perform best when they have access to high quality nutritious forage. 

This PDP will exam what forages work best in various systems, draught tolerance, and the potential for expansion of warm season forage production in Missouri.  Nutrition and palatability will also be addressed.  Potential Speakers include MU Forage Experts, out of state experts, ruminant nutrition experts, soil scientists, and climatologist. – Todd Lorenz, lead.

 

  1. PDP Number 3B, 2020 – Sustainable Aquaculture – Shrimp & Fin Fish Production in the Midwest – Round two building upon the PDP by the same name offered in 2017. This will be a two day face to face training.  Ninety percent of U.S. seafood consumption is imported. Internationally, wastewater discharge from aquaculture poses athreat to freshwater and coastal aquatic environme American farmers could potentially provide a 100% American-grown seafood supply eliminating a trade deficit of $11.5 billion/year, using 100% American produced soy, wheat and corn meals as feed ingredients.

 

Thirty educators, farmers, investors, and other stake-holders will increase their knowledge and understanding of aquaculture production of large-mouth bass, crappie, catfish, marine and freshwater shrimp, as well as, economics of aquaculture systems, including required capital investment, cash flow, and profitability. Participates will be provided field trips to view pond production of freshwater shrimp, in-pond raceway production of crappie, and catfish, and indoor, recalculating culture of large-mouth bass, and super-intensive zero-discharge production of marine shrimp. This training will increase knowledge and understanding of the current “state of the art” of limited and zero discharge aquaculture production and environmental benefits, enhancing the potential for Missouri farmers to successfully incorporate environmentally compatible seafood production into their existing farming activities, enhancing income and quality of life for rural Missourians. – Dr. David Brune, lead.

Initiative 4:  North Central Initiative, Beginning Farmers & Ranchers

PDP Number 4A – 2019 and 2020 – Up to 10 professional development travel scholarships per year will be offered.  These scholarships will be provided out of carry over funds from the previous funding cycle and used to send Agricultural Educators to workshops targeting how to work with beginning farmers and ranchers.  The train the trainer model will be used.  Upon returning from the training, each participant will be expected to host a beginning famer workshop and/or incorporate their newly acquired tools into their existing programs. MoSARE Co-coordinators, lead.

 

Initiative 5:  Emerging Issues

PDP Number 5A, 2019 – “Regulations for selling local produce and other foods”. This PDP will be ideal for personnel working in Nutrition and Health, Horticulture, Livestock, Community Development, Business Development, and anyone else who might be answering questions from farmers and/or people who are wanting to sell their produce or any other type of food product locally.  The ISE will cover much of the information covered in the food safety sections of the Selling Local Foods (SLF) curriculum that MU Extension developed in 2016.  This includes information on produce safety regulations and marketplace requirements, produce safety best practices, providing safe samples at farmers markets and related venues, food labeling requirements, regulations for selling canned foods and other foods, regulations for selling meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, requirements for an inspected kitchen, and shared use kitchens. As a result of this ISE, attendees will be more aware of the resources (fact sheets, curricula, trainings, trainers, people to ask questions to) that MU Extension has related to food safety for selling food products, will be able to answer questions from local producers/processors or know where to direct them, and will be able to do basic trainings related to food safety for selling food items. – Londa Nwadike, lead.

 

PDP Number 5B – Emerging issues to be determined, MoSARE Co-coordinators, lead.

Potential topics include:  drought resilience and mitigation strategies and pesticide use/control issues.

Advisors

Click linked name(s) to expand
  • Lindsey Jones
  • Michael Gold (Educator)
  • Ray Massey (Educator)
  • Kelly Smith
  • Touria Eaton (Educator)
  • Jim Pierce (Educator)
  • Webster Davis
  • Austin Stanton
  • Miranda Dushack (Educator)
  • Josh Payne
  • Brad McCord
  • Susan Jaster (Educator)
  • Chelsea Davis

Education

Educational approach:

Four PDP were conducted by the MoSARE program in 2019.  These PDPs utilized the train the trainer model in updating or introducing new topics to  Lincoln University and University of Missouri Extension Educators, and a limited number of other educators.  These PDPs included pre and post workshop surveys for determining knowledge and intended behavioral change.  The four PDPs were:  Blueberry School, Tomato School, Winter Vegetable Production School, and Regulations for Selling Local Foods.  

In addition to the PDPs sponsored by the MoSARE program professional development travel scholarships were also used to update or introduce new educational ideas and concepts to  Lincoln University and University of Missouri Extension Educators, and a limited number of other educators.  Each of these scholarships was awarded with the expectation that the recipient would conduct educational activities sharing their newly acquired knowledge with others. 

A team from Missouri was created to address the North Central SARE initiative of supporting beginning farmers.  This team included Lincoln University and University of Missouri Extension personnel as well as representatives of the privates sector and other programs currently working with beginning farmers.  The team will reconnect during the spring of 2020 and is considering hosting a training, or series of trainings for beginning farmers.

In 2020 due to Covid 19 safety concerns face to face training events were greatly curtailed. As a result this most of the professional development trainings were postponed until 2021 (hopefully).   However;  MoSARE was able conduct a couple of in person training events, co-hosted others, and sponsored participation in a few other professional development activities.  It is the goal of the MoSARE program to conduct these postponed trainings and well as those slated for 2021 during 2021. 

In January of 2020 the MoSARE program co-hosted a six hour drip irrigation workshop as part of the Great Plains Growers Conference.  In all sixty four people participated in the workshop including:  Extension Educators, Other Educators, Engineers, Horticulturalists, Commercial Vegetable Producers, and Others.  Evaluations across the board showed an increase in knowledge of how to design, set-up, and use drip irrigation systems. Educators indicated they would use the resources provided in their program delivery and at least five producers indicated  they planned to develop drip irrigation systems after participating in the workshop.

During the Great Plains Growers Conference the MO, IO, KS, and NE SARE programs also teamed together to sponsor an education display.  The display featured handout, publications, and Extension personnel promoting the SARE programs and resources.  It is estimated that at least three hundred participants received resource material from the display and interacted with the professionals staffing it.

A Winter Vegetable Production Conference was conducted in Missouri for the second consecutive year.  Thirty plus educators and producers attend this conference held in Eureka, MO.  The MoSARE program provided scholarship for educator attendees, provided publication for distribution, and helped promote the event.

 

 

 

Education & Outreach Initiatives

1. Intergrated Pest Management
Objective:

To minimize negative impact of pests on vegetable production.

Description:

Minimizing the impact of pests on vegetable production is vital.  This initiative addresses this through encouragement and training of vegetable propagation techniques creating more vigorous plants through:

  1. PDP number 1A, 2019 – The Missouri Tomato School will take place in May 2019 in Jefferson City, MO.   Face to Face, one day. The School will include a day of educational sessions, featuring national and regional tomato experts.  The second day of the School is a tour of successful tomato farms.  This workshop will include modules on pest and disease management.  The ISE  is to fund attendance at the school by MU and LU Extension specialists. 
  2. PDP number 1B, 2019 – The Missouri Blueberry School will take place in February-March 2019, in Springfield, MO.  Face to Face, one day. The School will include a day of educational sessions, featuring national and regional blueberry experts.  This workshop will include modules on pest and disease management. The second day of the School is a tour of successful blueberry farms.  The ISE  is to fund attendance at the school by MU and LU Extension specialists. 
Outcomes and impacts:

Program Impact Summary – Tomato School – 23 Participants

When asked to consider the program as a whole, the attendees who responded to the survey (n=23) reported: I have learned information I did not know, 24%; I am confident I can implement practices introduced in this workshop, 52%; I have gained a mastery of topics covered, 9%; and I now feel I could teach this to someone else, 15%.  Attendees were surveyed on knowledge of workshop topics before and after the program, and average knowledge gain on a 1-4 Likert scale, with 4=considerable knowledge gain, was the following:

Tomato production practices, 0.826; Tomato Irrigation, 0.739; Tomato Diseases, 1.174; Plasticulture tomato production, 0.913; Greenhouse/Tunnel tomato production, 0.952; Tomato and herbicide issues, 1.087; Tomato powdery mildew, 1.435; and Tomato shelf life, 1.174. The overall knowledge gain was 1.038; average knowledge level improved from 2.435 to 3.472 on a 1-4 Likert Scale.  Following the program, attendees reported confidence in understanding workshop topics at a considerable level, 50%, and a moderate level, 47%. The attendees who responded to the survey were asked to describe behavior change as a result of the program. The following activities were planned: Will change a production practice on my farm, 90%; Will use a high to tunnel or greenhouse for tomato production, 64%; Will learn more about tomato pests, 91%; Will change a production practice on my farm, 84%; Will follow up on available resources, 100%; Will look for new marketing opportunities, 62%; Will attend additional trainings, 100%; and Will keep in touch with a grower I met at the program, 83%. Of attendees who responded to the survey, 96% stated that the overall program fully met or exceeded expectations

 

Program Impact Summary – Blueberry School – 48 participants

When asked to consider the program as a whole, the attendees who responded to the survey (n=51) reported: I have learned information I did not know, 29%; I am confident I can implement practices introduced in this workshop, 62%; I have gained a mastery of topics covered, 5%; and I now feel I could teach this to someone else, 5%. Attendees were surveyed on knowledge of workshop topics before and after the program, and average knowledge gain on a 1-4 Likert scale, with 4=considerable knowledge gain, was the following: Establishing blueberries, 0.711; New blueberry cultivars, 1.261; Marketing blueberries, 0.700; Replanting blueberries, 0.683; Blueberries and soil health, 0.944; Blueberries and spotted wing drosophila, 0.578; Blueberries and brown marmorated stinkbug, 0.736; and The 2019 Fruit Pest Management Spray Guide, 0.757. The overall knowledge gain was 0.796; average knowledge level improved from 2.359 to 3.155 on a 1-4 Likert Scale.  Following the program, attendees reported confidence in understanding workshop topics at a considerable level, 32%, and a moderate level, 55%.  The attendees who responded to the survey were asked to describe behavior change as a result of the program. The following activities were planned: Will establish a blueberry planting, 79%; Will change something about the way that I grow blueberries, 93%; Will get current on blueberry insect pests, 76%; Will change something about my farm in response to information on blueberry economics, 72%; Will follow-up on available resources, 100%; Will look for new marketing opportunities, 83%; Will attend additional trainings, 95.7; and Will keep in touch with a grower I met at the program, 78.9. When attendees were asked how well the overall program met their expectations, of those who responded to the survey, 96% stated that their expectations were met well or excellently.

4. Beginning Farmers - NCR SARE Initiative
Objective:

To develop programming efforts in support of beginning farmers

Description:

Up to ten professional development travel scholarships will be provided encouraging agricultural educators from Lincoln University and University of Missouri Extension to participate in a regional training and upon returning home create programming in support of this initiative.

Outcomes and impacts:

Impact Summary – Beginning Farmer Rancher Training – 7 Participants

Seven agricultural educators from the two institutions attended the beginning farmers train the trainer workshop held near Indianapolis.  All participants indicated they “learned a lot” about helping new farmers analyze their skills, what they want to do, and how to go about it.  The also learned about resources available to help farmers especially liability and legal consideration.  

Before departing the workshop plans were made for the group to meet at least once upon returning home and to carry out training for beginning farmers.  These train session will be developed in 2020.

As a direct result of participation in the regional training conducted by NCSARE, the Missouri participants were introduced to the Hero’s to Hives Military Veterans Bee Keeping Program.  This program was conducted in the Warrensburg, MO area in conjunction with the University of Central Missouri and the Missouri Arg-A-bility program.  Between thirty and forty veterans participated in the introductory workshops receiving information on the how’s and why’s of beekeeping, mental health information, and other services available to military veterans.  Follow-up programming and expansion of the program is planned as soon as Covid-19 restrictions are eased.

5. 2019 - Emerging Issues - Regulations for Selling Local Produce and other Foods
Objective:

To provide as much practical information as feasible to vegetable producers and others market "homemade/homegrown" products directly to consumers form the standpoints of protecting human health and safety of the consumer while minimizing liability for the seller.

Description:

This PD featured regulatory and enforcement personnel from numerous federal, state, and county agencies presenting the human health and safety protection concepts behind their codes and enforcement standards.  The agenda for the event is attached.

 

sellinglocalfoods2019

Outcomes and impacts:

Program Impact – Selling Local Foods and Produce – 48 participants

This PDP was attended by 48 participants where they learned directly from the regulatory and enforcement agencies about food safety measures to protect human health.  Topics discussed in depth included regulations for:

Selling Jams & Jellies, Dairy Products, Eggs, Meat, and Poultry products.  Available funding assistance, valu added marketing assistance, operational finance programs and pet food regulations were presented by representatives  from the Missouri Department ofAgriculture. 

Through the pre/post testing all participant indicated at least a doubling of their overall knowledge in regards to these issues and a greater understanding of where/how to access the regulatory guidelines and standards.  They also indicated after the PDP they felt comfortable presenting their new gained knowldege.

 

 

Emerging Issues Continued #2 - Hops Production
Objective:

To showcase the potential for hops production in the midwest

Description:

Program Impact – Growing Hops in the Midwest, 20 Participants

Hops plots were established on University of Missouri research farms field days and PDP trainings were conducted at the sights.  

Outcomes and impacts:

 

Seven field days were conducted with an average of 25 potential producers in attendance.  In 2019 one  PD was funded through the Missouri SARE program as training for educators.  This workshop was well attended and showcased the potential, advantages, and disadvantages for growing hops in the midwest.  Additionally a cursory overview of the financial considerations was presented. A total of 20 agricultural educators attended.

Emerging Issues #3 - Winter Vegetable Production School
Objective:

To take advantage of the off- season offering training to horticultural educators and producers on all aspects of vegetable production with special emphasis on growing salad greens year round.

Description:

A vegetable production PDP was conducted in Jan. of 2019 emphasizing the production of vegetables and focused on winter production of salad greens in the mid-west.

 

Outcomes and impacts:

 

Program Impact Summary – Winter Production School, 38 Participants

When asked to consider the program as a whole, the attendees who responded to the survey (n=44) reported: I have learned information I did not know, 31%; I am confident I can implement practices introduced in this workshop, 63%; I have gained a mastery of topics covered, 4%; and I now feel I could teach this to someone else, 2%. Attendees were surveyed on knowledge of workshop topics before and after the program, and average knowledge gain on a 1-4 Likert scale, with 4=considerable knowledge gain, was the following: Growing salad greens year around, 1.023; Maximizing winter greens profits through recordkeeping and economics, 1.116; and cover cropping in high tunnels, 1.008.

The overall knowledge gain was 1.049; average knowledge level improved from 2.124 to 3.173 on a 1-4 Likert Scale. Following the program, attendees reported confidence in understanding workshop topics at a considerable level, 33%, and a moderate level, 52%. The attendees who responded to the survey were asked to describe behavior change as a result of the program. The following activities were planned:

Will change a production practice on my farm, 83.7%; Will grow salad green year around, 70%; will change my record keeping practices,  85.7%; will grow cover crops in my high tunnel , 56.4%; Will follow-up on available resources, 97.7%; Will look for new marketing opportunities, 85.7%; Will attend additional trainings, 97.6%; and Will keep in touch with a grower I met at the program, 82.5%. Of attendees who responded to the survey, 88% stated that the overall program fully met or exceeded expectations.

2. Sustainable Crop Production - 2020
Objective:

To increase the quantity and quality of vegetables and Alfalfa produced in Missouri.

Description:

Hydroponics Production and 

Alfalfa Production in Missouri 

Due to Covid 19 guidance both of these PDPs were postponed until 2021.

Outcomes and impacts:

Both of these items will be addressed by PDP scheduled for 2020.

Both of these PDPs were planned for 2020 and have been postponed until 2021 due to Covid – 19 concerns.

 

3. Sustainable Livestock Productioin
Objective:

To increase the quantity of and quality of forage, hay, shrimp, and fish produced in Missouri.

Description:

Production of Quality Forage for hay and pasture – This PDP has been planned to run be carried out in tandem with the Alfalfa Production PDP.

Sustainable Shrimp and Fin Fish Production in the Midwest.

Both of these PDPs were postponed until 2021 due to Covid- 19 concerns.

Outcomes and impacts:

 

Both of these PDPs will be offered in 2020.

Both of these PDP were postponed from 2020 to 2021 due to Covid-19 concerns.

Sustainable Crop Production 2020
Objective:

To improve production efficiency, environmental stewardship, and profitability of Missouri's fruit, flower, and vegetable producers through more efficient use of drip irrigation systems

Description:

A series of drip irrigation demonstration events, and classes were scheduled for delivery in 2020.  Most of these were curtailed due to Covid-19 issues.  MoSARE was able to sponsor sponsor a six hour workshop as part of the Great Plains Growers Conference with sixty-four participants.  A field day, and demonstration was conducted at the Titus Creek Cut Flower Farm.  This demonstration show-cased the efficiency aspects of a drip irrigation system to the forty plus participants.

Outcomes and impacts:

This was a field day held at a drip irrigation demonstration sight.  Over 40 people attended where they learned about types of drip irrigation equipment, scaling a system to the operation, and other production efficiencies gained as a result of using drip irrigation.  

The host had installed drip irrigation system in the spring during planting season.  They indicated the use of the system had reduced the time necessary for water by approximately three hours per day.  It also reduced their water bill for the same time frame from the previous year by 50%.

Emerging Issues 2020
Objective:

To develop or enhance income for vegetable producers in Missouri by improving winter vegetable production systems

Description:

A two day workshop was conducted on the fringes of the St. Louis metropolitan area for the purpose of encouraging local production of vegetables during the winter months.  In excess of forty people attended this training.

Outcomes and impacts:

A combination of classroom instruction and sight visits were used to showcase the potential for increased winter production, improvement to winter production techniques, and potential enhanced winter income streams for local vegetable producers.  Through the use of pre-and post program evaluations, the participants all indicated a substantial increase in the knowledge of the topic.

Beginning Farmers 2020
Objective:

Showcase uses for and grant writing opportunities available through the SARE Program, focusing on beginning, limited resource, and minority farmers.

Description:

This event was a 3 hour workshop hosted in the Missouri Bootheel (extreme South East) targeting beginning and minority farmers in an economically segregated region of Missouri.  The workshop was co-coordinated between personnel from Lincoln University’s Innovative Small Farm Outreach Program and University of Missouri personnel.  

The workshop was attended by over 40 participants.  The program content included:  Introduction to Extension personnel from both Universities, Grant programs available through SARE, an overview of grant funded projects in Missouri, an introduction to the NCSARE web site, a brief presentation on grant writing, and an open question and answer session.

 

 

 

Outcomes and impacts:

All participants indicated their knowledge and awareness of the SARE program and it’s offering was new to them, or they increased their awareness.

Five participants indicated that as a direct result of participating in the workshop they would be submitting grant proposals.

Educational & Outreach Activities

36 Consultations
22 Curricula, factsheets or educational tools
2 Minigrants
6 On-farm demonstrations
1 Study circle/focus groups
3 Tours
36 Travel Scholarships
9 Webinars / talks / presentations
9 Workshop field days
15 While making other presentations, briefly mentioning SARE and directing people to the web site.

Participation Summary

350 Extension
12 NRCS
8 Researchers
6 Nonprofit
30 Agency
2300 Farmers/ranchers
6 Others

Learning Outcomes

156 Participants gained or increased knowledge, skills and/or attitudes about sustainable agriculture topics, practices, strategies, approaches
20 Ag professionals intend to use knowledge, attitudes, skills and/or awareness learned

Project Outcomes

3 Grants received that built upon this project
75 New working collaborations
156 Agricultural service provider participants who used knowledge and skills learned through this project (or incorporated project materials) in their educational activities, services, information products and/or tools for farmers
20 Farmers reached through participant's programs
Additional Outcomes:

Outcome reporting is covered under the header of initiatives as train the trainer session offered and number of educators participating.

Face of SARE

Face of SARE:

Booths, displays, and/or event sponsorships and professional development travel scholarships were made available to faculty and advisory board members setting up, staffing, or presenting about the SARE program at:

Missouri Association of Soil & Water Conservation Districts

Bringing Back the American Small Farm

Missouri Agro Forestry Academy

Cover Crops Education & Awareness

Four SARE Grant Writing Workshops

FSMA Workshops

Farm to Fork Workshop

Nitrogen Use Efficiency Workshop

Veteran Farmers Conference

Great Plains Grower Conference

230 Farmers received information about SARE grant programs and information resources
350 Ag professionals received information about SARE grant programs and information resources
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.