Montana State University Extension Range Management Institute

2013 Annual Report for EW12-006

Project Type: Professional Development Program
Funds awarded in 2012: $60,000.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2015
Region: Western
State: Montana
Principal Investigator:
Dr. Tracy Mosley
Montana State University Extension

Montana State University Extension Range Management Institute


Rangeland comprises approximately 70% of the land area in Montana, and is found in every Montana county. Ranches with rangeland livestock production enterprises, an industry that contributes a significant amount of income to Montana’s economy, rely heavily on rangelands to support their livelihood. Cattle and calves, the agricultural industry that relies predominantly on rangelands, brings in $1.1 billion in cash receipts in Montana, and in today’s economy, where input costs of production on farms and ranches are extremely high, rangeland pasture-based livestock production provides a relatively low-input option for raising livestock. In addition to being a critical component of sustainable agriculture in Montana and the West, rangeland livestock production systems that are managed correctly can naturally maintain plant community health, soil integrity, water quality, and wildlife habitat.

As a result of a focus group that convened at Montana State University Extension’s 2010 Annual Conference, this project was initiated to provide in-depth training for Montana Extension field faculty and specialists in rangeland ecology and management principles. Ultimately, the goal is to provide baseline knowledge for educators to more effectively assist agricultural producers in more effectively and efficiently management of the rangelands they rely upon for their livelihood. With increased knowledge of basic and in-depth rangeland concepts, educators can more confidently provide sound, research-based information to livestock producers regarding the potential, limitations, capacity, and function of their rangeland ecosystems. Adoption of this information can serve as a vector to help ranchers more sustainably manage their native pasture resources and will help ranchers maintain their livelihoods by maximizing their production in a low-input system. Helping ranchers sustain their resources and their livelihoods ultimately contributes to a reduction in land fragmentation, which contributes to an overall increase in landscape health and helps preserve the heritage of rural communities in Montana.

Objectives/Performance Targets

Three, 3-day workshops will be hosted across Montana targeting primarily Montana State University, Extension agents, range technicians of federal agencies (NRCS, BLM, FS), and ranchers interested in improving their level of knowledge of rangeland ecology and management concepts and techniques. Our goal is to teach a minimum of 60 participants during the three workshops and to include a minimum of 75% of Extension field faculty who have responsibilities directly relating to rangeland management (i.e., agriculture, natural resources responsibilities). We hope to have 19-22 participants per workshop (plus instructors), including 14-15 Extension faculty participants per workshop and 5-7 non-Extension participants, targeting NRCS, BLM, and FS field technicians and local ranchers, at each workshop, totaling 60 participants across three workshops.

Workshops include two days of classroom learning and one day of field demonstration, led by the Project Coordinator, Project Participants, and agency educators. The classroom portion of the workshops will focus on five main subject areas, with multiple topics under each main subject area. The five subject areas will include: 1) Rangeland Ecology Principles, such as defining rangelands; rangeland uses; plant community characteristics and dynamics; basic plant physiology; plant-animal interactions; and seasonal changes in forage nutritional value, 2) Rangeland Management Principles, such as setting realistic ecologic and economic management unit goals and considering limitations; plant identification; the importance of timing, intensity, frequency, duration of grazing; understanding factors that affect animal distribution; and setting stocking rates, 3) Management Tools to Improve Efficiency, such as grazing systems; water development; fences; and other improvements, 4) Rangeland Metrics and Monitoring, such as quantifying plant community characteristics; determining forage production of a pasture; measuring herbaceous and woody disappearance; and long-term and short-term monitoring techniques, and 5) Current and Emerging Issues on Rangelands, such as the debate over continuous versus rotational grazing, impact of wolves and grizzly bears on rangeland distribution and animal health; and the implications of the Endangered Species Act on rangeland management.

In the field, local ranchers will provide field sites for demonstration and we will provide the opportunity for hands-on learning. We will view various field sites where diverse approaches are successfully being implemented on rangeland livestock production enterprises and will practice rangeland metrics. Additionally, a goal of the project leaders is to create and compile a set of comprehensive resources for each participant to have as a reference as well as a set of field equipment for participants to take back to their work stations. Our intent is that the resources and equipment, coupled with knowledge and increased confidence in the subject matter, will serve as a catalyst for program implementation at the county level.

After workshops are completed, a mentoring network will be developed and implemented. Mentors will be identified during the workshop by evaluating participants’ levels of expertise and confidence around rangeland management concepts. Mentors will be asked to be available to other educators in their area as a long-term resource. Tangible products of these workshops will be curricula, a reference notebook for each participant, and field supplies for each participant. Non-tangible products will be increased knowledge and confidence and partnerships among Extension, federal agencies and ranchers.

Short-term outcomes include increased knowledge of rangeland ecology and management concepts of educators; increased confidence of educators to teach and apply these concepts; and networking among educators. Our goals are to achieve “knowledge gained” by a minimum of 75% of participants and that at least 50% of participants have an increased level of confidence teaching and applying these concepts. Medium-term outcomes include an increase in the incidence of educators teaching rangeland ecology and management concepts to producers and land managers in their county, as well as producers and land managers adopting management practices as a result of interaction with educators. Our goal is that each of the participants will increase the number of times they teach these concepts annually and that we can document client implementation of strategies. Long-term outcomes of this project include maintained or improved rangeland and pasture conditions and grazing capacity; greater soil stability, high surface water quality; healthy watershed function, and quality wildlife habitat; reduced financial stress on producers by reducing need for them to lease additional grazing; increased calf weaning weights; improved quality of life for agricultural producers and rural communities by maintaining open space in ranches and minimizing the potential for land fragmentation. Because major land change as a result of changes in management takes greater than three years to observe, the full spectrum of these outcomes may not be achieved during the life of this 3-year project. However, our goal is to see documented improvement in grazing strategies by producers that will eventually lead to improved rangeland ecosystem function and improved quality of life for agricultural producers.


One workshop was held in 2013, with nine County Extension Agents in attendance. Two additional workshops were held in 2014, combining to total 26 County Extension Agents in attendance. The background training of the 35 agents in attendance across workshops was quite diverse, including those with horticulture, crop science, animal science, range science, and agriculture education. Agents participated in classroom activities and field activities that increased their knowledge of rangeland ecology and management concepts.

Principal investigators of the project worked to host three workshops during the growing season in 2013, but unanticipated scheduling conflicts that precluded participation by key faculty forced workshops to be pushed into 2014. Field faculty demand within their counties during the growing season was the primary reason cited for unavailability for participate in workshops at that time of year. However, despite this challenge, participants were engaged at the workshops and highly interested in the subject matter.

Impacts and Contributions/Outcomes

Workshop participants increased their knowledge of basic range management principles across all three workshops. This impact was documented through the use of pre- and post-workshop exams that assessed their knowledge of basic and applied principles of range and natural resources management. Scores between pre- and post-tests increased by 27%, 15%, and 16% at the workshops. Additionally, participants of all three workshops indicated a strong interest in a secondary workshop focused on hands-on measurements and elevated levels of detail on various topics.

One participant extended the knowledge she gained from a workshop to a local working group. She commented, “Just a feather in your hats but by having the Range Institute I felt I was better prepared to present last night and had the tools to put together the presentation.” She also indicated that the presentation promoted positive, useful dialogue among a previously contentious group of participants.

Participants have also indicated a high level of interest in multi-county programming to foster mentoring around rangeland management topics. An important component of multi-county programs includes the initial stages of a mentoring component of the project, where agents experienced in rangeland ecology and management concepts will work with new agents or agents with a limited amount of rangeland ecology and management experience. Project coordinators hope to work with participants to foster increased mentorship that will result in cross-county programming, as well as increased confidence by county faculty to work with clientele to enhance and sustain rangeland resources across Montana.


Dan Lucas
MSU Granite County Extension Agent
Montana State University Extension
PO Box 665
Philipsburg, MT 59858
Office Phone: 4068593304
Dr. Jeff Mosley
Extension Range Management Specialist
Montana State University
PO Box 172900
Bozeman, MT 59717
Office Phone: 4069945601