Comparison of Organic Farming Systems Using Off-Farm Nitrogen with - without Animals

Project Overview

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2002: $149,968.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2006
Matching Non-Federal Funds: $200,626.00
Region: Northeast
State: West Virginia
Project Leader:
Sven Verlinden
West Virginia University

Annual Reports


  • Agronomic: millet, potatoes, rapeseed, rye, soybeans, wheat, grass (misc. perennial), hay
  • Fruits: apples, berries (other), grapes, pears
  • Vegetables: beans, cabbages, greens (leafy), parsnips, peas (culinary), peppers, tomatoes, brussel sprouts
  • Additional Plants: ornamentals
  • Animals: poultry, sheep


  • Animal Production: parasite control, animal protection and health, grazing - continuous, free-range, manure management, grazing - multispecies, pasture fertility, pasture renovation, preventive practices, range improvement, grazing - rotational, stockpiled forages, feed/forage
  • Crop Production: biological inoculants, continuous cropping, cover crops, double cropping, intercropping, multiple cropping, nutrient cycling, organic fertilizers, application rate management, tissue analysis
  • Education and Training: demonstration, extension, focus group, on-farm/ranch research, participatory research
  • Farm Business Management: whole farm planning, new enterprise development, budgets/cost and returns, marketing management
  • Natural Resources/Environment: biodiversity, habitat enhancement
  • Pest Management: allelopathy, biological control, biorational pesticides, botanical pesticides, chemical control, competition, compost extracts, cultural control, disease vectors, economic threshold, eradication, field monitoring/scouting, flame, genetic resistance, integrated pest management, mulches - killed, mating disruption, physical control, mulching - plastic, precision herbicide use, row covers (for pests), sanitation, soil solarization, weather monitoring, weed ecology
  • Production Systems: agroecosystems, holistic management, transitioning to organic, integrated crop and livestock systems
  • Soil Management: earthworms, green manures, organic matter, soil analysis, composting
  • Sustainable Communities: public participation, sustainability measures
    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.