Efficacy of Natural Dewormers in the Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Small Ruminants
The objectives of the proposed research are: 1) to determine the efficacy of non-chemical/natural means of parasite control (pumpkin seeds, garlic, ginger, and papaya seeds) in small ruminants, and 2) to educate producers about natural dewormers and integrated parasite management (FAMACHA, fecal egg counting, and pasture management). The project will be conducted at Delaware State University’s Farm and also on producer farms in DE and MD.
During year one, (in collaboration with Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore), naturally infected crossbred goats and crossbred hair sheep lambs were fed diets containing pumpkin seeds and/or garlic and levels of parasitism (fecal egg counts and packed cell volume) and growth monitored. The influence of both natural dewormers on meat quality was determined.
During year two, naturally infected goat kids were drenched orally with pumpkin seed, papaya seed or ginger drench solutions and levels of parasitism (fecal egg counts, packed cell volume and larval identification) and growth were measured and recorded. The influence of both natural dewormers on nutritional composition and meat quality is currently being determined. Subsequently, the meat samples were lost when the freezer went down over a school break. In addition, two Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) workshops were held at both Delaware State University (DSU) and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) in summer 2009 to educate small ruminant producers on the efficacy of natural dewormers and IPM techniques.
During year three, in collaboration with the University of Maryland Eastern Shore, goat kids were fed a pelleted feed with mixed in pumpkin seeds fed at two levels (3.2 oz/lb and 1.6 oz/lb) to test their efficacy on reducing fecal egg counts. Instead of waiting on a natural infection, animals were inoculated with parasite larvae to ensure infection. The influence of both natural dewormers on meat quality was determined at North Carolina State University.
During year four, twenty-six artificially inoculated Katahdin lambs and twenty-two kids (mixed sex), were used to determine the effect of a pumpkin seed oil drench (2.0 ml/kg body weight) on body weight, packed cell volume and fecal egg counts. An extension was requested during the final year to finalize objectives in milestones 3 and 4 of the proposal.
One abstract was submitted and accepted for the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientist meeting in the fall of 2011. It will be presented in February, 2012. Previously, four abstracts have been submitted and presented at the American Association and Animal Science Annual meeting (summer 2010), the 15th Biennial Research Symposium of the Association of Research Directors, Inc. (ARD; spring 2009), Southern Association of Agricultural Scientist meeting (winter 2009), and the American Association of Animal Science meetings (summer 2009). In addition, the pumpkin seed results from year one was distributed to producers via an article in the summer 2009 edition of the Wild and Wooly newsletter (formerly Maryland Sheep and Goat Newsletter) as well as a factsheet developed and presented at workshops.
During 2012, two producers from MD and DE will evaluate the use of one or more natural dewormer by conducting on-farm experiments to determine the effectiveness and practicality of effective plant dewormers as determined in previous years at DSU. In addition, thirty producers will visit on-farm sites for results sessions. Research and field results will be summarized and distributed to sheep and goat producers.
Fifteen small ruminant producers will decrease reliance on chemical dewormers through the use of an alternative natural dewormer and/or other IPM practices such as the use of FAMACHA and fecal egg counting for parasite control in their flocks.
- Seven experiments have been conducted on the efficacy of garlic (sheep and goats), pumpkin seeds (goats and sheep), papaya seeds (goats) and ginger (goats) in controlling internal parasites in small ruminants
Pumpkin seed fed in pelleted or ground form has no influence on the flavor attributes of goat meat.
Garlic has no influence on flavor attributes of goat meat
Two workshops held on Integrated Parasite Management including the use of natural dewormers with approximately 40 producers attending from DE, MD, and VA.
Five correspondence from producers and industry interested in the use of natural dewormers in small ruminants
300 factsheets on pumpkin seeds distributed
Presentations at Producer and Scientific meetings (approximately 8)
Increased interest among producers in Delaware and Maryland for IPM workshops and the use of pumpkin seeds, in particular, to reduce/control parasites
Impacts and Contributions/Outcomes
Sensory data was finalized on meat samples collected in experiments from years one and three. Eight trained panelists in the Department of Food, Bioprocessing, and Nutrition Sciences at North Carolina State University conducted the analysis. Samples were frozen and stored at -20 ºC. Loins were placed into 3-4 ºC refrigeration to thaw three days prior to preparation. Convection ovens were preheated to 350 ºF and thawed loins were removed from their packaging, patted dry with paper towels, individually placed on a sheet of aluminum foil and sealed into a foil packet. Loin packets were placed on baking sheets in preheated ovens and baked until the thickest region reached a minimum temperature of 160oF. Loins were removed from their aluminum foil packet, each end (~1/2-inch) was cut and removed and the loins were sliced into equally sized pieces. Servings of each sample were placed onto 6-inch randomly coded Styrofoam plates and served immediately to panelists. Two loins per animal and three animals per treatment were prepared. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in flavor attributes in meat from goats fed ground pumpkin seed versus the control in Experiment one (yr 1). In addition, diet effects on flavor in kids fed garlic juice versus no garlic were not significant (yr 1). Also, diet effects on flavor in goats fed high and low levels of pumpkin seeds were not significantly different from the control in year 3. Meat samples from the ginger and papaya studies were lost due to the freezer going down during storage.
During 2011, twenty-six artificially inoculated Katahdin lambs (mixed sex), approximately 8-10 months of age were used to determine the effect of a pumpkin seed oil drench on BW, packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC). Lambs were placed into individual 1.2 m x 1.2 m pens on solid concrete floors and randomly assigned to treatments of water (CON; n=10), 2.0 ml/kg BW pumpkin seed oil once every week (PUM1; n=9), or 2.0 ml/kg BW pumpkin seed oil divided equally over 3 doses in one week (PUM2; n=7). All treatment groups received a 16% CP meat lamb feed fed at approximately 3% of their BW daily. BW, blood and fecal samples were collected weekly for 28 d. Lamb BW averaged 30 kg at the start of the study and increased to 36 kg by the end of the study. Lamb FEC and PCV were also not influenced by treatment and it was concluded that pumpkin seed oil was not effective in controlling internal parasites in Katahdin lambs.
During 2011, twenty-two naturally Boer crossbred meat goat kids were also used to determine the effect of a pumpkin seed oil drench on BW, PCV and FEC. Kids were placed into individual 1.2 m x 1.2 m pens on solid concrete floors and randomly assigned to treatments of water (CON; n=11), or 2.0 ml/kg BW pumpkin seed oil (PUM1; n=11) every other day for 35 days. All treatment groups received a 15% pelleted ration for goats (Southern States) fed at 3% of their BW daily. BW, blood and fecal samples were collected weekly for the 35 days. Weekly pooled fecal samples were also collected and will be analyzed to identify specific larvae and prevalence by treatment. There was no significant reduction in FEC in the kids receiving the pumpkin seed oil.
The results obtained will be presented to veterinarians, researchers and extension specialists at the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientist meeting in Birmingham, Al (February 2012) and the American Association of Animal Science national meeting during summer 2012. In addition, a publication for Veterinary Parasitology will be submitted. Research results will also be distributed to producers via factsheet and newsletter publications.
Delaware State University
1200 N Dupont Highway
Dover , DE 19901
Office Phone: 3028576410
Producer and member of LSGPA
Office Phone: 4107262913
DE Goat Producer
Producer and member of Delmarva Goat Association
Office Phone: 3026708194
Delaware State University
1200 N Dupont Highway
Dover, DE 19901
Office Phone: 3028576491
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Office Phone: 2255789652
Associate Professor/Extension Specialist
University of Maryland Eastern Shore
Princess Anne, MD 21853
Office Phone: 4106516194
Sheep and Goat Specialist
Western Maryland Research & Education Center
18330 Keedysville Road, Keedysville,
Office Phone: 3014322767