Northeast Organic Wheat; an extension program for on-farm crop improvement in organic systems and local market partnerships

2009 Annual Report for LNE08-270

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2008: $162,845.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2012
Region: Northeast
State: Massachusetts
Project Leader:
Eli Rogosa
Heritage Grain Conservancy

Northeast Organic Wheat; an extension program for on-farm crop improvement in organic systems and local market partnerships


Northeast Organic Wheat; an extension program for on-farm crop improvement in organic systems and local market partnerships

Rationale: Organic farmers in the Northeast have minimally benefited from the yield increases of modern wheat cultivars bred for conventional systems with agrochemical protectants, in weather and soil conditions vastly different from ours. Nutrition and flavor are not key traits in modern cultivars but are a primary concern for value-added organic markets. Although farmers are the original breeders, plant breeding is a lost art for today’s farmers. There are no public wheat breeders in New England.
Performance Target – Of 120 growers who participate in the program, 60 will trial new grain varieties on over 1,000 organic acres, resulting in increased yield, quality, sustainability and profit from improved genepools adapted to organic systems. Of the 60, at least 24 will trial and select grains, and use promising wheats as the basis of enhanced direct market partnerships with local bakers.

‘Northeast Organic Wheat’ will conduct a participatory organic wheat trialing and selection program to address Northeast growers’ unmet needs for varieties adapted to our local conditions and markets. A working group of organic farmers, wheat breeders, extension, millers and bakers will identify goals, trial promising world-wide varieties, and select the superior wheat populations for traits contributing to yield, disease resistance and quality in organic systems. Criteria will include: height for weed competition, yield as measured by grain weight per plant, health as an indicator of resistance to local diseases and resilience to weather extremes. Flour will be evaluated for nutritional value, loaf volume and flavor.

This project will train farmers in the knowledge and practical skills of on-farm trialing and selection to re-invigorate superior landraces, to adapt diverse wheat populations to NE organic systems, to identify superior modern wheat varieties best adapted to organic systems, and to lay the foundation to develop new uniform varieties with consistent quality for artisan bakers. We will disseminate our methodologies, improved wheat genepools and results to researchers, cooperative extension, organic farmers, and foster regional market linkages with millers and bakers. This project represents a community-based approach to strengthen our NE regional grain supply.

Objectives/Performance Targets

a) Team-Building: Core breeder-extension-farmer-baker team identify key selection goals, establish at least one experimental trial plot per state to increase genetic diversity using genepools that combine elite landraces genotypes, and crosses with superior modern cultivars,

?b) Training: Of 120 participating farmers, at least 60 are trained in on-farm wheat trialing and selection, and strengthen community seed networks by exchange of germplasm and practical breeding and wheat systems knowledge and skills.

?c) On-Farm Trials: 24 organic farmers establish trials of promising varieties to screen on their own organic farms.

?d.) Utilization: 24 farmers, 12 artisan bakers and a laboratory cooperate in selecting for wheat quality by conducting flour quality and taste-tests.


First and second year accomplishments that build towards performance targets include:
Activities – Target 1: Increase Genetic Diversity
Summary: We trialed 122 spring landrace wheats and 36 winter heritage wheats in year 1, and 72 heritage winter wheat populations in year 2 – in multiple locations throughout New England and New York state. We have found that:

– Heritage wheats tend to yield higher than the conventional wheats in organic systems, and tend to have higher nutritional value.

– Growing mixtures of landraces popuations tends to suppress disease and yields equal or higher to any one variety alone.

– Higher mineral applications combined with wide spacing of 8″ to 12″ apart gives higher yields than conventional dense spacing. ie 50 lbs per acre under sown with low growing clover two weeks after planting wheat.

– It will take three years to select and multiply the best landrace varieties for commercial availability.

To assess the needs for grain production for local markets, interviews were conducted with organic growers and artisan bakers interested in increasing grain production. Results of our interviews indicated the market demand far surpasses the local supply, and that barriers include lack of US sources for locally-adapted cold-hardy wheat varieties with good disease and lodging resistance , minimal local processing and milling capacity and pest-free cold storage facilities for grains or flour. Bakers are interested in heritage wheat varieties due to their reputation for superior flavor and historic value, but have difficulty sourcing locally-grown grains and look forward to increased availability.

In year 2 in additional to conducting second year T. aestivum trials, we planted emmer and einkorn breeding lines from the Hungarian genebank, Germany, France, Denmark and other sources with the goal to identify populations best adapted to northern New England, and are piloting new products spanning emmer and einkorn bagels, flatbreads, malt and breads. Year 1-2 (2008-2009): 36 heritage winter wheat varieties in four replicated sites were planted in Fall, 2008 and 2009: at the Maine Organic Farming and Gardening Common Ground, Unity, Maine, the UMass Organic Research Farm with Ruth Hazzard, SIT Farm, Brattleboro, VT. and Dancing Sheaves Farm, Colrain, MA. Most of the varieties were collected by Nikolai Vavilov, Russian plant explorer who collected rare wheat biodiversity.  
Year 2 (2009) Harvest data attached. Our trials identifyed 18 heritage wheat varieties that yielded higher than the best yielding modern wheat, AC Maxine, grown in New England. Visit: for full trial results for: yield, tillers per plant, heads per tiller, average seed per 10 typical heads, weight per 1,000 seeds, seed density and nutritional value (protein and key minerals)

We selected and planted the most robust, highest yielding from last years trials for another round of replicated trials and multiplication, and planted 36 new Triticum varieties in all four sites.

In Year 1 (2008): 122 spring wheat varieties and early progenitors were planted at our research and demonstration site at the MOFGA Common Ground farm in Unity, Maine spanning wild wheat, T dicoccon from Ethiopia to Italy and India, einkorn (T. monococcun) from France and Turkey, ancient biblical durums from the southern Fertile Crescent, bread wheat (T. aestivum) biodiversity from the Trans-caucasus region where bread wheat evolved and related sub-species T. carthlicum. T. spelta. We discovered the 1800s Vermont-bred varieties from Cyrus Pringle, sent them to Heather Darby and Jack Lazor, and planted them in our trials. AC Barrie was planted as a control. In addition, 5 cooperating farmers planted small-scale spring trials, and 1 large-scale trial. 35 farmers planted small-scale winter wheat trials and grow-outs in the fall of 2008.  The highest yielding and most disease resistance was Siberian Spring wheat, grownin 1800s Maine. The farmer-bred ‘Dylan’ from North Dakota, Cyrus Pringle’s Champlain (bred in 1870s Vermont), Canus, Marquis and Halychanka (progenitor of Red Fife collected in Galicia) performed well.

Year 2 (2009): We planted winter wheat trials at MOFGA that replicated the trials at
the University of Massachusetts. Refer to the Mass. section below for details.
Vermont ?Year 1 (2008): Our discovery of the important wheat breeding work of Cyrus Pringle, a late 1800s VT plant breeder, has been excitedly received by Vermonters. We sent samples of Pringle’s wheat seed to Heather Darby and Jack Lazor. In addition we sent Heather the same set of landrace wheats that we sent to NY-NOFA. All Heather’s wheats, planted in northern VT were lost due to ice storms. 

Year 2 (2009): We established  a new winter wheat trial site at the SIT Farm in Brattleboro, in cooperation with Steve Hed, SIT farm manager. Replicated the UMass trials, and added European-bred Emmer and Einkorn. 

New York ?In order to better understand the needs of organic grain growers and artisan bakers in New York State, questionnaires were distributed at baker and grower meetings. Results from questionnaires and additional telephone interviews indicate that very little acreage in the state is planted to common wheat; spelt has largely replaced wheat in organic grain rotations. However, due to the increasing demand for organic wheat and for locally produced food, interest in growing wheat is high among organic growers. Traits of most importance to growers include yield, good straw production, baking qualities, and disease and lodging resistance. Growers were interested in a broad array of wheat types, but particularly heritage wheat varieties (specifically Red Fife), spelt, and hard red spring and winter varieties. A subset of growers was primarily interested in emmer. Major constraints include difficulties in sourcing seed and lack of marketing infrastructure, local milling capacity, and storage and seed-cleaning and processing equipment. Bakers were also interested in a broad array of wheat, but particularly in hard red, hard white, and heritage varieties. Most were unfamiliar with spelt and emmer, but expressed interest in experimenting with them. Major constraints are the lack of locally grown wheat, the cost of flour, lack of local milling capacity (4 of the 13 bakers contacted had mills), and low storage capacity for flour (requiring weekly delivery). Potential demand for locally grown wheat is high: the majority of bakers indicated they could use over 1,500 lbs of flour a week.

Year 1 – 2008: Germplasm evaluation, 25 hard red spring wheat varieties (a mix of heritage varieties and lines from the Midwestern US, Canada, and Europe) were obtained for the project from the National Small Grains Collection. These were grown out in small plots in south central NY on the farm of the NOFA-NY coordinator of the project (Chenango County). Characterization and evaluation of this material is ongoing, and will be reported on at the wheat workshop to be held at the NOFA-NY annual winter conference in January 2009. This fall, small plots of 25 heritage winter wheat varieties and four emmer varieties (from the New York State heritage wheat collection and the National Small Grains Collection) were planted on the coordinator’s farm. In addition, a grower-cooperator in the Finger Lakes region (Yates County) grew out six emmer varieties obtained from the Carrington Research Center of North Dakota State University. The bulked material will be planted out in field-scale strip plots in spring 2009 for characterization and evaluation.

Year 2 – 2009: Results from the single-plot (24ft2) grow out of 20 heritage and modern soft white and red winter wheat varieties that were bred in New York are shown in an attachment (Table 1).  Data from this trial and trials conducted at Cornell’s Willsboro Farm, combined with the results of tastings of bread and other baked goods (see below), will be used by farmers and bakers to identify varieties, both heritage and modern (commercially unavailable), that will be grown out for larger-scale trialing, and potentially, commercial production. 

Should the germplasm evaluation identify a heritage variety or varieties of interest, particularly in terms of taste and baking quality, the potential exists, through cooperation with our cooperating organic wheat breeding programs in Germany <> and Hungary to trial their composite crosses of  heritage and modern varieties and subsequent selection by growers for high-quality, high-performing cultivars.

Farmer Involvement: We trialed heritage varieties with Crabapple Farm, Tevis Robertson, Chester, MA, and at the Cold Brook Farm in Wendel, MA. We contributed heritage varieties for trials with local bakers Wheatberry and Hungry Ghost Bakeries in the Pioneer Valley.
Year 2 (2009) Harvest data attached. Our trials identifyed 18 heritage wheat varieties that yielded higher than the best yielding modern wheat, AC Maxine, grown in New England. Visit: for full trial results for: yield, tillers per plant, heads per tiller, average seed per 10 typical heads, weight per 1,000 seeds, seed density and nutritional value (protein and key minerals)

Activities – Target 2 -  Outreach, Workshops and Conferences
MOFGA coordinated a Wheat Conference in March, 2009, in which NOW (Eli Rogosa, Elizabeth Dyck, Klaas Martens, Mark Fulford and Canadian collegues) presented our research for 87 farmer-participants.
A ‘Kneading’ bread and wheat conference was conducted mid-summer in Skohegan, Maine, which hosted Maine Cooperative Extension, Mark Fulford, Glenn Roberts <>, Eli Rogosa, Jack Lazor and local farmers for workshops and discussions on how to increase local production.

NOW coordinated a Organic Wheat seminar in August in Maine with Dr. Anders Borgen, an organic wheat expert from Denmark. Anders is a reknowned European organic wheat researcher who reported to us on current organic wheat research in Europe. Elite heritage wheat were distributed from our trials. 47 farmers participated, plus 4 bakers and 3 Maine cooperative extension.
A stunning display of NOW Wheat Biodiversity was exhibited at the Common Ground Fair. See: for photos.

Year 1 – 2008: To promote information exchange between growers, bakers, and consumers and to increase capacity for wheat production and processing, a field day was held in July in the Hudson Valley on the farm of a grower-cooperator (Dutchess County). The 85 participants viewed wheat production, seed-cleaning and milling techniques and tasted breads made from varieties currently grown at the farm. Bread made from a soft wheat variety was included in the tasting. Interest in using heritage soft white and red wheats, the traditional wheats used in bread-making in colonial New York, is rekindling. This could have a significant impact on wheat production in New York, since growing conditions are more conducive to soft rather than hard wheat production. Information sheets on organic wheat and spelt production and setting up a replicated wheat variety trial on-farm were written and have been disseminated to interested growers.
Year 2 – 2009: To further information exchange between growers and end users, three winter workshops were held around the state: at Rochester, NY, as part of the NOFA-NY annual winter conference (48 participants), at Potsdam,NY, in collaboration with GardenShare (45 participants), and in Riverhead, NY (32 participants).  During the summer, five field days were held: at Cornell’s Willsboro Farm (Willsboro, NY) to view the heritage variety trial and emmer landrace trial (29 participants), at Cayuga Pure Organics (Brooktondale, NY) to discuss wheat production and Farmer Ground Flour, the new milling operation owned by farmers (32 participants), at White Frost Farm (Washingtonville, PA) at an event co-sponsored by the Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture to view the integration of wheat production into an organic vegetable farm (48 participants), at Oxbow Organic Farm (Hunt, NY) to tour a highly diversified grain farm and view an array of cleaning and drying equipment (25 participants), and at Crimson Clover Farm (Bainbridge, NY) to hold a demonstration of techniques for small-scale wheat production and processing (16 participants).
A wheat trials field day was conducted at the UMass Organic Research Farm, in July, 2009 to showcase out organic wheat trials. 73 people participated ranging from researchers and farmers to bakers.

NOW coordinated a seminar intensive in August, Brattleboro, Vermont with Dr. Anders Borgen, an organic wheat expert from Denmark. Anders is a reknowned European organic wheat researcher who reported to us on current organic wheat research in Europe. Elite heritage wheat were distributed from our trials. 47 farmers participated.
Activities – Target 3  – On-Farm Selection ?Maine
Year 1 (2008) Of the 122 spring varieties trialed at the MOFAG site, about 30% of the highest yielding, most robust and disease resistant plants were harvested. Future multiplications will use this on-farm selected material. We decided to focus on winter wheats, which produce high yields and demonstrate greater weed competition. A trial replication of the 35 winter wheat varieties was established. We distributed 32 packets of winter wheat to growers at the MOFGA COmmon Ground Fair.
We saved seed from the dominant seed heads from healthiest wheat plants that scored highest for: sturdy plant architecture, no lodging, number of tillers, robust overall plant growth, resistance to fusarium head blight and rusts, and fat, well filled seedheads.

New York
Year 1 – 2008: A replicated trial of 21 heritage soft white and red winter wheat varieties developed in NY State was planted at the Cornell Willsboro Farm in northern NY (Essex County). Replicated strip trials of modern hard red winter wheat varieties were established on two farms: one in western New York (Erie County), the other in Northeastern Pennsylvania (Montour County). The five varieties trialed (3 per farm) were selected after consultation with the cooperating farmers, Canadian organic growers, and NOW colleagues. A field-scale demonstration of three of the varieties was also planted on a farm in western NY (Orleans County). In addition, small plot demonstrations of winter wheat varieties, both heritage and modern cultivars, were established on three farms and a community garden in central and eastern NY (Otsego, Madison, Schenectady, and Delaware Counties).

Year 2 – 2009:  Data were collected from the on-farm trials established in fall of 2009.  A replicated trial of three hard red winter wheat varieties, for example, showed no differences in yield (which averaged 56 bu/A) but significant differences in grain quality (see attachment Table 2).  In spring of 2009, a hard red spring wheat trial was established on farm comparing two modern varieties with the heritage variety Red Fife.  The Red Fife yielded as well as the modern varieties (an average of 34 bu/A) and had good grain quality (12.4 % protein, 337 seconds falling number) but was negatively affected by Fusarium.  A trial comparing hard red winter varieties to Red Fife planted in the fall has also been established. 

Activities -Target 4  – Baking Trials
Maine and Vermont ?Year 1 – (2008) Baking trials of ancient emmer and einkorn wheat was conducted with the Trukenbrod Bakery <>. Results of the tests indicated that emmer and einkorn have excellent potential to make a delicious artisan bread. John Melquist the baker reports: ‘In future trials we will keep careful notes about time, temp, and proportions and will try different methods, using a “control” of each recipe with AC Barrie for valuable info on how the different flours absorb water, and to compare extensibility and elasticity of each. The Tukenbrod goal is to eventually produce both a good flatbread that puffs up nicely, and a loaf that rises on a par with modern whole wheat bread.’ See:

New York ?Year 2 (2009)
To help farmers and bakers assess the potential of New York to produce high quality wheat for baking, grain samples of farmers cooperating with the project were analyzed for protein content, falling number, and vomitoxin (the latter was essential to test given the widespread incidence of Fusarium in the state in the 2009 season).  The results of this testing show that New York organic growers can meet the quality standards set by bakers and millers, i.e., protein content for hard red varieties of 11-12.5%, falling numbers above 300 seconds, and vomitoxin below 1 ppm.  Eighteen hard red spring wheat samples collected from seven farms across the state, for example, averaged 12.8% protein and 324 seconds in terms of falling number (see attachment Table 3).  In terms of vomitoxin, 55% of the samples tested were below the suggested limit for vomitoxin.  Growers have identified the need for improved management practices (including timely harvesting) and improved infrastructure for drying and cleaning grain to further improve and maintain grain quality.

Flour quality and taste testing on promising wheats identified through trialing were conducted in January, 2010 in cooperation with Greenmarket (Council on the Environment of New York City) at the International Culinary Institute in New York City.

Impacts and Contributions/Outcomes

Interest in “locally grown bread” is high among growers, bakers, and consumers. Information provided by growers and bakers indicates the project needs to focus on 1) identifying, sourcing, and bulking seed of wheat types and varieties adapted to local growing conditions and markets; 2) helping the grower/baker community to develop infrastructure for production, processing, and delivery, and 3) helping develop marketing partnerships and direct grower-consumer relationships. We will work intensively to characterize landraces and breeding lines, to develop foundation seed quality in our material, to refine and publish our results for wider dissemination of on-farm selection methods, and will investigate the baking and market potentials of ancient grains emmer and einkorn as well as heritage wheats. Participating farmers have established a Heritage Wheat Cooperative to maintain high production standards and a local label.


Adam Dole
NESFI/White Oak Farm
275 Jackson St
Belchertown, MA 01007
Office Phone: 4133234531
Erick Smith
OGRIN/Cayuga Pure Organics
18 Banks Rd
Brooktondale, NY 14817
Office Phone: 6077930085
Dr. Géza Kovács
Former Director
Hungarian Cereal Genebank
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Hungary, AL
Jim Amaral
Borealis Breads
182 Ocean Avenue
Portland, ME 04109
Office Phone: 2075419600
Klaas Martens
Grower - trials
Lakeview Farm
119 Hamilton Place
Box 361
Penn Yan, NY 14527
Office Phone: 3155311038
Andy Dappollonio
Still River Farm
271 Love Ln
Coventry, CT 06238
Office Phone: 8607425717
June Russell
Special Project
NYC Green Market - GROW NY
51 Chambers Street
Rm 228
NYC, NY 10007
Office Phone: 2127887476
Mark Fulford
Grower - grain trialer
Teltane Farm
151 Stovepipe Alley
Monroe, ME 04951
Office Phone: 2075257761
Dr. Anders Borgen
Houvej 55
DK-9550 Mariagerm Denmark, AL
Office Phone: 4555813518
Tevis Robertson-Goldberg
Farmer - Trialer
Crabapple Farm
PO Box 263
100 Bryant Street
Chesterfield, MA 01012
Office Phone: 4132960310
Elizabeth Dyck
Organic Growers' Research and Information-Sharing Network (OGRIN)
1124 County Rd 38
Bainbridge, NY 13733
Office Phone: 6078956913
Erik Andrus
Good Companion Bakery/Boundbrook Farm
276 Burroughs Farm Road
Vergennes, VT 05491
Office Phone: 8028771396
Kate Mendenhall
249 Highland Ave
Rochester, NY 14620
Office Phone: 5852711952
Sylvia Davatz
Seedsaver Multiplier
Solstice Seed
106 Gilson Rd
Hartland, VT 05048
Office Phone: 8024363262
Alan Schwartz
276 Ames St
Lawrence, MA 01841
Office Phone: 9786882878
Dr. Abdullah Jaradat
Supervisory Research Agronomist
USDA - ARS Morris MN
MORRIS, MN 56267
Office Phone: 3205893411
Matt Williams
Grower - grain trialer
Aurora Mills
408 Burton Rd.
Linneus, ME 04370
Office Phone: 2075210094
Ben Lester
Wheatberry Bakery
321 Main S
Amherst, MA 01002
Office Phone: 4132534290
Peter Collins
Maine Heritage Grain Conservancy
Organic Grain Farmer
Coastside Research
PO BOX 151
Stonington , ME 04908
Office Phone: 2073672297
Nigel Tudor
Weatherbury Farms
1061 Sugar Run Road
Avella, PA 15312
Office Phone: 7245873763
John Lapp

Amish - White Deer
White Deer Rd
Watsontown, PA 17777
Patrick Bensen
Stony Brook Valley Farm
34 Carver St
Granby, MA 01033
Office Phone: 4134671658
Thor Oechsner
OGRIN-Trials - Farmer Ground Flour
1045 Trumbulls Corners Rd
Newfield, NY 14867
Office Phone: 6075647701
Dr. Dean Spaner
Researcher - Cooperator
University of Alberta
4-10 Agriculture Forestry Centre
University of Alberta
Edmonton AB T6G2P5, MP
Office Phone: 7804922328
Jacob L'Etoile
Four Star Farm
Pine Meadow Rd
Northfield, MA 01360
Office Phone: 4134984168
Jim Amaral
Borealis Breads
182 Ocean Avenue
Portland, ME 04109
Office Phone: 2075419600
John Melquist
baker - flour trials
Cedar Circle Farm
225 Pavillion Road
East Thedford, VT 05043
Office Phone: 8027854737
Dr. Heather Darby
researcher - Associate Professor of Agronomy
278 S. Main Street
St Albans, VT 05478
Office Phone: 8025246501
Steffen Schneider
Biodynamic Farmer
Hawthorne Valley Farm
327 County Route 21C
Ghent, NY 12075
Office Phone: 5186727500
Steve Hed
SIT Farm
Kipling Rd
Brattleboro, VT 05301
Office Phone: 8024518310
Arnie Volringer
NESFI/White Oak Farm
275 Jackson St
Belchertown, MA 01007
Office Phone: 4133234531
CR Lawn
Lead Farmer/Administrator
Fedco Seeds
52 Mayflower Hill
Waterville, ME 04901
Office Phone: 2078729093
Alton Ernhart

Lighten Tree Farm
132 Andrew Haight Rd
Millbrook, NY 12545
Office Phone: 8456779507
Joel Steigman
Small Valley Milling
1188 Mountain House Road
Halifax, PA 17032
Office Phone: 7173629850
Amber Lambke
Kneading Conference
PO Box 2060
42 Court Street
Skowhegan, ME 04976
Office Phone: 2076297182