Developing Sustainable Stored Grain IPM Systems in Oklahoma and Texas

Project Overview

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2002: $133,371.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2008
Region: Southern
State: Oklahoma
Principal Investigator:
Thomas Phillips
Oklahoma State University

Annual Reports


  • Agronomic: sorghum (milo), wheat


  • Animal Production: preventive practices
  • Crop Production: application rate management
  • Education and Training: decision support system, demonstration, display, extension, on-farm/ranch research, participatory research, technical assistance
  • Pest Management: chemical control, economic threshold, eradication, integrated pest management, physical control, prevention, sanitation, weather monitoring
  • Production Systems: holistic management, transitioning to organic
  • Sustainable Communities: sustainability measures


    Work on this project included the investigation of controlled summer aeration of bins of wheat to determine the difference in fan usage n accost in aerating manually vs using temperature-dependent fan controls. A cost-benefit analyses of fumigations vs several other IPM practices for stored grain was conducted using available cost data for typical grain elevators, and a decision-support system for IPM in grain elevators was evaluated that used regular systematic sampling of grain for insect pests. Several workshops were delivered to elevator managers throughout Oklahoma in which results from this project were reported.

    Project objectives:

    Below are the revised original objectives that were proposed by the initial PI, Dr. Noyes. Dr. Phillips assumed the role of lead PI in 2005 after Dr. Noyes retired. Focused attenion was given to objectives 2, 3, 4 and 7 during the next 2 years.
    1. Demonstrate and compare closed loop fumigation (CLF) technology in well sealed storages with conventional fumigation as a cost effective, sustainable IPM component of Oklahoma and Texas farm and elevator grain storage systems to improve efficacy, safety, and profit.
    2. Conduct physical and economic benefit analysis of suction vs pressure aeration systems operated by electro-mechanical automatic aeration controllers compared with manual control in steel bins and concrete silos at farms and elevators.
    3. Document the practicality, including cost/benefits, of increasing aeration airflow rates from the standard 0.1 cfm/bu to 0.2-0.3 cfm/bu in bolted steel farm and elevator storage systems.
    4. Evaluate physical and economic practicality of installing low airflow suction aeration plus CLF in existing concrete silos to minimize "grain turning" while improving sanitation and safety.
    5. Document worker exposure to phosphine fumigant health hazards and safety using CLF vs conventional fumigation.
    6. Establish a quarterly newsletter focused on grain storage IPM for farmers and elevator operators in OK, TX and other states available via OSU's Stored Product Internet web-site.
    7. Develop a computer or website-based software model that will serve as an electronic bin board (current operating storage record of all grain in identified silos) and electronic grain blending model to provide repeatable, global optimum grain blending to meet contract or market specifications while maintaining the maximum amount of premium grain.

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.