Trade, tenure and tourism in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico: Understanding the Policy Frameworks that will increase success for an Organics Agriculture

Project Overview

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2004: $280,000.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2008
Grant Recipient: Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture
Region: Southern
State: U.S. Virgin Islands
Principal Investigator:
Janie Hipp
Eric Wailes
University of Arkansas
Louis Petersen, Jr.
University of the Virgin Islands

Annual Reports


  • Fruits: avocados, bananas, citrus, figs, melons, papaya, pineapples
  • Vegetables: beans, carrots, eggplant, garlic, greens (leafy), okra, onions, peppers, tomatoes
  • Additional Plants: herbs, ornamentals
  • Animals: bees, fish, goats, poultry, sheep, swine
  • Animal Products: eggs, honey


  • Education and Training: decision support system, extension, focus group, networking, participatory research, workshop
  • Farm Business Management: agricultural finance, agritourism, budgets/cost and returns, cooperatives, feasibility study, market study, marketing management, value added
  • Production Systems: holistic management
  • Sustainable Communities: infrastructure analysis, partnerships, social capital, sustainability measures, urban/rural integration


    An analysis of policy constraints and barriers to enhance sustainable local food supply chain linkages to tourism in the U.S. Virgin Islands determined that inadequate access to land, irrigation, and credit were important production barriers. Critical supply chain barriers included inadequate linkages, including knowledge about availability, demand, price information, and coordination of quantity and quality of local foods. A pilot project to integrate local food producers and island restaurants and resorts was initiated. A directory of suppliers and restaurant/resorts was published. Key collaborators were appointed to policy decision-making positions to address production and marketing constraints.

    Project objectives:

    This project explores a new priority area for SSARE, namely an analysis of policy, program evaluation and quality of life. The farming communities within USVI are made up of many who do not have access to vast amounts of land. Their tenure is, for the most part, not based on land ownership and as such their capacity and incentive to conserve, protect or make substantial or expensive changes in production practices and methods is limited. So, to that extent, they are limited-resource farmers. The project objectives are aimed at increasing and encouraging growth in the organics and sustainable agriculture sector, particularly in its linkages with existing tourism sectors and other appropriate avenues that will encourage stabilization and growth of agriculture in the islands. Implicit in the goal of encouraging growth in the organics and sustainable agriculture sectors is the encouragement of environmentally sound agricultural practices and preservation and conservation of agricultural ecosystems in the islands. Finally, by encouraging and fostering growth in the organics and sustainable agriculture sectors, the marketing of agricultural products at the local-island level and the promotion of economic development within the islands by linking the local food system to the local tourism industry will necessarily be the avenue of choice.

    Having demonstrated the cross-cutting nature of the proposed project (i.e., across multiple priority areas of the SSARE programming effort), the project directors and collaborators settled on the emerging priority area of: Policy, Program Evaluation, and Quality of Life as the priority area for this particular project. The thread that intertwines all goals and objectives of the project is the need to analyze different policy options available to the island agriculturalist in order to determine the potential for greatest achievement of the goals of encouraging local food in the tourism industry and increasing the presence of organics and sustainable agriculture within the island agricultural sector.

    Policy identification and the process of evaluating different policy scenarios throughout the course of this project will give the Island participants the opportunity to determine the best avenues to address current policy situations and the clearest path to policy reforms that might be needed in order to encourage organic and sustainable agriculture in linkage with the local tourism industry.
    Objectives of the project include: 1) conduct research and analysis of policy constraints/barriers to enhance agricultural market development, particularly in organics and agricultural products in sustainable production systems, in general; 2) conduct research and analysis of the policy constraints/barriers, opportunities and potential economic impact for increases in organic and sustainable marketing specifically within the tourism sectors in both the USVI; and 3) transmittal/outreach of project findings to the agricultural, trade and tourism sectors throughout USVI.

    The project team met regularly to review progress and constraints in achieving project goals. Meetings were accomplished via telephone conference call and with in-person meetings on a regular basis. The effectiveness of this project was determined in a number of ways. Survey demographic results was compared to information from the official agricultural statistical survey sources, as well as other relevant sources, to determine if consistencies exist across data collection methods. Requests for information were monitored. Information gained at the end of the project as to policies impacted, plans for change and linkages encouraged (especially involving keys and barriers to success) will be monitored beyond the project time frame.

    Effectiveness of the project in gaining participation from those affected in the USVI was determined through responses to survey instruments, participation in focus group sessions, through participation in end-phase symposiums on the issues and placing of project personnel into positions of leadership and authority to implement project recommendations into the future.

    Ultimately, the success of the project will be measured by the policy impact and whether key policies were identified for change and finally whether change occurred that would herald an improved situation for sustainable agriculture, the local producer and the organic sector growth.

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.