- Agronomic: grass (misc. perennial), hay
- Nuts: pecans
- Animals: bovine
- Animal Production: grazing - rotational, feed/forage
- Crop Production: multiple cropping
- Education and Training: demonstration, extension, on-farm/ranch research
- Farm Business Management: budgets/cost and returns
- Pest Management: integrated pest management
- Production Systems: holistic management, integrated crop and livestock systems
This demonstration showed that legumes can meet the pecan trees’ N requirement even if grazed. However, increasing N application by 10% in grazed orchards likely would be a good long term investment to offset loss to grazing. Legumes may offer the greatest benefit on grazed sites that tend to have less native forage, e.g. flood prone sites, as they offer grazing benefits as well as nitrogen fixing benefits. Higher yield of both pecans and beef in the non-flood site suggests the need to correct drainage problems or, if that is not possible, to focus management inputs on those trees with the greatest production potential.
Demonstrate the effects of a legume based grazed native pecan orchard management system on soil N fixation, soil characteristics and beneficial insect attraction.
Demonstrate trapping and weather monitoring to schedule pecan weevil and scab spray programs compatible with livestock.
Demonstrate a fully integrated and sustainable legume based beef and native pecan production system.
Quantify treatment effects on changes to the plant community.
Quantify the economic benefits of legumes, weevil trapping, scab monitoring and grazing in a native pecan system.