- Animals: bovine, goats, sheep
- Animal Production: parasite control, herbal medicines, grazing - multispecies, preventive practices, grazing - rotational
- Education and Training: demonstration, farmer to farmer, on-farm/ranch research, workshop
- Farm Business Management: whole farm planning
- Production Systems: holistic management
Controlled grazing produced good results for prevention of parasites in small ruminants. For one goat producer, this management change was all that was needed to completely eliminate parasitism in his herd, which increased his profits. A liquid garlic preparation had less effect in two sheep flocks than chemical anthelmintics, but not by much. No treatment was very effective in these two flocks but this was due to excessively high rainfall. When controlled grazing was better implemented by these two producers, new cases of parasitism decreased. Papaya seeds had some positive effect but no decreased in fecal egg counts were seen. Chicory also showed some benefit but livestock were not on it long enough at one time to get definitive results. These two treatments needs more research which will be carried out in Phase II.
There is no single answer, as producers have been accustomed to using chemical anthelmintics. Instead, producers must use a multi-pronged approach. Controlled or management intensive grazing provides a good management strategy for preventing parasitism in many sheep and goats. Grazing forage at a height that provides optimal nutrition also keeps livestock from ingesting high levels of parasitic larvae. Weather plays a role and rain events need to be monitored to determine rotations of livestock to prevent grazing pastures with high larval numbers due to moist conditions. Certain pasture plants have anthelmintic properties. How often and for how long livestock need to graze on these plants remains to be fully determined. Selecting for animals who exhibit a high level of resilience, being able to produce and perform even with internal parasites, has to be carefully done. Mixed species grazing helps to break parasite life cycles of both livestock species. Some herbal remedies appear to have an effect but dosages and frequencies of treatment are unknown.
This project will address all of the above approaches. The sheep flock at Heifer Ranch has been rotationally grazed using controlled grazing techniques for three years. The rotations have been based on forage height, animals’ nutritional needs and presumed parasitic larval pasture contamination. Cattle have been grazed after sheep to help break the parasite life cycles. Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has been planted in one pasture as an anthelmintic treatment though grazing. A garlic juice preparation has been given to predetermined group of sheep for the purpose of determining changes in fecal egg counts and weight gains. This same garlic juice preparation has been given to sheep that have shown signs of parasitism, based on fecal egg counts, FAMACHA eye test scores and other clinical signs. Papaya seeds have also been given as a treatment following garlic juice treatment. This treatment has shown some astonishing results. Rainfall data have been recorded and plotted over the last 3 years. Each year has been vastly different but we have not changed our pasture rotations due to rainfall.
Our goal is to have no clinical cases of parasitism in our sheep. But since that is very difficult to achieve given our climate we want to have some natural, non-chemical anthelmintics we know will work. Because of our success with our grazing management and the results of the garlic and papaya, we feel that these approaches can provide sheep and goat producers with some effective control measures.