Neem and Papaya Fruit Extracts and Ferric Phosphate for Control of Golden Apple Snail in Wetland Taro: Efficacy Testing

Project Overview

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2003: $31,831.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2004
Matching Non-Federal Funds: $6,750.00
Region: Western
State: Hawaii
Principal Investigator:
Lance Santo
Hawaii Agriculture Research Center
Mel Jackson
Hawaii Agriculture Research Center


  • Vegetables: taro


  • Crop Production: multiple cropping
  • Education and Training: demonstration, display, extension, on-farm/ranch research, participatory research
  • Farm Business Management: feasibility study, value added
  • Natural Resources/Environment: biodiversity, wetlands, wildlife
  • Pest Management: biological control, botanical pesticides, disease vectors, integrated pest management, mating disruption
  • Soil Management: soil quality/health
  • Sustainable Communities: partnerships, sustainability measures

    Proposal abstract:

    Water-based extracts of neem and papaya fruits were tested for their effectiveness in the control of the Golden Apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in wetland taro cultivation systems. Water extracts were tested at two rates and in combination. Neem extracts were found to be most effective with in excess of 90% snail mortality observed over the test period. No phytotoxicity was observed, however, younger taro plants were found to be much more susceptible to attack than older ones. In addition, a commercially available ferric phosphate formulation was tested. A significant effect on mortality, egg laying and protection of plants was not seen.

    Project objectives from proposal:

    Objectives/Performance targets:

    1. To determine the efficacy of various formulation mixes and rates of application of neem (Azadirachta indica ) and papaya (Carica papaya L.) extracts on apple snail populations in commercial lo'i.

    2. To determine the effects of the various formulations selected from Objective 1 on non-target species residing within the lo'i.

    3. To disseminate the results of the project to taro growers through a field demonstration, publications and web sites, and through grower association seminars.

    4. To initiate the EPA registration process of a botanical for use in taro lo'i

    5. To determine the efficacy of NEU1165M Slug and Snail Bait™ (1% ferric phosphate) on apple snail populations in commercial lo'i at the currently registered label rate and at a 5X exaggerated rate.

    6. To determine the effects of NEU1165M Slug and Snail Bait™ (1% ferric phosphate) on non-target species residing within the lo'i.

    7. To initiate the EPA process (through IR-4 and the manufacturer) of amending a current label so that that this material is registered for use in wetland taro lo'i

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.