Integration of Microbial Pesticides in Pome-Fruit Production in the Pacific Northwest

Project Overview

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2008: $120,598.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2011
Region: Western
State: Washington
Principal Investigator:

Annual Reports


  • Fruits: apples, pears, general tree fruits


  • Pest Management: biological control, biorational pesticides, field monitoring/scouting, mulches - killed, weather monitoring


    A new isolate of the codling moth granulovirus, CpGV, was found to be equally effective as the commercial Mexican isolate, showing it to be a viable alternative to the Mexican isolate in cases of resistance development. A wood-based, anti-desiccant foam improved the efficacy of entomogenous nematode treatments on tree trunks for control of codling moth. Fumigation of adult and larval codling moth with volatile compounds produced by the fungus Muscador alba resulted in high mortality of all stages. Pandemis granulovirus killed all Pandemis pyrusana larvae prior to pupation and reduced feeding damage. Ongoing studies show the potential for auto-dissemination of the Pandemis virus by male moths. Seven grower presentations were made focusing on the use of codling moth granulovirus, and three technical articles were produced on some of these topics. Organic growers showed high satisfaction with the efficacy of CydX for codling moth control, except for requirements for repeated applications, largely due to solar inactivation.

    Project objectives:

    1. Monitor the effectiveness of operational spray programs, including microbials (chiefly CM virus) in apple and pear orchards. (This monitoring was terminated after 2009 and superseded by New Objective 5)

    2. Conduct research components as part of Objective 1:

    a) obtain baseline data of efficacy of commercial formulations of CpGV to facilitate resistance monitoring among regional pest populations;

    b) evaluate new CpGV virus strain in laboratory and field trials;

    c) test new formulations (lignin- and particle-film based adjuvants) to improve the stability (UV tolerance) and effectiveness of CpGV under field conditions.

    3. Determine the effects of volatile organic compounds emitted by the fungus Muscador albus on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples and cocooned larvae in diapause in simulated storage conditions.

    4. Evaluate the effects of anti-desiccant agents in mulch and on tree trunks for improvement of larvicidal activity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae for CM control.

    5. Evaluate the efficacy of the Pandemis granulovirus on the Pandemis leafroller (Objective added to replace 1 and 2a, above).

    6. Disseminate relevant information such as optimal application strategies or issues of concern regarding secondary pests through specified outreach activities.

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.