Breadfruit Agroforestry – Overcoming Barriers to Adoption

Project Overview

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2024: $313,337.00
Projected End Date: 06/30/2027
Grant Recipient: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Region: Western
State: Hawaii
Principal Investigator:
Dr. Noa Lincoln
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Sharon Wages
Univerity of Hawaii


  • Agronomic: other


  • Crop Production: agroforestry

    Proposal abstract:

    While agroforestry is promoted as a method of farming that can
    increase social and environmental outcomes, there is a deficiency
    of practical information on agroforestry outcomes to support
    adoption. The proposed project builds upon an existing
    collaboration between the University of Hawai’i, Hawai’i ‘Ulu
    Producers Cooperative, and Propagate to build resources,
    narratives, and tools to support the adoption of diversified
    agroforestry production. This project most specifically targets
    current and potential breadfruit agroforestry farmers in Hawai’i,
    however, the findings and resources will be more broadly
    applicable to potential agroforestry farmers throughout the
    tropics, such as Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and other
    US-affiliated Pacific Islands.


    This project gathers data primarily documenting the economic
    costs and benefits of agroforestry practices, specifically
    centered around ‘ulu (breadfruit; Artocarpus
    ) and other indigenous co-crops. This work expands
    upon the recently created ‘Ulu Agroforestry Guide
    and ‘Ulu Production Primer (,
    both co-produced with the project partners, to provide more
    comprehensive quantitative and qualitative assessments of
    benefits associated with agroforestry adoption in Hawai‘i. The
    two overarching research objectives are: to gather and build
    detailed data on the benefits and costs of agroforestry in
    partnership with farmers who have adopted agroforestry; and to
    survey non-agroforestry farmers about their barriers and
    reservations in regards to adopting agroforestry. Through
    on-farm, co-produced methods, and peer-to-peer learning of
    genuine real-world skills, scenarios and problems, this project
    helps overcome barriers while assessing them. It gives support to
    improve existing agroforestry efforts and aims to provide
    economic clarity and confidence for establishing new agrosystems
    for both farmers and financiers.


    This project’s educational objectives get research on the ground
    by building and refining tools, curating resources that address
    farmers’ barriers to agroforestry adoption, and providing direct
    learning opportunities through peer-to-peer engagement as well as
    through technical assistance and farmer training programs.
    Specifically, education outputs transmit what we are researching
    through: (1) community education, in-person engagement, and
    hands-on learning of agroforestry at a demonstration agroforestry
    system at O.K. Farms; (2) a compilation of existing resources
    that address barriers to agroforestry adoption, as prescribed by
    Hawai’i agribusiness professionals; (3) webinars, engagement with
    GoFarms agroforestry training program, and peer-to-peer learning
    networks; (4) creating an Agroforestry Guide that provides
    quantitative examples of the costs and benefits of agroforestry
    adoption in Hawai‘i; and (5) using finding to refine the
    Overyield software for tropical ‘ulu agroforestry to more
    accurately forecast economic viability and environmental

    Project objectives from proposal:

    Research Objective 1: Quantifying benefits and costs of
    ‘ulu agroforestry

    Research Objective 2: Surveying farmers about barriers to
    adopting agroforestry

    Education Objective 1: Community engagement through
    Farmer Agroforestry Field Days

    Education Objective 2: Resources and interventions to
    address barriers to agroforestry adoption, prescribed by Hawai’i
    agribusiness professionals

    Education Objective 3: Agroforestry Adoption Webinars and
    other Trainings

    Education Objective 4: Expanded second edition of ‘Ulu
    Agroforestry Guide

    Education Objective 5: Overyield model
    software development for tropical ‘ulu agroforestry

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.