Gullah/Geechee Agro-Culture: Sustaining Culture to Sustain Agriculture in the Lowcountry

Progress report for LS21-355

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2021: $341,346.00
Projected End Date: 03/31/2024
Grant Recipients: University of South Carolina Beaufort; Young Gullah/Geechee Farmers and Fishers Association; Gullah/Geechee Sea Island Coalition
Region: Southern
State: South Carolina
Principal Investigator:
Dr. Najmah Thomas
University of South Carolina Beaufort
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Project Information

Abstract:

Gullah/Geechee culture is characterized by self-determination and self-sufficiency; it is defiantly African and distinctively place-based. Created by the human will of people from multiple sections of the West Coast of Africa who were enslaved on plantations along the southeast coast, Gullah/Geechee represents the only group of African Americans who maintained a significant amount of Africanisms including foodways, land use practices, subsistence fishing, and the spoken Gullah language (Goodwine, 1998; Politzer, 1999). For centuries, Gullah/Geechee communities sustained a way of life predicated on the wealth of close-knit family compounds, and carefully nurtured the resources of the land and water (Dean, 2013). In recent decades, this way of life has been disrupted due to inequitable public policy. Beyond the negative impact on the immediate community, this disruption also has negative impacts on the larger farming ecosystem. Research shows that culture and agriculture ecosystems are inextricably linked – sustain culture, sustain agriculture (Dean, 2013).

The importance of Gullah/Geechee culture in the narrative of the American story is carefully outlined in a 435-page report by the National Park Service (NPS, 2005). The NPS report describes how 70% of African Americans in Beaufort County, SC owned farmland from 1870 until the 1960s. The report also details issues such as taxation and Heir’s Property regulations resulted in massive land loss in the Gullah/Geechee community; as much as 20,000 acres were taken out of farming production within a five- year period. The Gullah/Geechee family farmers who currently remain on their land have limited capacity to operate their farms, and as a result, the transfer of wealth in knowledge and land to the next generation of Gullah/Geechee farmers is uncertain. This participatory action research project aims to engage farmers and fishers from the Gullah/Geechee culture in determining potentially workable strategies to address capacity issues and sustainability of family farming and food security across generations. Research questions will be investigated using a systems approach that connects Gullah/Geechee farmers and fishers, community members and organizations, and public policy scientists into a collaborative agricultural systems research team. This team will collect and analyze data on the current state of Gullah/Geechee farming and fishing communities on St. Helena Island, identify and catalogue community-level strategies that can be used to transfer wealth to young Gullah/Geechee community members, and deploy a framework that can be replicated in other Gullah/Geechee communities in the region.

This project is consistent with SARE’s mission of advancing innovations that improve profitability, stewardship and the quality of life; and SARE’s vision of agriculture as a rewarding way of life for farmers whose operations sustain their communities. Moreover, this project is well-aligned with SARE’s program objectives because it will strengthen and sustain Gullah/Geechee family farm systems for future generations, it will improve the quality of life for rural communities by enhancing local food systems and partnerships, it addresses the needs of limited-resource farming communities, and it promotes traditional Gullah/Geechee practices valuing holistic approaches and strategies that support crop, livestock and enterprise diversification, and the well-being of the community, wildlife and waterways.

Project Objectives:

The purpose of this project is to strengthen Gullah/Geechee family farming and fishing systems and position future generations for long-term profitability and stability. In order to achieve this purpose, our systems research will work to meet the following objectives over a three-year period:

  1. Conduct farm mapping and story documentation with the Gullah/Geechee communities on St. Helena Island that have existing family farming/fishing operations, identifying key quantitative and qualitative data related to people, produce, pests, policies and profits by the end of Year 1. This objective is relevant to the study purpose because a component of sustainability for the Gullah/Geechee agro-culture system is the transfer of generational knowledge and skills. By mapping and documenting the stories of existing family and fishing communities, our study will serve as a stop gap for Gullah/Geechee community members who have been disconnected from family compounds and the crucial generational knowledge transfer. Moreover, much of the data and findings from the mapping work will inform the process and strategies for Objectives 2-6.
  2. Conduct a capacity analysis of local associations, cooperatives and markets (scope, participation, primary activities) on and around St. Helena Island by the end of Year 1. This objective is relevant to the study purpose because it will provide important and timely information about the availability of local support and technical assistance services for small family operations, as well as the level of resource mobilization for Gullah/Geechee farmers and fishers. Updated information on the status of farmers markets is especially important, given the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on marketing activities and locations that have been traditionally used by Gullah/Geechee operations. This objective is directly related to the purpose of improving profitability and long term financial viability for socially disadvantaged farmers.
  3. Conduct an equity analysis of local and state resources and policies related to farming and fishing operations by the end of Year 2. This objective is relevant to the study purpose for two reasons: (1) this work will help identify current policies, regulations and practices that may be having negative impacts on the economic viability for Gullah/Geechee farming operations, and (2) the work will also help identify potential policies that can better support these operations in the short and long-term. This objective is also directly related to the purpose of improving profitability and long term financial viability for socially disadvantaged farmers.
  4. Develop and test a methodology to attract and educate young (under age 55) Gullah/Geechee farmers and fishers by the end of Year 2. This objective is relevant to the study purpose because it seeks to reengage some members who have already been disconnected from family farming and traditional fishing, as well as to connect with other members of the community earlier in their career development process. If a methodology is successfully developed, it can be used to eventually close the gap in the generational knowledge transfer process, thereby improving the chances for long term sustainability of Gullah/Geechee farming and fishing operations on St. Helena Island.
  5. Develop and disseminate Gullah/Geechee Agro-Culture framework to at least 7 other communities in the Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor by October, Year 3. This objective is relevant to the study purpose it will present a research based and culturally relevant theoretical approach to help strengthen family farming and fishing systems, and position future generations for long-term profitability and stability in communities well beyond the initial study area. This objective is also related to the purpose of improving the quality of life for families, consumers and communities.
  6. Conduct an outcome evaluation of the Gullah/Geechee Agro-Culture research project and prepare a written report by the end of Year 3. This objective is relevant to the study purpose because it will help ensure the appropriate use of resources, provide comprehensive documentation of the process and research project outcomes, as well as identify recommendations for future research efforts related to Gullah/Geechee Agro-culture.

Cooperators

Click linked name(s) to expand/collapse or show everyone's info
  • Ben Johnson - Producer
  • Daryl Orage - Producer
  • Glen Thomas - Producer

Research

Materials and methods:

Gullah/Geechee Agro-Culture Systems Research Methods

The purpose of this project is to strengthen Gullah/Geechee family farming and fishing systems, and position future generations for long-term profitability and stability. The research from this project will result in identification of barriers to policies such as regional fair trade value chains that support middle-class family farming systems; the research will also result in increased awareness of fresh food as a social and health justice issue and better position family farming and fishing operations as key considerations in the policy agenda. This is an exploratory study based on research regarding the potential for value chains and similar practices in agriculture to reduce poverty among socially disadvantaged farmers (Seville, Buxton and Vorley, 2011; USDA Marketing Service Report, 2014), as well as previously noted research regarding the potential application of sustainable farming knowledge related to the practices of indigenous people (Dean, 2013). The study at hand will collect and examine data in order to describe findings and recommendations in response to the following question: Are culturally integrated agricultural systems more financially viable and sustainable than less culturally integrated systems?

A mixed methods approach will be used during this study; the quantitative and qualitative techniques for data collection and analysis related to each of the six research objectives are described in detail below. Researchers suggest a number of justifications for the mixed methods approach in investigations of social phenomena and social inquiry. Green et al (1989) summarizes the five major purposes for mixed methods research design as triangulation, complementarity, development, initiation, and expansion. The mixed methods approach was identified for this study due to expansion and initiation. Expansion provides richness and detail to the study and primarily results in better understanding of phenomena. This is of particular importance to our proposed study, given the need to gain a better understanding of how Gullah/Geechee farmers experience the components outlined in the system, and what those experiences mean when it comes to sustaining farming operations in the long-term. An additional rationale for using mixed methods is initiation. The objective of initiation is to stimulate new questions and challenge results obtained through one method, and understand existing research more insightfully and from fresh perspectives (Sydenstricker-Neto, 1997). This allows for consideration of outcomes as well as the particular circumstances within which individuals act, and the influence context can have on their outcomes. Conducting research in this method will allow for a better understanding of how the actions of Gullah/Geechee farmers and fishers are shaped by the unique system in which those actions take place.

Research Objective Data Collection and Analysis

The section below describes quantitative and qualitative techniques for data collection and analysis related to each of the six research objectives for our study. The education and outreach methodology is also discussed, along with the cooperating partner(s) to be involved in each objective. 

Objective 1 – Farm mapping and story documentation:

Our research team will conduct mapping and story documentation with the Gullah/Geechee communities on St. Helena Island that have existing family farming/fishing operations, in order to identify key quantitative and qualitative data related to the number of family members engaged in farming and fishing activities (people), the type and quantity of vegetables, fruits and livestock produced by the family farm (produce), the challenges and strategies associated with managing pests such as ants, deer, squirrels, etc. (pests), the impact of any state or local regulations and requirements on the farm operation (policies) and the estimated amount of earnings from farming and fishing activities during the past three years (profits) 1. This primary data will be collected through key-informant interviews and surveys; small teams (2-3) of African American Studies undergraduate students (supervised by PI) will conduct in-person and phone interviews of key informants (including audio/video and photos with consent) in each community using semi-structured interview protocol informed by secondary data collected through content analysis of historical records related to farming and fishing operations on St. Helena Island. In-person, online and phone surveys of Gullah/Geechee community members will be conducted using a snowball sampling strategy. The survey protocol design will be informed by findings of key informant interviews. Additional variables for the interviews and surveys will include gender, age, ethnicity, years farming, number supported by farm, primary markets for produce, and changes observed over the last decade. Quantitative data will be analyzed with t-tests to compare means across communities, and stepwise regression in order to operationalize a “community strength” variable. Secondary data for this objective will come from the 2017 US Census of Agriculture Data for South Carolina (farm census). Farm census data includes details on land use and ownership, operator characteristics and demographics, production practices, income and expenditures. This data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics to compare St. Helena Island data with statewide data points.  African American farmers well serve as proxy for Gullah/Geechee farmers, since the culture is not specifically identified as an option for census data at this time. The cooperating partners involved in this objective are the African American Student Association at the University of South Carolina Beaufort for data collection, Papa Brown Farms, Earth People Farms, and Ben Johnson, Jr. for connections to local farmer and fisher respondents, and the Gullah/Geechee Sea Island Coalition for design of the interview and survey protocols.

Objective 2 - Capacity analysis of local associations, cooperatives and markets:

The primary investigator will conduct a capacity analysis of local associations, cooperatives and markets (scope, participation, primary activities, quantity and quality of support available to Gullah/Geechee family farm operations) on and around St. Helena Island. Primary data will be collected through structured interviews with key informants, and observation of farmers markets, and farmer’s cooperatives and association meetings. Secondary data for this objective will also come from the 2017 US Census of Agriculture Data for South Carolina (farm census).  The cooperating partners involved in this objective are the SC Coastal Community Development Corporation and the Young Gullah/Geechee Farmers and Fishers Association.

Objective 3 - Equity analysis of local and state resources and policies:

Secondary data related policies that directly and indirectly impact farming and fishing operations will be collected via content analysis. The primary investigator will conduct a review of the South Carolina Department of Agriculture and the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources websites, as well as the Beaufort County Assessor, Business Licensing, Code Enforcement, Communications and Accountability, Legislative Delegation, Mosquito Control, Parks & Recreation, Planning, and Community Development department websites. Each site will be examined using a uniform coding sheet; information related to actual policies and regulations, potential regulation scope, fee requirements, funding opportunities   The lead cooperating partner involved in this objective is the SC Coastal Community Development Corporation.

Objective 4 - Attracting and educating young Gullah/Geechee farmers & fishers:

The primary investigator and the director of Youth Gullah/Geechee Farmers and Fishers Association will develop and test a methodology for attracting and educating potential farmers and fishers under age 55 who may not yet see farming and fishing as a viable career path. Educational materials will be created to describe the cultural, financial, environmental, and social benefits of family farming and fishing operations to the target audience. The methodology will include marketing and outreach tailored to the target audience, mentoring matches with Elders, and stipends for cooperating farmers and fishers. Our research team will conduct a survey (online, phone and in-person) of participants to measure level of involvement, satisfaction, change in awareness, and identify future programming needs. The cooperating partners involved in this objective are SC Coastal Community Development Corporation, the Young Gullah/Geechee Farmers and Fishers Association and African American Student Association.

Objective 5 - Gullah/Geechee Agro-Culture framework development and dissemination:

Findings from the literature review, mapping and story documentation, as well as results from the Young Gullah/Geechee Farmers & Fishers Association will be used to develop an agro-culture framework for use throughout the Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor (Jacksonville, NC to Jacksonville, FL). This framework will include a narrative description of the agro-culture system, purpose, objectives, methodology, concepts, partners, strategies, measurements, tools, and outcomes from our research project. The framework narrative will be complimented by a 1-page illustration for an ‘at-a-glance’ presentation of the research process. Gullah/Geechee communities have many similarities, but are also very distinct from one another; what works in one community might not work in another. Due to this variation, the framework will be developed using an iterative process; phase 1 includes literature review/mapping; phase 2 entails testing and validating the framework with Gullah/Geechee family farming communities in Charleston, SC. Deficiencies in the framework will be identified though use of the system sustainability filter, to ensure implementation does not make other parts of the system less sustainable. The lead cooperating partner for this objective is the Gullah/Geechee Sea Island Coalition.

Objective 6 - Project Evaluation:

An evaluation team will conduct a process evaluation in year 1 to determine if activities are being implemented as planned, and to also help identify initial variations between projected budget and actual costs. An interim evaluation will be conducted mid-way through the project to inform the research team about how the planned interventions are actually going, and provide information that will help the research team determine where to make adjustments, revise objectives or resource allocations if necessary. During the final months, the team will conduct an outcome evaluation to address the question "Did the project achieve its intended outcomes and to what extent?" The evaluation report will provide conclusive information regarding planned versus actual outcomes, and recommendations for future research. All cooperating partners will be involved in this objective.

Participatory Action Research Team

Our study will be conducted as participatory action research (PAR). Often used in the social sciences, PAR is a methodology that helps researchers to better understand the world while trying to implement change in a collaborative process. Essential components of PAR are reflection, data collection, action and more reflection. In keeping with the method of PAR, this study will directly involve members of the Gullah/Geechee community in research as an action to reduce inequities and improve our quality of life. The systems research approach is clear in our proposal, resulting from years of informally exchanging ideas between Gullah/Geechee farmers and fishers, community activists, and researchers with the common goal of improving the social and economic position of our communities. SSARE’s grant program presented a unique opportunity for us to formalize our ongoing efforts as a research team. See figure 2 (GG AgroCulture System Research Team) for an illustration of our research team. A brief description of the background and unique contributions for each team member to this research effort is described below.

Ben Johnson, Jr. (cooperating farmer) – Mr. Johnson is an Elder farmer (81 years old) with a documented track record of farming excellence in the Scott and Capers communities of St. Helena Island. He produces a variety of vegetables and raises livestock (cattle, hogs and pigs). This cooperating farmer was selected for his connections with other Elder farmers, as well as his demonstrated willingness to share knowledge with beginning farmers.

Earth People™ Farms/Glen Thomas (cooperating farmer) – Earth People™ Farms is a micro farm in the Frogmore community of St. Helena Island; they produce sustainably-grown specialty and heirloom crops (asparagus, black cherry tomatoes, African and Star of David Okra, purple sweet potatoes, and lilies) and traditional Gullah/Geechee herbs. This cooperating farmer was selected because of their successful track record navigating the NRCS process, their marketing experience (especially social media presence), and their history of providing technical assistance to Elder farmers regarding the NRCS process.

Papa Brown Farms/Daryl Orage (cooperating farmer) – Papa Brown Farms is a vegetable and hemp farmer in the Lands End community of St. Helena Island. This cooperating farmer was selected for their experience in the emerging hemp industry, their connections with local farming associations and cooperatives, and their technical experience with coordinating USDA produce distribution programs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Gullah/Geechee Sea Island Coalition – This coalition is an internationally recognized group working for the continuation of Gullah/Geechee culture and the protection of the rights of Gullah/Geechee people. The coalition maintains the Alkebulan archives, the only repository of its kind containing thousands of documents, reports, artifacts, memorabilia, photos and videos related to Gullah/Geechee history and lived experience. This cooperating partner was selected due to its established connections with Gullah/Geechee communities from Jacksonville, North Carolina to Jacksonville, Florida.

Young Gullah/Geechee Farmers and Fishers Association – The Young Gullah/Geechee Farmers and Fishers Association is a social profit entity, organized on St. Helena Island, SC for the purpose of ensuring the viability of traditional African farming and fishing practices across generations. Its mission is to connect youth and young adults with opportunities to earn fair wages and build marketable skills while learning about their Gullah/Geechee culture through fishing and farming. This cooperating partner was selected because they provide three important services that will be instrumental to the agro-culture research project: Earn & Learn – project-based temporary work assignments for youth ages 14 – 24; projects relate to all aspects of farming, fishing, and community building; workers receive above-market rate compensation and a certificate of completion after successfully completing each project; Farming & Fishing Workshops – virtual and in-person workshops on a variety of topics including farm equipment selection and maintenance, weed management, wildlife management, hoop house construction, farm financing, marketing and social media management, specialty crops, and weather event emergency planning; and, Small/Elder Farmer Technical Assistance – virtual and in-person support for existing farmers, including bedding/tilling, electric and traditional fencing installation, well repair, drip irrigation installation, crop damage identification and mitigation, and succession planning (keeping land as farmland for generations).

SC Coastal Community Development Corporation - The mission of South Carolina Coastal Community Development Corporation (SCCCDC) is to act as a change agent to protect the rights of the residents of Sea Island and coastal communities and to empower them to develop educationally, culturally, socially and economically. The SC CCDC works with community residents to address opportunities to add value to human and natural resources through the creation of new markets for farmers, seafood purveyors, food producers and other local entrepreneurs and through the development of related sectors. The SCCCDC was selected as a cooperating partner due to their past experience, their facilities (commercial kitchen, packing house, business incubator) and technical resources, as well as their belief that developing a common purpose is a critical first step in developing a sustainable community organizing infrastructure.

African American Student Association – The mission of the African American Student Association is to build awareness of African American history; exhibit excellence and support cross cultural understanding on the USCB campus, and volunteer with relevant community service organizations. The association is comprised of undergraduate students from a variety of majors, all with a strong background in African American Studies. The association was selected as a cooperating partner due to its track record of success with community-based research and service projects in the past. Association members have been particularly active in the support of Elders on St. Helena Island, via the Penn Center, Inc. and the Gullah Church Nurses Association.

Human Services Program – The Human Services Program at USCB is the state’s only 4-year program accredited by the National Council for Standards in Human Services Education (CSHSE). A major component of the human services profession involves the assessment of the needs of clients and client groups and the planning of programs and interventions that will assist clients and client groups in promoting optimal functioning, growth, and goal attainment. Further, as a CSHSE-accredited program, the USCB Human Services Program requires as majors to complete a total of 360 clock hours in the field. This program was selected as a cooperating partner due to its focus on program evaluation and service learning, and due to the availability of senior-level interns with data collection and evaluation experience.

Hospitality and Tourism Advisors – The Gullah/Geechee agro-culture systems is connected to the hospitality and tourism industry in a variety of ways. A group of hospitality and tourism advisors will be assembled to provide input on data collection and analysis, as well as policy recommendations.

Institutional Review Board and Timeline

USCB’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) process will be adhered to during all phases of this research to ensure confidentiality and ethical consent processes. The project will result in development and dissemination of high quality educational materials related to sustainability for Gullah/Geechee family farm systems. The research team will identify multiple formats and delivery methods to ensure use and availability of these resources across all age levels for the long-term, given the importance of intergenerational knowledge transfer. Materials will be designed for maximum flexibility (in-person and virtually in synchronous and asynchronous modalities). We anticipate a direct reach of 90 current and potential farmers in the Gullah/Geechee communities of St. Helena Island, based on existing Gullah/Geechee farmers and fishers and their family members. We expect an indirect reach of 300 current and potential farmers in the Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor.

Participation Summary

Educational & Outreach Activities

30 Consultations
2 Curricula, factsheets or educational tools
18 On-farm demonstrations
2 Online trainings
17 Tours
10 Webinars / talks / presentations
3 Workshop field days

Participation Summary:

42 Farmers participated
5 Ag professionals participated
Education/outreach description:

OUTREACH PLAN

St. Helena’s estimated population is 10,300, of which we estimate approximately 5,600 are likely to identify as Gullah/Geechee. Of that target population, we expect to directly reach a minimum of 300 community members through this research effort. We anticipate that COVID-19 restrictions will limit travel related to our outreach plan as well as restrict in-person events, especially during the initial year of our research project. As such we plan to develop a hybrid outreach approach that recognizes the person-to-person information sharing networks so essential in Gullah/Geechee communities. Our team will deploy combination of community-designed marketing campaigns delivered through our cooperating partners, print materials, local radio stations, online platforms, small community-based events and person-to-person conversations. We will use a request for proposal (RFP) process to identify and select a culturally-competent marketing firm to assist our research team with the design and deployment of our outreach efforts throughout the duration of our research project. Cooperating partners will be engaged in the RFP design and at multiple levels of the overall process in order to ensure the unique communication style and expectations of Gullah/Geechee communities are incorporated in authentic and meaningful ways.

Our research project includes 3 objectives with significant information/education and outreach components (objectives 1, 4 and 5). The sections below describe the outreach strategy associated with each of these objectives (see Table 3 for an outline of objectives, outcomes and related outreach strategies).

Objective 1 – Farm mapping and story documentation:

Our research team will conduct mapping and story documentation with at least 7 the Gullah/Geechee communities on St. Helena Island that maintain existing family farming/fishing operations. This primary data will be collected through key-informant interviews (conducted in-person at farm sites as well as via Facetime, Zoom, or phone call) with a minimum of 2 members of each farming community (14 total). This information will be used to develop a survey that will be available in-person, online and via phone. We expect to survey at least 100 community members for the mapping objective. The survey will be advertised in each community through key informants, farm visits, postings on community boards and community recreation centers, community fish fries, neighborhood holiday parades, and through networks maintained by cooperating partners. The cooperating partners that will lead portions of the outreach for this objective are Papa Brown Farms, Earth People Farms, and Ben Johnson, Jr. for connections to key informants in each community, the Gullah/Geechee Sea Island Coalition for design of the interview and survey protocols, and the African American Student Association for online platforms.

Objective 4 - Attracting and educating young Gullah/Geechee farmers & fishers:

Developing and testing a methodology for attracting and educating potential farmers and fishers under age 55 will require a targeted marketing campaign to reach our community members who may not yet see farming and fishing as a viable career path. The director of Youth Gullah/Geechee Farmers and Fishers Association will work with the identified marketing firm to create and deploy a campaign that highlights the cultural, financial, environmental, and social benefits of family farming and fishing operations to the target audience. As a part of this effort, the marketing consultant will also develop an integrated social media presence to disseminate educational materials in a ways that maximizes the different aspects and audience reach of online platforms such as YouTube, TikTok, Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. Our budget includes a line item for purchase of practical items (‘swag’) that will carry the study logo and double as marketing for the project, such as hats, mosquito balm, hand sanitizer, and other personal protective equipment. Under the direction of the primary investigator, the African American Student Association will conduct a survey (online, phone and in-person) of participants to measure level of involvement, satisfaction, change in awareness, and identify future programming needs. We expect to reach a minimum of 300 potential farmers and fishers under the age of 55 through a combination of in-person and online educational events and activities.

Objective 5 - Gullah/Geechee Agro-Culture framework development and dissemination:

Findings from the literature review, farm mapping and story documentation, as well as results from the Young Gullah/Geechee Farmers & Fishers Association outreach and educational component will be used to develop an agro-culture framework for use throughout the Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor (multiple communities located on 12,000 miles of coastal areas from Jacksonville, NC to Jacksonville, FL). As noted previously, Gullah/Geechee communities have many similarities, but are also very distinct from one another in meaningful ways such as specific words used in the Gullah language, historical leaders, local landmarks, etc. Due to this variation, the outreach strategy will have to be developed and implemented with the input of key partners selected communities that will be identified in partnership with the Gullah/Geechee Sea Island Coalition. In addition to print media (postings at community boards, libraries, mini markets, and community gathering spaces), radio ads on gospel, old school R&B, and hip-hop radio stations, and postings on a variety of online platforms, the outreach strategy of this objective will focus on leveraging the community festivals and Gullah/Geechee heritage events that are held annually within individual communities. Our study will sponsor events, information booths, and farming/fishing exhibits in an effort to effectively disseminate the framework to a broad audience.

Participants

No participants
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.