Sustained economic viability and environmental quality of farms in the Southern Region can be improved by diversified whole farm systems that effectively integrate livestock and cropping systems. This project, conducted from June 1993 through April 1998, attempted to determine the potential of new systems, utilizing new or improved crop species adapted to the region, i.e., tropical corn (Zea mays L.), hybrid pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), that are adapted to the unique edaphic and climatological conditions of the humid South.
In summary, data indicated that:
1. Wheat yields demonstrated a variable response to previous summer rotation crop, but were generally greater following soybean. However, equivalent yields were obtained following millet and tropical corn, provided the summer grain crops were fertilized with 120 to 180 lb N/acre.
2. Soybean yields were reduced from 11 to 23% following lupin.
3. Lupin silage averaged from 2.4 to 11.8 tons (35% DM) and grain yields averaged 0 to 34 bu/acre. The experimental design and N balance objectives required that lupin be grown in the same plots every year. Diseases, especially anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and brown spot (Pleiochaeta setosa), were increased by the lack of rotation. Optimum planting time for lupin is 4 weeks before the first 28 degrees F freeze in fall. Lupin (even failed crops) demonstrated a positive rotation and N response for tropical corn and millet. Lupin are relatively insensitive to acid soils but respond to adequate P fertilization. Lupin as a green manure supplied sufficient N for a 20.5 tons/acre silage crop of tropical corn.
4. Tropical corn silage ranged from 4.9 to 26.8 tons/acre, dependent on previous crop and N fertilizer rate. Grain yields ranged from 24 to 100 bu/acre.
5. Millet silage yields ranged from 4.3 to 27.5 tons/A, dependent on location, N rate and previous crop. Following wheat, 120 to 180 lb N/acre was required for maximum yields. (54 bu/A). Dependent on location, previous crop, and N rate, millet grain yields ranged from 15 to 129 bu/acre. Millet yields were up to 43% greater following lupin than wheat. Bird predation is a problem on small acreages. Millet yields were greater when drilled. Optimum pH is 6.0-6.5 for millet and millet responds to high levels of soil P.
6. All three crops can be ensiled satisfactorily. Tropical corn and millet silage had similar energy and protein content to temperate corn silage and lupin silage was lower in energy but higher in protein than other silages. Dairy cows on lupin silage based diets had the same milk production as those on temperate corn silage diets while cows on millet and tropical corn diets produced less milk. Our results show that pearl millet is a potential silage crop and a viable feed grain crop for double-cropping systems in the southern USA. A new race of rust in 1993 curtailed late plantings of the crop, one of its strong points. A good multi-gene resistance to this race of rust has been developed and a new rust resistant hybrid with even greater grain yield potential than the variety used in this study (HGM-100) is scheduled to be commercially released, probably in 1999.
As a result in part from this project and satellite projects, there is a tremendous amount of interest in using lupin as a cover crop for cotton production in the Florida panhandle, southern Georgia and Alabama, South Carolina and North Carolina. Resource Seeds (Visalia, CA) is currently increasing a high alkaloid selection from ‘Tifwhite-78’ (a USDA-ARS release) white lupin seed for this purpose. The Auburn University cooperator, Edzard van Santen, is also increasing seed of a selection of high alkaloid ‘Tifwhite-78’ lupin to be used as a cover crop. A high alkaloid type would be a better choice for a cover crop/green manure in that alkaloids protect the plants from pests and some diseases. Also, there is research to indicate that high alkaloid lupin may suppress certain nematodes. Also, due to our efforts, Agicultural Resources International Seed Technology Division, Swedesboro, NJ, obtained distribution rights in the USA to market ‘Lunoble’ and ‘Lumineux’ white lupin from Agri-Obtentions, the seed company in France, which owns proprietary rights to these varieties. We furnished seed to the company for seed increase in September of 1997.
Based on public response to articles on background research for this SARE project, the use of lupin in products for human consumption is an area that should receive further research interest. The public seems to be keenly interested in this topic and a human food market would increase the value of the crop, making it more profitable for farmers to grow. Also, from observations that arose out of our research there is considerable interest in lupin seed to be used for wildlife food plots. This potential is being currently being investigated by an Auburn University wildlife biologist.
The 1988 CAST Report (CAST, 1988) on long-term viability of U.S. agriculture emphasized the importance of flexibility within agricultural systems, and the role of reduced input costs and diversification of operations in achieving this flexibility. The Southern Region cannot compete with other regions of the country blessed with more productive soil types in conventional mono- or dual- cropping systems involving corn, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Livestock production is the most important value-added industry in the United States (Parker, 1990). Diversified cropping/livestock systems utilizing on- farm produced grains and forage would increase farm profitability and reduce the energy consumed in transportation and processing of feed grains.
White lupin is a winter-grown annual legume that is adapted to well-drained, low-fertility, coarse-textured, neutral to acidic soils such as those in the Southern Coastal Plain (Gladstones, 1970; Wells et al., 1980; Lopez-Bellido and Fuentes, 1986; Reeves and Mask, 1992). In USDA-ARS and Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station trials, biomass from white lupin grown as a green manure/ cover crop and for silage contained up to 300 lb N/acre; grain yields of up to 70 bu/acre (4200 lb/A) have been obtained (D. W. Reeves and E. van Santen, unpublished data). A system with lupin as a component would fit well into a diversified (crop/livestock) system and would have the advantages of current legume cover crop systems in conserving soil and water resources, but could be more profitable than current systems due to the value of grain produced. Lupin seed does not contain trypsin inhibitors or other antinutritive factors that require heat processing like soybeans, thus, they can be used on-farm (Hove et al., 1977; Tracy, 1988). If 25% of the 6.4 million acres planted to wheat in the Southern Region were planted to lupin, this would reduce the application of N fertilizer in the Region by 64,000 tons, worth approximately $33 million dollars. Efficiency of N fertilizer applied to wheat in the Southeast is low (25 to 60%), because of the high rainfall and relatively warm temperatures during the winter. This results in large losses of fertilizer N to the environment via leaching and denitrification. Utilizing a legume crop (white lupin) during the winter thus has great potential for reducing N losses to the air, and surface and groundwaters. Development of cropping systems utilizing winter-grown lupin would: 1) provide a rotation yield response to summer grain crops (Petch and Smith, 1985; Henderson, 1989); 2) contribute to reducing or eliminating N fertilizer input (Reeves et al., 1990); and 3) produce quantities of high protein (32-38%) feed grain (Hill, 1977; Lopez-Bellido and Fuentes, 1986; Larson et al., 1989).
Tropical corn fits well into diversified whole farm systems as it can provide silage and grain for animal consumption or grain as a cash crop (Wright, 1988; Wright and Kidd, 1991; Wright and Stanley, 1991). Returns from doublecropped tropical corn, according to a recent study, averaged $18/acre more than returns from the traditional doublecropped system of soybean and wheat (Teare et al., 1989). The late planting dates associated with tropical corn permit doublecropping with winter grains, including lupin, without sacrificing summer crop yields. Tropical corn is generally more drought tolerant than temperate hybrids, and has a lower N requirement than temperate corn hybrids. Tropical corn was grown on approximately 40,000 acres in the Southeast in 1991, primarily as a silage crop, and potential acreage is estimated at 150,000 to 200,000 acres (Parker et al., 1991). Although the number of tropical corn hybrids commercially available is currently limited due to the relatively small market for companies producing seed, the number of hybrids is increasing as research continues to show the crop’s potential. Currently, most tropical corn is grown for silage. Data on animal performance of tropical corn silage, especially newer hybrids, is limited (Rakes et al., 1992). Screening of tropical corn hybrids has shown that newer hybrids have a much higher grain yield potential than hybrids currently commercially available (Reeves, 1992; D. L. Wright, personal communication).
Pearl millet is a drought-tolerant crop that can be sown late (May through July), which should fit into double-cropping systems with wheat or white lupin. Disease-resistant dwarf hybrids of pearl millet have very recently been developed by Dr. Wayne Hanna (USDA-ARS) at the Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia that show great potential for the South (Hanna, l991). These hybrids produce high-quality grain that has shown potential as a protein source in diets of poultry (Smith et al., 1989), swine (Haydon and Hobbs, 1991), cattle (Hill and Hanna, 1990), and catfish (Burtle et al., 1992) . Pearl millet is tolerant of acidic and infertile soils. The crop has a low N requirement compared to other grain crops, and thus would fit well into rotations with legumes like white lupin, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), or soybean. The low N requirement of pearl millet and tropical corn means that these crops should have less potential for contamination of ground and surface waters by nitrate than crops with higher N requirements. A number of pearl millet hybrids with high grain yield potential developed at Tifton are very tall and thus show potential as a silage crop (W. W. Hanna, personal communication).
Development of production systems with white lupin, tropical corn, and pearl millet on farms with livestock components could result in: 1) conservation of soil and water by providing crop coverage of the soil when erosion potential is greatest; 2) reduced environmental risks to ground and surface water by matching a grain/silage crop with a lower N requirement that effectively takes advantage of the N contribution from a winter legume to reduce fertilizer N requirements; and 3) increased profitability by on-farm production and use of high protein feed grain, reduction in fertilizer and transportation costs, and better utilization of land, labor, machinery/equipment and other resources.
Coordinated experiments are being conducted at five locations in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia extending from the panhandle of Florida to the northern edge of the Coastal Plain in central Alabama. The following is a description of the coordinated experiments:
Primary (Cropping Systems) Experiment – This study is conducted at three locations:
1. The Appalachian Plateau in northeastern Alabama (Sand Mountain-SMS)
2. The Coastal Plain in southeastern Alabama (Monroeville-MEF)
3. In the Coastal Plain region in the Panhandle of Florida (Quincy-QCY).
The experimental design is a strip-plot with four replications. Treatments consist of six cropping systems and four nitrogen rates. Cropping systems are:
2. Wheat/tropical corn
3. Wheat/pearl millet
5. Lupin/tropical corn
6. Lupin/pearl millet
All production practices except for treatments are those recommended by extension as best management practices. Summer crops were planted into wheat and lupin residue using strip-tillage (no-tillage plus in-row subsoiling) at Quincy and Sand Mountain and conventional tillage with bedding at Monroeville. Wheat received 90 lb N /acre. Nitrogen treatments were imposed on summer crops other than soybean. Nitrogen treatments on summer crops are 0, 60, 120, and 180 lb N/acre. This brackets recommended N rates for these crops under rainfed conditions.
The N balance of the systems represents the total system N changes from the initiation of the study in 1993 to conclusion of the study in 1996. This will provide information on N utilization efficiency of the systems and allow inferences to be made as to losses of N to the environment via denitrification, runoff and leaching. N balance will be calculated as follows: [soil organic N1996 + NO3-N(1996)+ NH4-N(1996) + plant residue N(1996) + plant N removed in grain(1993-96] – [soil organic N(1993) + NO3-N(1993) + NH4-N(1993) + plant residue N(1993) + fertilizer N(1993-96) + N received in precipation(1993-96)]. Estimates of N in precipitation will be calculated from rainfall data at each location and from data provided by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network. Estimates of root biomass will be made from root:shoot ratio data in existing literature and N will be determined from root samples to estimate below-ground residue N. Soil organic and inorganic N has been determined at the initiation of the experiment from samples to a 90-cm depth.
Whole plant samples of lupin, pearl millet, and tropical corn were collected at appropriate growth stages for each crop for silage yield determinations. Nutrient evaluation of the replicated samples (DM, ADF, NDF, IVDMD, CP, Ash) and ensiling evaluation (pH, DM, lactic acid) in laboratory mini-silos is being conducted from the samples.
Data collected includes yields and all production inputs and values necessary for accurate economic analyses.
In addition to the primary test, separate but coordinated studies included:
Tropical Corn/Pearl Millet Planting Date Study- Tropical corn hybrids and pearl millet were evaluated beginning in 1993 with replicated trials over several planting dates (April-August) for grain yield, silage yield, and other physiological characteristics that affect quality and harvesting. In addition, silage quality estimates, i.e., ADF, NDF, IVOMD, N, P, and TDN, are compared. This data is necessary to optimize the economic value of the crops within a cropping system. These studies were conducted at Quincy with laboratory analyses being done jointly by University of Florida and Auburn.
Silage/Animal Feed Trials:
Lactation and Digestion Studies:
Approximately 60 tons of lupin plants were field-chopped with a commercial silage chopper from experimental acreage at mid-pod stage and directly ensiled into Ag-bags using the Ag-bagger commercial machine in spring of 1995. Approximately 55-60 tons each of millet (dough stage of grain head) and tropical corn (about 1/2 milk line) were also directly chopped and ensiled in the Ag-Bags. Lupin, millet and tropical corn received a silage preservative at the rate recommended by the manufacture (Ag Bag) for corn silage. Temperate corn silage was field chopped with 55-60 tons ensiled in each of three Ag Bags. A different silage preservative (1 Ag Bag; 2 Pioneer) was used in each of the temperate corn silage bags.
Sixty lactating Holsteins (595 kg BW, 1.8 Parity, 75 days in milk, 34.5 kg/d milk) were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in November of 1996. Dietary treatments were blended diets with lupin, millet, tropical corn and three temperate corn silages as the base forage. Cows were maintained in tie stalls except for milking and 2 h/d exercise in an outside dry-lot for a 84 d study. Cows were fed ad libitum 2 X/d with daily weighbacks. Daily milk weights were recorded and weekly milk samples taken for fat and protein analyses. Fecal samples were taken at 15 h intervals for digestibility analyses. Six cows with rumen fistulas were fed the different silages to determine rate of passage and rumen digestion in a 6 X 6 Latin Square study.
The nutrient content and ensiling properties of white lupin, pearl millet and tropical corn grown at 2 Alabama substations [Sand Mountain, (SM) and Monroeville, (MR)] and one Florida site [Quincy, (QC)] have been analyzed completely for years 1993-1995. Lupin samples ensiled in 1996 are to be analyzed. When the lupin plant was at early pod development stage (May) and pearl millet was at the soft dough stage (September) and the tropical corn was about 1/2 kernel milk line (October), approximately 40-120 lb of plant material was cut from each of the 4 replications of the 120 nitrogen fertilizer plots. A 500 gm sample from each replication was taken for subsequent pH, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) determinations.
To provide for different opening dates, at least two silos were filled from the above cuttings for each of the four replications from each location. Samples (4 lb) of each plant material were tightly packed into mini-PVC silos (4″x14″) for a total 72, 113, and 103 silos for 1993, 1994, and 1995, respectively. Silos were capped after filling and set aside at room temperature for subsequent analyses for temperature, pH and VFA at 4,7,21,28 and 90 days of post-filling. A 500 gm sample from each silo after 90 days of post-filling was taken for subsequent pH, DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) determinations. Silage data were analyzed as a completely randomized design by location using the general linear models procedure of SAS. Means were tested by an F-protected pairwise comparison of least squares means. Significance was declared at P<0.05 unless otherwise noted. Evaluation of the Biological Insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis Berl., for Control of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera fugiperda J. E. Smith)- From an agronomic standpoint, tropical corn can be planted as late as the end of July in north Florida. However, infestations of fall armyworm have resulted in considerable losses in tropical corn planted after mid-June. Multiple insecticide applications have been used to control these infestations but they are considered to be an environmentally and economically unsound approach to fall armyworm management. Two formulations of B. thuringiensis along with a carbamate insecticide standard were to be evaluated in replicated field trials for control of the fall armyworm on tropical corn. These studies were slated to begin in the summer of 1993 but the cooperator never reported on them. Characterization of Phytophagous Insect Dynamics on Pearl Millet- Pearl millet has shown promise as a source of grain for livestock production in the Southeast under high disease pressure, but its tolerance to feeding by phytophagous insects in the Southeast in largely unknown. Pashley (1988) has summarized the current knowledge of the host range of the fall armyworm, which includes pearl millet. However, the tolerance of the recently developed dwarf hybrids of pearl millet, particularly when managed for grain production, has not been evaluated for the fall armyworm or other potential insect pests. Within the existing pearl millet management studies at Quincy, phytophagous insects will be monitored on a weekly basis. Insects will be identified and their populations quantified over time. The associated crop damage will be characterized and, where possible, the impact on yield defined. These studies were slated to be done during 1993 and 1994 but data were also collected in 1996. Lupin Germplasm Increase and Evaluation- Currently, there are no commercially available winter- hardy white lupin cultivars in the United States. Therefore, seed stock of the French INRA release ‘Lunoble’ is being used in the cropping systems and other studies. Auburn University plant breeders are continuing a program to screen germplasm and develop viable lines, however, results from this program are not expected to be completed within the time-frame of this proposal. Plant breeders with Resource Seeds, Inc., Visalia, California, have been developing white lupin germplasm for over 13 years and were to increase their breeding efforts for sweet (low-alkaloid) lupin for the Southeast. Company priorities have changed and they have reduced emphasis on lupin, with the exception of developing high alkaloid lupin varieties to be used as for green manure and as a cover crop. During the 1992-93 and 1993-94 growing seasons, the company screened seed from ‘Tifwhite-78’ lupin already sent to them by Auburn University for alkaloid content. Due in part to information supplied by project leaders, the company is interested in developing a green manure type lupin for cotton production. Two other commercial companies are increasing white lupin to be used as a green manure, cover crop, and for wildlife plots. Evaluation of Pearl Millet Hybrids for Silage- A number of the high yielding grain hybrids developed at Tifton are too tall for combine harvesting. The tall hybrids and the standard dwarf hybrids were evaluated in replicated yield trials for biomass (silage) production. Chemical analyses are conducted on the hybrids to determine silage quality potential. The test began in 1993 with the production of hybrid seed. In 1993 and 1994, replicated yield trials and silage quality assessment were conducted at Tifton, Georgia. Evaluation of Forage (Grazing) Potential of Pearl Millet Hybrids- Hybrid grain-type pearl millets are very leafy, making them potentially useful for both grazing and grain. Two grain hybrids (55 and 75 days to heading) were again planted in 1994 and 1995 in replicated tests and defoliated at 15-day intervals; two defoliation dates for the early hybrid and three for the late hybrid. Forage and grain yields were determined in comparison to nondefoliated plants. Determination of Soil P and Soil pH Needed for Optimum Growth of Pearl Millet – Soils of the Southeast are inherently infertile and acid. If pearl millet is to become a viable crop for the Southeast its fertility requirements will need to be determined. This study established optimum P and soil pH levels for the crop. Two experiment station sites with varying soil pH and soil P values from low to very high were planted to pearl millet in replicated studies, beginning in 1993. Data collected includes soil and plant samples for nutrient analyses, and grain yields. This information will be used to help determine the minimum inputs of P fertilizer and lime required for the crop, improving the economics of production. Determination of Effect of Seed P Concentration on Yield of White Lupin- White lupin is very effective in P uptake on soils with low P levels. White lupin were previously grown on the two experiment station sites varying in soil P concentration (Brewton and Monroeville). Lupin seed from ‘Tifwhite-78’ were collected which contained P concentrations that range from 0.25 to 0.61%. Because previous work with narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) (Bolland et al., 1989; Thompson et al., 1991) suggests that lupin yields may be affected by the P content of the seed, a replicated large pot study was conducted during the winter 1994-spring 1995 to determine the effect of low seed P concentration on winter-hardy white lupin yield. On November 4, 1994 a test was initiated using large pots. Individual pots consisted of 26.5 inch tall sections of 10.5 inch inside-diameter PVC pipe. The pots were arranged outdoors on four wooden platforms designed to shelter the below ground volume with pine bark chips to simulate natural edaphic conditions while leaving the aerial portion of the plants exposed to natural atmospheric environmental conditions. The soil used in the test was a Troup sand (loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Kandiudults) with an initial soil test P rating of very low. Treatments in the test included soil pH (4.5 and 6.5), P fertilizer rate (0, 50 and 100 ppm), and lupin seed P concentration (0.25, 0.43 and 0.61%). Test variables (i.e. soil pH, P rate and lupin seed P levels) were arranged as a factorial within a randomized complete block with 4 replications. Five seeds were planted per pot after inoculation with proper rhizobium and Kodiak® biological seed protectant. Plants were harvested when the better treatments reached physiological maturity. Harvested plants were divided into various parts, weighed, dried, reweighed and analyzed for P. Soil samples were collected from each pot for chemical analysis. Lupin roots were removed from the soil by washing to determine root biomass, root length and proteoid root development.
Cropping Systems Experiment
The primary or core experiment was a double-cropping systems evaluation for overall system viability, N balance, and economic analysis. This study was initiated with the planting of the summer crop in the double-cropping system in June of 1993 at three experiment station locations; Sand Mountain (Crossville), AL, Monroeville, AL, and Quincy, FL. The first location is in the Appalachian Plateau physiographic region and the other two are in the South Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain. Summer crops planted were soybean, tropical corn, and hybrid grain-type pearl.
The winter crop components of the double-cropping systems, i.e., white lupin and wheat, were planted in November of 1994, 1995, and 1996 at Sand Mountain, Monroeville and Quincy. ‘Lunoble’ white lupin, a variety developed and released by INRA in France, was imported from France and was the source of seed for all plantings. The experimental design and N balance objectives precluded rotating the lupin crop. This was a serious mistake. We learned that lupin must be rotated with a winter small grain, at least every other year and preferably grown no more frequently than every 3 years. Anthracnose and lupin brown spot are two very serious diseases for lupin in the Southeast. Lupin silage averaged from 2.4 to 11.8 tons (35% DM) and grain yields averaged 0 to 34 bu/acre. The experimental design and N balance objectives required that lupin be grown in the same plots every year. Lupin (even failed crops) demonstrated a positive rotation and N response for tropical corn and millet. This, coupled with the lack of a suitable variety for seed production adapted to the Southeastern climate, shifted objectives to using lupin as a green manure and cover crop. In order to meet the original objective of lupin becoming an alternative feed grain, indeterminate and perhaps dwarfing varieties need to be developed. Plant breeding efforts continue for this objective. Seeds from high alkaloid indeterminate cold hardy selections are also being increased to be used as a cover crop. Lupin are relatively insensitive to acid soils but respond to adequate P fertilization. Lupin as a green manure supplied sufficeint N for a 20.5 tons/acre silage crop of tropical corn. Tropical corn silage ranged from 4.9 to 26.8 tons/acre, dependent on previous crop and N fertilizer rate. Grain yields ranged from 24 to 100 bu/acre. Millet silage yields ranged from 4.3 to 27.5 tons/A, dependent on year, location, N rate and previous crop. Following wheat, 120 to 180 lb N/acre was required for maximum yields millet grain yields. Dependent on location, previous crop, and N rate, millet grain yields ranged from 15 to 129 bu/acre. Millet yields were up to 43% greater following lupin than wheat. Bird predation is a problem on small acreages of pearl millet.
Samples were collected from soybean, pearl millet, and tropical corn for total biomass production (dry matter) and N content. All soil sampling as outlined has been completed and the samples prepared for N analysis. Nitrogen data analyses for all soil and plant samples have not been completed as of yet.
Silage Evaluations in conjunction with Cropping Systems Experiment
Chemical composition of silage are present in Table 1. Temperate corn silage (TCAgBag, TCP1132, and TCP1174) had higher DM content but lower content of ADF, NDF than did tropical corn, pearl millet, or lupin silage. The TCP1132 silage had substantially higher DM content (47.2%) than did other silages. Calculated values of NEL and NSC varied depending on ADF and NDF content of silage, respectively. Temperate corn silage with lower ADF (19-24%) had higher NEL (1.49-1.58 Mcal/kg) than did unconventional silages. Lupin silage, in particular, had low NEL (1.14 Mcal/kg) because it had the highest ADF content (40.7%). Non-structure carbohydrates values which were influenced mainly by NDF content were also higher for temperate corn silage compare with those for unconventional silages. Crude protein contents were similar among temperate corn and tropical corn silage (6.9-8.8%) but these values were lower than those of pearl millet and lupin silage (11.9 and 13.7%, respectively). Moreover, 55 – 57% of total N in lupin and pearl millet silages was in a water soluble form. The fermentation of all silages in this study was primarily lactic acid fermentation (1.75-5.71% DM) with low levels of acetic acid (0.24-1.47% DM). However, TCP1174 silage had substantially lower lactic acid (1.75%), and lupin silage had higher acetic acid (1.47%), compared with those in other silages.
Ingredient and chemical compositions of silage-based diets are presented in Table 2 in the appendix. The amounts of silage (DM basis) in the diets varied from 34.4% in lupin diet to 52.4% in TCP1174 diets. Soybean meal and ground corn were the major sources of protein and energy which were used to adjust CP and energy content in the diets. The proportions of SBM were higher (11.7-14.6%) in temperate corn silage diets than in tropical corn (11.1%), millet (9.9%) or lupin (8.3%) silages. Twenty-three percent ground corn was added to lupin silage diet in order to elevate the energy content. Diets had similar contents of CP (16.1-17.0%), and NEL (1.64-1.69 Mcal/kg) but varied in DM, ADF, and NDF contents, reflecting the differences of those nutrients in the silages. Dry matter contents in temperate corn diets were higher (55-61%) than those in unconventional silage diets (49-53%). Neutral detergent fiber in TCAgBag, tropical corn and pearl millet were 10% units higher than other diets. However, NSC contents in tropical corn and pearl millet diets were lower (20%), compared with those in other diets (26-34%).
Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, body weight changes and other metabolites of cows are shown in Table 3 in the appendix. Dry matter intake (kg/d) was highest (23.5) for cows fed TCAgBag temperate corn silage diet, intermediate (19.8) for cows fed tropical corn or lupin silage diets and lowest (17.2) for cows fed millet silage diets. Cow fed temperate corn silage diets produced more milk than cows fed tropical corn diet (30.8 vs 26.8 kg/d) or pearl millet (30.8 vs 26.3 kg/d). Milk production from cows fed lupin silage diets was similar to that from cows fed temperate corn silage diets (28.5 vs 30.8 kg/d). Fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM) followed a similar pattern as that of milk yield in which greater values were found for cows fed temperate corn silage diets compared with those fed tropical corn or millet silage diets. Milk fat percentage was lower for cows on TCP1174 diet compared with those on temperate corn silage diets. Cows on TCP1174 diets were also lower in mik fat (3.2%) than cows on tropical corn (3.7%), pearl millet (3.6%) or lupin (3.6%) silage diets. There were no differences in milk fat percentage among uncoventional silage diets. Milk protein percentages were similar among dietary treatments. Feed efficiency, expressed as yield of 3.5% FCM divided by DMI, was significantly greater for cows fed millet silage diets and tended to be greater for cows fed lupin silage diets than those fed temperate corn silage diets.
A few differences in Plasma Urea Nitrogen (PUN) and Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN) between cows fed temperate corn silage diets and cows fed unconventional silage diets were observed. Cows fed TCP1132 and millet silage diets had higher PUN and MUN than those fed other diets. Rumen pH and total Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) concentrations were also similar among dietary treatments. However, cows fed TCAgBag diets had lowest acetate (63.0%) and highest butyrate (13.9%) molar percentage. Acetate:propionate (A:P) ratios in this study varied from 3.07 to 3.79. Cows fed pearl millet silage diets had highest ratio, whereas, cows on TCAgBag silage diets had lowest ratio.
Apparent digestibilities and degrdation rate of DM, CP, ADF and NDF are presented in Table 4 and 5 in the appendix. The lupin silage diet had the highest apparent digestibility which is estimated by using Acid Insoluble Ash (AIA) as an internal marker for all nutrient (81-88%), followed by pearl millet (68-78%), tropical corn (64-77%) and temperate corn diets (38-72%), respectively. Apparent digestibility of all nutrients for unconventional silage diets were higher than those for temperate corn silage diets. Among temperate corn diets, TCAgBag was greater for digestibility of DM, ADF, and NDF than for TCP1174 silage. Crude protein digestibility was similar among silage diets received different additives.
In situ digestion of DM, CP, ADF and NDF for silage and diets are presented in Table 4 and 5, respectively. Zero-h residues of silage DM for unconventional silage (52-55% of original DM) were higher compared with temperate corn silage (43-44%). However, after exposure to the rumen for 72 h, undigested DM of silages were not different between temperate corn and unconventional silages. This resulted in greater potentially digestible DM for tropical corn, millet and lupin silage. Temperate corn silage had 11, 8, and 11% lower potentially digestible DM than did tropical corn, millet and lupin, respectively. Dry matter of unconventional silage also had a faster degradation rate than did temperate corn silages. Dry matter in lupin, tropical corn and millet silages were 55, 33, and 33%, respectively. faster degradation rate than temperate corn silages. Degradabilities of DM were similar across dietary treatments.
Dry matter digestibilities and degradabilities of diets followed similar pattern as of those for silage in which potentially digestible DM were greater for unconventional silage diets, compared with those for temperate corn silage diets. However, only DM in tropical corn silage diets digested significantly faster than did temperate corn diets.
Zero-h residues CP of tropical corn silage was higher than those of other unconventional silages. However, 0-h residue of CP for pearl millet and lupin silage were lower or tend to be lower compared with those for temperate corn silage. After exposure to the rumen 72 h, the undigested CP fraction of lupin silage was lower than temperate corn silage. There were no difference of potentially digestion of CP either among different temperate corn silages or between temperate corn and unconventional silages. However, lupin silage had a higher degradation rate and degradability of CP than did TCP1132 silage with those for other silages were in between. Degradation rate and degradability of CP in lupin silage were also higher than those for temperate corn silages (1.5 vs 1.0%/h for degradation rate and 21.1 vs 16.9% for degradability).
There were no differences of any values of CP insitu digestion among dietary treatments or between temperate corn diets and unconventional silage diets except for undigestible fraction. Lupin silage diet had a higher undigestible fraction of CP than did temperate corn silage diets.
Zero-h residues of ADF for silage varied from 75 to 100% in which all ADF in TCP1132 and 75% of ADF in TCP1174 silage remained at 0-h (Table 5). There were no differences of ADF remaining at 0-h between temperate corn and unconventional silages. However, after incubation in the rumen for 72 h, undigestible ADF values for temperate corn silage, except TCP1174, were greater than that for unconventional silages. Therefore, potentially digestible ADF was higher for unconventional silage than temperate corn silages (47.8 vs 31.2%). Similarly, ADF in unconventional silages digested at a faster rate than that in temperate corn silage (1.2 vs 0.6%/h). The ADF degradabilities did not differ among unconventional silages. However, the degradability of ADF in TCP1132 silage was exceptionally lower (0.9) than those for other silages.
The potentially digestible ADF fraction for unconventional silage diets were higher than that in TCAgBag temperate corn diet. The ADF of unconventional silage diets had greater degradation rate than did that of TCAgBag temperate corn silage diet. However, degradability of ADF in the diets were similar among dietary treatments.
The digestibilities and degradabilities of NDF in both silages and diets had similar patterns as those of ADF except for few differences (Table 5). First, potentially digestible NDF for lupin silage only tended to be higher, contrasted with those for temperate corn silage where potentially digestible ADF between these two silages were different. Similarly, potentially digestible NDF for the lupin silage diet did not differ from that of temperate corn whereas potentially digestible ADF for lupin silage diet was greater than that for TCAgBag temperate corn silage diet. Second, degradability of NDF in lupin silage was significantly higher, whereas degradability of ADF in lupin silage only tended to be similar compared with those for temperate corn silage except TCP1132. In general, in situ digestion of ADF and NDF in this study followed similar pattern as those of DM in which unconventional silages and their diets had greater potential digestion than did temperate corn silage and its diet.
Tropical Corn/Pearl Millet Planting Date Studies
This component of the proposal was committed to be conducted for the years 1993 -95 but was also conducted in 1996. In summary, tropical corn silage yields were greater with April-early May plantings and decreased with July or August plantings. Millet silage and grain yields were greater with May plantings and decreased with July plantings. There was no clear optimum planting date for tropical corn grain yields as affected by fall armyworm due to variances in dates of heaviest armyworm pressure by years. Since the release of transgenic temperate corn varieties with the Bt gene, the utility of tropical corns in regards to better resistance to armyworm pressure needs to be reevaluated with future research.
Biological Control of Fall Armyworm and Characterization of Insect Pests in Pearl Millet
The cooperator did not meet any of the objectives in regard to biological control of fall armyworm. He did, however, meet the objectives of characterizing the insect pests of pearl millet. Diversity and abundance of insect pests of millet varied greatly with time during the season. The most commontinAtperform perform any of the Grain millet planted on three planting dates (May 1, June 1 and July 1) in a randomized strip plot design with tropical corn was sampled for arthropods weekly using a sweep net and whole-plant inspection. On each sampling date twenty sweeps per plot and plants were sampled. Plots were 10 rows wide by 24 feet in length. Because of the small plot size, no attempt was made to quantify populations of arthropods. However, species diversity on each sampling date was recorded by identifying the arthropods collected.
Biological Control of Fall Armyworm and Characterization of Insect Pests in Pearl Millet
The cooperator did not meet the objectives stated regarding the biological control of fall armyworm. He did meet the objectives regarding characterization of insect pests in pearl millet. Diversity and relative abundance of insects varied with year and with progression of season. The most common group of phytophagous insects collected were the stink bugs (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae). They were represented in samples from all planting dates and plant growth stages. Of the stink bugs, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, was the most frequently collected. Other stink bugs collected were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus and the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax. Other phytophagous Hemipterans collected from each of the planting dates of grain millet were the eastern leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus, (Coreidae) and Neopalmera bilobata (Lygaeidae). Several species of leafhoppers were also collected of which Homalodisca insolita (Homoptera, Cicadellidae) was the most common. The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) was collected from the three planting dates but only from post-heading stages of the millet.
Several species of predaceous insects were found. These included the Hemipterans, big-eyed bugs, Geocoris spp. (Geocoridae), damsel bugs, Nabis spp. (Nabidae) and the stilt bug, Jalysus sp. (Berytidae). Several species of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) and the striped earwig, Labidura riparia (Dermaptera, Labiduridae), were also collected from each planting date.
Some species were not represented each year or during each sampling during the growing season. The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera, Lygaeidae), the two-lined spittlebug, Prospia bicincta (Homoptera, Cercopidae), the southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis (Hemiptera, Lygaeidae) and the predators, common green lacewing, Crysopa carnea (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) and the wheel bug, Arilus cristatus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) were collected only from plants of the May 1 planting date. The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) was collected only late in the season from plantings after June 1.
Lupin Germplasm Increase and Evaluation
The lupin breeding program continued in the 1996/7 crop year. Progress has not been as rapid as initially projected, but it has been steady and is still on-target. Selections were made for several breeding objectives. Grain types will be determinate and perhaps have dwarfing traits as well. Silage types will be indeterminate and low alkaloid. Green manure or cover crop types will be indeterminate and higher alkaloid. Forty four (44) late-maturing F3 lines were selected from the breeding nursery at the Plant Breeding Unit, E.V. Smith Research Ctr., Tallassee, Alabama. These lines show promise for cooler areas of the Southeastern region, such as Virginia. In a joint project with Dr. Harbans Bhardwaj from Virginia Sate University, Petersburg, VA these lines will be evaluated in Virginia. The 19 highest yielding F4 lines are being evaluated during the 1997/8 crop year at the Draper Prison Farm of the Alabama Department of Corrections.
A high-alkaloid selection from the old USDA cultivars ‘Tifwhite 78’ is being increased on 10 acres during the 1997/8 cropping year. Plantation Seed Conditioners, Inc. Newton, GA is increasing seed of ‘Tifwhite 78’ (a USDA-ARS release) for commercial market. Resource Seeds (Visalia, CA) is currently increasing a high alkaloid selection from ‘Tifwhite-78’ white lupin seed for this purpose. Agicultural Resources International Seed Technology Division, Swedesboro, NJ, obtained distribution rights in the USA to market ‘Lunoble’ and ‘Lumineux’ white lupin from Agri-Obtentions, the seed company in France, which owns proprietary rights to these varieties. We furnished seed to the company for seed increase of Lunoble in September of 1997. Coordinating but separate date of planting studies showed that the ideal planting time for winter-type lupin is 4 weeks prior to the first 28 ̊F freeze, based on 30-yr norms.
Evaluation of Pearl Millet Hybrids for Silage
This one-year duration study was completed on time as outlined in the proposal, and reported on in the 1994 annual report. In summary: research showed that significant genetic progress could be made in increasing silage dry matter yields and quality in pearl millet hybrids. Larger differences and higher yields were observed at June than at April planting dates. This is partially due to the hot and dry growing conditions in June through August which is favorable for pearl millet. Significant genetic progress could be made by selecting hybrids with higher in vitro dry matter digestibility. Only small differences were observed among the hybrids for protein content. Although variation was observed for % grain content among some of the hybrids tested, none produced a greater percentage of grain than HGM-100.
Evaluation of Forage Potential of Pearl Millet Grain Hybrids
This portion of the study was completed in 1995 (as planned and committed to in the proposal). In summary: the test was again planted on 6-1-95 with an early (HGM-100; 55 days to heading) and a late (85DA x 8677; 75 days to heading) hybrid. Forage harvest was made on July 13, 1995. Forage yields were excellent (6000 to 6700 lb/A). Grain yields were generally higher for the later maturing hybrid than for the earlier maturing hybrid. However, grain yields were lower than observed in the past for all tests due to a new race of rust that appeared in 1993. Defoliating both grain hybrids before boot stage generally reduced grain yields 50 to 60%. However, the defoliated hybrids produced from 1250 to 7450 kg/ha dry matter depending on hybrid, planting date and environmental conditions. The data indicate that the grain hybrid tested should be used as grain hybrids only. There does not appear to be an advantage to using them as dual purposes, grain and forage crops.
Determination of Soil P and pH Requirement for Pearl Millet
Field studies conducted in the Coastal Plain of South Alabama during 1992-1995 to evaluate the response of pearl millet to soil pH and residual P, showed that grain pearl millet is a promising alternative crop for the Southeast. Studies were conducted at two locations and under good growing conditions grain yields as high as 5900 kg ha-1 were measured. From this test we concluded that the optimum pH for millet grain production was in the range of 6.0 to 6.5. Millet responded to soil test P up to a level that would be considered “high” according to the Auburn University Soil Testing Laboratory. Our results are in agreement with the Auburn University Soil Testing Laboratory, since additional P fertilizer would not be recommended for soils having “high” or “very high” soil test ratings. Thus, we recommend that the application of P fertilizer to grain pearl millet should be based on the recommendations of the Auburn University Soil Testing Laboratory. Grain pearl millet is a promising new crop for the Southeast. In the future, with the release of new and improved varieties, additional work should be conducted to determine optimum production practices for this crop. Additional efforts should be given to see how this crop can be effectively incorporated into existing production systems and additional efforts should be given to encourage producer acceptance of this crop.
Determination of Effect of Seed P Concentration on Yield of White Lupin
A large pot study was conducted on an acid (pH =4.5), P infertile soil to evaluate the effects of lupin seed P concentration ( 0.25, 0.43 and 0.91% P ), soil pH (4.5 and 6.5) and P fertilizer rates (0, 50 and 100 mg P kg-1) on the growth of white lupin. Results of this study show that lupin seed yields may be affected by the concentration of P in the planted seed, but only under high or optimum P fertility conditions. Soil pH had only minor effects on lupin seed and dry matter production. At the highest rate of applied P (100 mg P kg-1), slightly higher yields were observed at the lowest pH. Given that most good producers in the Southeast add P fertilizer to their soils, lupin grown for commercial seed or grain production will probably have higher P concentrations than the lowest concentration that was found in our seed (0.21%). In addition, lupin seed will probably be planted on soils that have been recently treated with P fertilizer. Thus, from this study we conclude that the P concentration in commercial lupin seed should have minimal impact on lupin production.
Growth and Development of Winter-Type White Lupin with Different Growth Habits
This two-year field study was an added coordinating study to the studies in the original proposal. In summary: the focus of the research was on the growth and development of three winter-type white lupin cultivars that might have potential for production in the Southeast. The cultivars used were the adapted indeterminate ‘Tifwhite-78’ and the two French cultivars ‘Lunoble’ (indeterminate) and ‘CH304/73’ (determinate). Measurements taken throughout the growing season were stem height, flowering stage (adapted to a decimal code developed by Lancashire et al., 1991), and pod number and length. At the final harvest, means were determined for pod and seed number for the mainstem and axillaries per plant for each cultivar. Mean stem height per plant was also calculated. Photographs of Tifwhite-78 (this cultivar was chosen because it or a line from it is the most likely to be released first in the Southeast) were taken throughout the growing season. The photographs are being used to help define critical growth stages of lupin in the Southeast and aid recommendations for management practices to growers. The stages photographed were:
2. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 leaves unfolded
3. Rosette (period when no stem matter is being produced and prior to flowering)
4. Bolting (5 visible extended internodes)
5. Flower buds present, still enclosed by leaves
6. ~ 50% flowers open
7. ~ 75% flowers open
8. ~ 30% pods reached final length (8-10 mm)
9. Nearly all pods have reached final length
10. 50% of pods are ripe
11. Fully ripe
The data and pictures from this study, along with lupin dry matter and nutrient accumulation data, have been put together in a first draft of an extension bulletin that describes the growth and development of winter-type white lupin in the Southeast with management guidelines for different growth stages. We anticipate release of the publication by summer of 1998. We have not made as much progress on the production of the lupin management video. A script has been developed and video shots have been taken but we have not made the video yet. We hope to complete this by summer of 1998 as well.
Educational & Outreach Activities
van Santen, E. S., L. Noffsinger, and D. W. Reeves. 1993. Response of winter-type white lupin to seeding rate and date of planting in Alabama. Proc. VIIth International Lupin Conference, April 17-23, 1993. Évora, Portugal. Theme 3, p. 3.
Pudelko, J. A., D. L. Wright, I. D. Teare, and D. W. Reeves. 1994. Adjusting grain yield of bird damaged pearl millet. Proc. 1994 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture- Conservation Tillage for Improving Profitability. June 7-9, 1994. Columbia, SC. pp.199-202.
van Santen, E. and D. W. Reeves. 1993. A comprehensive approach to developing lupin in the Deep South. Lupin News- Newsletter of the North American Lupin Association 3(1):1-4,6 (Jan. 1993).
Reeves, Wayne. 1993. Update from Auburn. Lupin News- Newsletter of the North American Lupin Association 3(2):7 (Aug 1993)
Edzard van Santen, Wayne Reeves,and Greg Mullins. 1994. Lupin research continues in Alabama: six years of progress. Lupin News- Newsletter of the North American Lupin Association 4(1):6 (April 1994).
John C. Lin, Pete Moss, Edzard van Santen, and Wayne Reeves. 1994. Lupin silage vs. corn silage for lactating dairy cows. Lupin News – Newsletter of the North American Lupin Association 4(1):3 (April 1994).
D. Wayne Reeves. 1994. Existing and new cover crops. National Conservation Tillage Digest Vol. 1 No. 4, Aug/Sept 1994. p.18.
Noffsinger, S., E. van Santen, and D. W. Reeves. 1993. Effect of planting date and seeding rate on yield components of winter-type white lupin. Agronomy Abstracts, p. 143.
Reeves, D. W., E. van Santen, G. L. Mullins, and P. L. Mask. 1994. White lupin: a potential new crop for the Southern U.S. Abstracts of Southern Branch, American Society of Agronomy, No. 21, p. 5.
Hanna, W. W. 1995. Breeding pearl millet for grain production. In I. D. Teare (ed.). Proc. of First National Grain Millet Symposium. January 17-18, 1995. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Stn., Tifton, GA. pp. 8-12.
Hanna, W. W. and D. L. Wright. 1995. Planting date, rust, and cultivar maturity effects on agronomic characteristics of pearl millet. In I. D. Teare (ed.). Proc. of First National Grain Millet Symposium. January 17-18, 1995. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Stn., Tifton, GA. pp. 28-31.
Wiatrak, P. J., D. L. Wright, W. W. Hanna, J. A. Puldeko, J. Spitalniak, and I. D. Teare. 1995. Plant populations and seeding rates. In I. D. Teare (ed.). Proc. of First National Grain Millet Symposium. January 17-18, 1995. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Stn., Tifton, GA. pp. 28-31.
Reeves, D. W., D. L. Wright, G. L. Mullins, and E. van Santen. 1995. Influence of pearl millet on performance of winter annual crops. In I. D. Teare (ed.). Proc. of First National Grain Millet Symposium. January 17-18, 1995. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Stn., Tifton, GA. pp. 81-86.
Mullins, G. L. and D. W. Reeves. 1995. Residual phosphorus and pH effects on pearl millet. In I. D. Teare (ed.). Proc. of First National Grain Millet Symposium. January 17-18, 1995. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Stn., Tifton, GA. pp. 98-101.
Teare, I. D., D. L. Wright, and N. R. Usherwood. 1995. Planting date effects on HGM™100 physiological stage of development and agronomic characteristics. In I. D. Teare (ed.). Proc. of First National Grain Millet Symposium. January 17-18, 1995. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Stn., Tifton, GA. pp. 28-31.
Puldeko, J. A., I. D. Teare, and D. L. Wright. 1995. Predicting grain yield of bird damaged pearl millet with head length. In I. D. Teare (ed.). Proc. of First National Grain Millet Symposium. January 17-18, 1995. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Stn., Tifton, GA. pp. 28-31.
Wiatrak, P. G., D. L. Wright, D. W. Reeves, and B. T. Kidd. 1995. Influence of summer grass and legume crops on winter grown wheat and lupin. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla., Daytona Beach, FL. Sept 20-22, 1995. pp. (in press).
Schwab, R. L., D. W. Reeves, and C. M. Peterson. 1995. Accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in three white lupin cultivars. Abstracts of Southern Branch, American Society of Agronomy, No. 22, p. 13.
Noffsinger, S. L., C. Huyghe, and E. van Santen. 1995. Pod and seed number development in autumn-sown white lupin. Abstracts of Southern Branch, American Society of Agronomy, No. 22, p. 13.
Mullins, G. L. and D. W. Reeves. 1995. Response of pearl millet and white lupin to soil pH and residual phosphorus. Agronomy Abstracts, p. 253.
Reeves, D. W., D. L. Wright, E. van Santen, and G. L. Mullins. 1995. Double-cropping pearl millet and white lupin. Agronomy Abstracts p. 124.
Schwab, R. L., D. W. Reeves, C. M. Peterson and C. Mosjidis. 1995. Dry matter and nutrient accumulation in three diverse white lupin cultivars. Agronomy Abstracts p. 134.
Reeves, D. W. 1995. Developing sustainable cropping systems for the South. Abstracts of the 6th Gatlinburg Symposium, Sustainable Agriculture: Crop Improvement and Resource Management, Jul 13-15, 1995, Knoxville, TN. p. 14.
Moss, B.R., J.C. Lin, D.W. Reeves, S. Kochapakdee, P.L. Mask, and E. van Santen. 1996. Lupin in Ruminant Diets. Proc. Int. Lupin Conference. May 11-16 1996, Pacific Grove, CA. (in press) [abstract also]
Kochapakdee, S., B.R. Moss, J.C. Lin, P.L. Mask, D.W. Reeves, and E. van Santen. 1997. Responses of lactating cows offered unconventional silage-based diets. 74th Annual Meeting of the Southern Branch, American Dairy Science Association. Birmingham, AL. (in press) [abstract also]
Mullins, G. L. and D. W. Reeves. 1996. Response of lupin to soil pH and residual phosphorus. Proc. Int. Lupin Conference. May 11-16 1996, Pacific Grove, CA. (in press) [abstract also]
Szukala, J., D. J. Collins, and D. W. Reeves. 1996. Effects of seed treatments and soil phosphorus levels on Pleiochaeta root rot of Lupinus albus. Proc. Int. Lupin Conference. May 11-16 1996, Pacific Grove, CA. (in press) [abstract also]
Reeves, D. W., E. van Santen, and G. L. Mullins. 1996. Tillage and rotation effects on doublecropped white lupin in the southern USA. Proc. Int. Lupin Conference. May 11-16 1996, Pacific Grove, CA. (in press) [abstract also]
Schwab, R. L., D. W. Reeves, C. M. Peterson, and C. Mosjidis. 1996. Dry matter and nutrient accumulation in three diverse white lupin cultivars. Proc. Int. Lupin Conference. May 11-16 1996, Pacific Grove, CA. (in press) [abstract also]
Wiatrak, P. J., D. L. Wright, D. W. Reeves, J. A. Pudelko, and B. Kidd. Influence of tilage, previous crops and N rates on pearl millet. Proc. 1996 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. July 2425, 1996. Jackson, TN. pp. 147-150.
Wiatrak, P.J., D. L. Wright, J.A.Pudelko,J, Spitalniak and I.D. Teare.1996. Influence of row width and seeding rates on pearl millet silage and grain yield. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fl. Proc. 54:33-36.
Prine, G. M., R.N. Gallaher. and D. L. Wright. 1996. Production problems with lupin in lower south USA. Production problems with lupin in lower south USA. Abstr. Eight International Lupin Conf. 11-16 May,1996. Pacific Grove,CA. p113.
Szukala, Jerzy, Daniel Collins, Wayne Reeves. 1997. Influence of phosphorus level in soil and in seeds on infestation of white lupin caused by Pleiochatea setosa (in Polish). Progress in Plant Protection/ Postepy W Ochronie Roslin Vol. 37 (2):206-209, Poznan 1997.
Kochapakdee, S., B. R. Moss, J. C. Lin, P. L. Mask, D. W. Reeves, and E. van Santen. 1997. Responses of lactating cows offered unconventional silage-based diets. J. Dairy Science V 80)Suppl. 1):272.
Kochapakdee, S., B. R. Moss, J. C. Lin, D. W. Reeves, and P. L. Mask. 1997. Lupin silage- an alternative forage. Highligts of Ala. Agric. Res. 44(2):3.
September 20, 1994. Dairy Field Day. E. V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, AL. Presentations on laboratory, agronomic and livestock data to Alabama dairy producers and related industry personnel.
October 6, 1993. Alabama Farmers Federation Dairy Commodity Committee Dairy Tour. E. V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, AL. Presented agronomic and laboratory data to dairy producers.
January and July, 1994. A county agent in-service training was held at Quincy, FL showing the winter crops lupin and wheat. Twenty-five county extension directors toured the plots. Another field day was held during the summer where agribusiness and extension people could see plots and cropping systems. A total of 100 people had tours through the plots during 1994.
July 13-15, 1995. Oral presentation on “Developing sustainable cropping systems for the South” made at the 6th Gatlinburg Symposium, Sustainable Agriculture: Crop Improvement and Resource Management, Knoxville, TN.
January 17-18, 1995. Oral presentations made on various aspects of SARE funded research at the First National Grain Millet Symposium, Tifton, GA.
February 28, 1995. Presentation of research results to Alabama Farmers Federation Wheat and Feed Grain Commodity Commission, Montgomery, AL.
August 2, 1995. Alabama Farmers Federation Dairy Commodity Meeting, Birmingham, AL. Presented forage/silage data to producers.
October 13, 1995. Field Day at Wrights Dairy, Alexander, AL. Presentation on livestock data to Alabama dairy producers and related industry personnel. Videos and slides have been taken for subsequent presentations.
September 12, 1995. Field Day at Quincy, FL. Presentation on SARE/ACE Cropping Systems and Planting Date Studies.
Summer, 1995. Six tours of plots on various occasions at Quincy, FL location. One group of farmers and industry people from South America, one of university students, and four groups of farmers.
January 24, 1996. Alabama Wheat and Feed Grains Committee (farmer committee overseeing commodity check-off funds and development of wheat and feed grains), Montgomery, AL. Reported on lupin, tropical corn and pearl millet research.
April 25, 1996. Dairy Field Day. Anniston, AL. Brief presentation on livestock data was presented to producers from several states.
May 12, 1996. International Lupin Conference, Pacific Grove, CA. Invited presentation of livestock research data. Four other papers presented from research on the SARE and coordinating studies.
May 30, 1996. Alabama Farmers Dairy Commodity Meeting, Montgomery, AL. Presented research information.
May 2, 1996. 17 Brazilian farmers toured plots at Quincy, FL.
Jan 1-Sept 30, 1996. Quincy, FL. Twenty-six by farmers and researchers throughout the year.
August 29, 1996. Quincy, FL. Fields day, 60 plus people attended.
December 9, 1996. Alabama Farmers Federation Annual Meeting: Dairy Committee Group, Mobile, AL. Brief presentations on laboratory, agronomic and livestock data to Alabama dairy producers.
November 7, 1997. Fayette-Lamar County (AL) Dairy Producer Meeting, Fayette, AL. Presentations on laboratory, agronomic and livestock data to Alabama dairy producers.
May 14, 1997. Alabama Farmers Dairy Committee Directors Meeting, Gadsen, AL. Brief presentations on laboratory, agronomic and livestock data to Alabama dairy producers on committee.
May 15, 1997. Forage Field Day, Alexandria, AL. Presentations on laboratory, agronomic and livestock data to Alabama dairy producers.
June 19, 1997. Jersey/Holstein Field Day. Presentations on laboratory, agronomic and livestock data to Alabama dairy producers.
December 4, 1997. Dekalb/Jackson Co. Dairy Producers Meeting, Fort Payne, AL. Brief presentations on laboratory, agronomic and livestock data to Alabama dairy producers.
February, 12 1998. Responded to fax inquiry regarding managing lupin silage from David Christensen, Kingston Hill Farm, Oxon, United Kingdom. Mr. Christensen found the information from SARE/ACE web page on internet.
Our results show that pearl millet is a potential silage crop and a viable feed grain crop for double-cropping systems in the southern USA. A new race of rust in 1993 curtailed late plantings of the crop, one of its strong points. A good multi-gene resistance to this race of rust has been developed and a new rust resistant hybrid with even greater grain yield potential than the variety used in this study (HGM-100) is scheduled to be commercially released, probably in 1999.
As a result in part from this project and satellite projects, there is a tremendous amount of interest in using lupin as a cover crop for cotton production in the Florida panhandle, southern Georgia and Alabama, South Carolina and North Carolina. Resource Seeds (Visalia, CA) is currently increasing a high alkaloid selection from ‘Tifwhite-78’ (a USDA-ARS release) white lupin seed for this purpose. The Auburn University cooperator, Edzard van Santen, is also increasing seed of a selection of high alkaloid ‘Tifwhite-78’ lupin to be used as a cover crop. A high alkaloid type would be a better choice for a cover crop/green manure in that alkaloids protect the plants from pests and some diseases. There is research to indicate that high alkaloid lupin may suppress certain nematodes. Also, due to our efforts, Agicultural Resources International Seed Technology Division, Swedesboro, NJ, obtained distribution rights in the USA to market ‘Lunoble’ and ‘Lumineux’ white lupin from Agri-Obtentions, the seed company in France, which owns proprietary rights to these varieties. We furnished seed to the company for seed increase in September of 1997. We have also furnished information regarding seed sources and markets for lupin growers in Georgia and an organic beef producer who wishes to use lupin as an alternative organically grown protein source.
Based on public response to articles on background research for this SARE project, the use of lupin in products for human consumption is an area that should receive further research interest. The public seems to be keenly interested in this topic and a human food market would increase the value of the crop, making it more profitable for farmers to grow. Also, from observations that arose out of our research there is considerable interest in lupin seed to be used for wildlife food plots. This potential is being currently being investigated by an Auburn University wildlife biologist.
Results to date indicate that tropical corn, lupin and pearl millet may be ensiled satisfactorily. The maturity of pearl millet and lupin have affected the nutrient content, but data indicate that these crops may be effectively used in a sustainable farming system. Lupin silage may be used in dairy diets based on similar milk production and milk composition to that from temperate corn silage based diets.
Results from this project led to development and funding of another SARE project designed to evaluate feeding silages of lupin-wheat binary mixtures to dairy cattle. Also, this project enabled the animal scientist to provide assistance for a producer initiated SARE proposal on ensiling methods which was approved for funding in 1997.
Determination of Economic Impacts:
Economic analyses have not been conducted yet as the extensive data set has not all been processed. The agricultural economist cooperator requested and was granted an extension until April 30, 1998. Upon completion of data processing and analyses, data will be analyzed for economic analyses. Analyses will be performed to determine the most economically viable cropping system, i.e. wheat/soybean, lupin/soybean, lupin/pearl millet, etc. This will be accomplished using a standardized enterprise budgeting format. Also, standardized sensitivity analyses will be conducted to equate comparable yield/cost/returns among the various systems. Risk/return analyses can capture the variability inherent to each system as a basis to determine the cumulative probability of positive returns (profits) for the various systems. This will be accomplished by using a simulation (iterative) program based on the distribution (variation) of yield, input levels/costs and output prices. From these analyses, systems should be identified which meet certain environmental and economic criteria for sustainability. Further, management strategies can be developed given an individual’s level of risk exposure, specific set of internal/external resources and managerial abilities.
This is a joint project between the Alabama Experiment Station, Auburn University (AAES); USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, Auburn, AL; USDA-ARS Forage and Turf Research Unit, Tifton, GA; and the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, FL (IFAS). Cropping systems and agronomic studies as well as forage quality studies are joint efforts of AAES, ARS, and IFAS. Entomological studies are being conducted by IFAS, soil fertility studies by AAES and ARS, animal feed trials by AAES, economic analyses will be done by AAES researchers using data from joint agronomic studies conducted by AAES, ARS, and IFAS. Lupin germplasm evaluation is being conducted by AAES.
Areas needing additional study
Adams, J.F., C.C. Mitchell, and H.H. Bryant. 1994. Soil test fertilizer recommendations for Alabama crops. Alabama Agric. Exp. Stn. Agronomy and soils Departmental Series No. 178.
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Ahlrichs, J.L., R.R. Duncan, G. Ejeta, P.R. Hill, V.C. Baligar, R.J. Wright, and W.W. Hanna. 1991. Pearl Millet and sorghum tolerance to aluminum in acid soil. In R.J. Wright et al. (Eds.), Plant-soil interactions at low pH. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. p. 947-951.
Burtle, G. J., G. L. Newton, and W. W. Hanna. 1992. Pearl millet replaces corn in channel catfish diets. pp _. In Abstracts of Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science & International Society of Ethology. August 8-11 1992 . Pittsburgh, PA.
Bolland, M.D.A., B.H. Paynter, and M.J. Baker. 1989. Increasing phosphorus concentration in lupin seed increases grain yields on phosphorus deficient soil. Aust. J. Exper. Agric. 29:797-801.
Council on Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST). 1988. Long-term viability of U.S. agriculture. CAST Report No. 114.
Gladstones, J. S. 1970. Lupines as crop plants. Field Crop Abstracts 23:123-148.
Green, J. 1990. Summer pastures. Dairy Extension Newsletter. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Hanna, W. W. 1991. Pearl millet – a potentially new grain crop for the U.S.. In Abstracts of Technical Papers, No. 18, Southern Branch ASA, February 2-6 1991, Ft. Worth, TX.
Haydon, K. D. and S. E. Hobbs. 1991. Nutrient digestibilities of soft winter wheat, improved triticale cultivars, and pearl millet for finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:719-725.
Henderson, C. W. L. 1989. Lupin as a biological plough: evidence for, and effects on wheat growth and yield. Aust. J. Exper. Agric. 29:99-102.
Hill, G. D. 1977. The composition and nutritive value of lupin seed. Nutr. Abstr. and Rev., Series B: Livestock Feeds and Feeding. 47(8):511-529.
Hill, G. M. and W. W. Hanna. 1990. Nutritive characteristics of pearl millet grain in beef cattle diets. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2061-2066.
Hove, E. L., S. King, and G. D. Hill. 1978. Composition, protein quality, and toxins of seeds of the grain legumes Glycine max, Phaseolus spp., Pisum sativum, and Vicia faba. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 21:457.
Kumar, K.A., S.C. Gupta, and D.J. Andrews. 1983. Relationship between nutritional quality characters and grain yield in pearl millet. Crop Sci.. 23:232-234.
Lancashire, P.D., H. Bleiholder, T. van den Boom, P. Langeluddeke, R. Stauss, E. Weber and
A. Witzenberger. 1991. A uniform decimal code for growth stages of crops and weeds. Ann. Appl. Biol. 119: 561-601.
Larson, K. J., K. G. Cassman, and D. A. Phillips. 1989. Yield, dinitrogen fixation, and aboveground nitrogen balance of irrigated white lupin in a Mediterranean climate. Agron. J. 81:538-543.
Legg, J. O. and J. J. Meisinger. 1982. Soil Nitrogen Budgets. In: F. J. Stevenson (ed.) Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. pp. 503-566. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI.
Lopez-Bellido, L., and M. Fuentes. 1986. Lupin crop as an alternative source of protein. In: Advances in Agronomy. pp. 239-295. Academic Press, New York.
National Research Council (NRC). 1988. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 6th ed. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C.
Pashley, D. P. 1988. Current status of fall armyworm host strains. Fla. Entomol. 71:227-234.
Parker C. F. 1990. Role of animals in sustainable agriculture. pp. 238-245. In C. A. Edwards et al. (ed.) Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny, Iowa.
Parker, J. D., R. G. Palmer, and D. L. Wright. 1991. Foreword of the Proceedings of The Southern Regional Tropical Corn Symposium. p. ii. I. D. Teare (ed.). June 27-28 1991. Quincy, FL. Potash & Phosphate Institute and Foundation for Agronomic Research, Atlanta, GA. PPI/FAR Technical Bulletin 1991-3 No. 3838909.
Petch, A. and R. W. Smith. 1985. Effect of lupin management on the yield of subsequent wheat crops in a lupin-wheat rotation. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 25:603-613.
Power, J. F., J. Alessi, G. A. Reichman, and D. L. Grunes. 1973. Recovery, residual effects, and fate of nitrogen fertilizer sources in a semiarid region. Agron. J. 65:765-768.
Rakes, A. F., L. W. Whitlow, and J. C. Burns. 1992. The performance of cows fed silage made from tropical and conventional corn. J. Dairy Sci. (Suppl. 1) 75:310 (abstract).
Reeves, D. W. 1992. Nitrogen management of tropical corn in a reseeding crimson clover conservation-tillage system. pp. 11-14. In Proc. of 1992 Southern Conservation-Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. July 21-23 1992. Jackson, TN. Spec. Publ. 92-01.
Reeves, D. W. and P. L. Mask. 1992. The potential for white lupin production in the southeastern United States. Proc. of the 1st European Conference on Grain Legumes, June 1-3, 1992. Angers, France. pp. 211-222.
Reeves, D. W., J. T. Touchton, and R. C. Kingery. 1990. The use of lupins in sustainable agriculture systems in the Southern Coastal Plain. p. 9. In: Abstracts of Technical Papers, No. 17, Southern Branch ASA, February 3-7 1990, Little Rock, AR.
Smith, R. L., L. S. Jensen, C. S. Hoveland, and W. W. Hanna. 1989. Use of pearl millet, sorghum, and triticale grain in broiler diets. J. Prod. Agric. 2:78-82.
Teare, I. D., D. L. Wright, and D. J. Zimet. 1989. No- till research with tropical corn in a doublecrop system. pp. 43-45. In: Proc. 1989 Southern Conservation Tillage Conf., Spec. Bull. 89-1, July 12-13 1989, Tallahassee, FL.
Thompson, B.D., R.W. Bell, and M.D.A. Bolland. 1991. Low seed phosphorus concentration depresses early growth and nodulation of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Gungurru). J. Plant Nutrition. 14(2):1355-1367.
Tracy, V. A., B. A. Barton, G. W. Anderson, and M. S. Williams. 1988. Comparison of sweet white lupin seeds with soybean oil meal as a protein supplement for sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 66:499.
Wells, H. D., I. Forbes, R. Burns, J. D. Miller, and J. Dobson. 1980. Registration of Tifwhite-78 white lupine. Crop Sci. 20:824.
Wood, C. W., G. A. Peterson, D. G. Westfall, C. V. Cole, and W. O. Willis. 1991. Nitrogen balance and biomass production of newly established no-till dryland agroecosystems. Agron. J. 83:519-526.
Wright, D. L. 1988. Tropical corn production and use. University of Florida, Agronomy Fact Sheet No. 228.
Wright, D. L. and B. T. Kidd. 1991. Silage comparison of tropical and temperate corn at four planting dates in multiple cropping systems. pp. 35-37. In T. C. Keisling (ed.) Proc. 1991 Southern Conservation Tillage Conf., Ark. Expt. Stn. Rep. 91-1, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.
Wright, D. L. and R. L. Stanley. 1991. Tropical corn silage and grain production. Univ. of Florida Agronomy Facts. SS-AGR-34. IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.