Over the past sixteen years, hazelnut research and genetic improvement at Rutgers University has lead to the development of cold-hardy, disease-resistant hazelnut selections that show promise for commercial production in the northeast. These selections represent some of the first hazelnut plants adapted to this region that also produce large, high-quality, round nuts with thin-shells and a high kernel percentage (over 50% kernel to shell by weight). Funding from the SARE Partnership grant was used to propagate and establish replicated trials of fourteen different hazelnut clones at four locations in 2010 and 2011 to undergo systematic yield and nut quality evaluation under low-input sustainable farming situations. Farmer-partners have agreed to continue the evaluations for seven years following planting. From these trials we hope to identify the highest-yielding selections best-suited for reliable and consistent nut production in the northeast, as a precursor to larger-scale testing for commercial production. These plantings will also function as demonstration trials to inform farmers and the public of the progress made in hazelnut breeding and to display hazelnuts as a new, sustainable, high-value crop for the northeastern U.S. Trial locations include the Rutgers Horticultural Farm 3, North Brunswick, NJ (2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map 7A); 2. Peter’s Paw Paws, Aquaboque, NY (eastern Long Island, 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map 7A); 3. Z’s Nutty Ridge Farm LLC, McGraw, NY (central NY, 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map 5b); and 4. Olson’s Tree Farming, Findley Lake, NY (Western NY, 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map 5b).
Diversification is vital to the success and longevity of many small farms in the northeastern U.S. Sustainable and environmentally friendly production practices are also increasingly important to the long-term success of these farms, especially those in the rural-urban interface where interaction with the public is frequent and is often highly desired. As such, the development of new, high-value, low-input crops with potential to increase on-farm crop diversity and sustainability would be of great value to many small farms throughout the northeast. One such new crop worthy of exploring is hazelnuts.
Hazelnut research and genetic improvement at Rutgers University has lead to the development of cold-hardy and disease-resistant hazelnut selections that show promise for commercial production in the northeast (Molnar et al., 2005a; Molnar et al, 2005b; Molnar et al., 2007; Molnar et al., 2009; Molnar, et al., 2010; Molnar, 2011). These selections represent some of the first hazelnut plants well-adapted to this region that produce large, high-quality round nuts with thin-shells and a high kernel percentage (over 50% kernel to shell by weight). They are the products of breeding efforts at Rutgers, in close cooperation with Oregon State University, the current world leader in hazelnut research and genetics (Mehlenbacher, 2005). The most superior 14 selections identified at Rutgers warrant systematic multi-location evaluation for their usefulness in low-input sustainable farming situations across different climates and soils. In addition, demonstration trials need to be established to better inform farmers and the public of the progress made in hazelnut breeding, and to display the potential of hazelnuts as a new sustainable, high-value crop for the northeastern U.S.
The new Rutgers selections have shown few pest or disease problems and should require greatly reduced pesticide applications compared to most other tree and vegetable crops currently grown in the region. In addition, hazelnuts can be grown on sloping and rocky land not ideal for annual crops and once established require little to no supplemental irrigation. As such, hazelnuts appear to be an ideal candidate for low input, possibly organic, production.
The European hazelnut, Corylus avellana, is the species grown for commercial nut production. There are two wild hazelnut species native to the northeastern U.S. (C. americana and C. cornuta); however, both wild species produce tiny, thick-shelled nuts of little commercial value. The top hazelnut producing country in the world is Turkey, which produces 70-80 percent of the world’s crop (the world crop for 2012 was 888,328 Metric tonnes [FAOStat, 2012]). Turkey is followed by Italy in production quantity, which is around 15 percent of the world’s total, and then the U.S., which produces less than five percent. Currently, 99% of the U.S. hazelnut crop is produced in the Willamette Valley of Oregon (Mehlenbacher and Olsen, 1997).
While European hazelnut production has been attempted in eastern North America since colonial times, there has been no commercial success in this region due to a native disease called eastern filbert blight (EFB), which is incited by the fungus Anisogramma anomala (Fuller, 1908; Thompson et al., 1996). EFB causes severe stem cankering and subsequent death of European hazelnut plants in four to seven years after exposure to A. anomala. The disease is found closely associated with C. americana, whose wide native range includes much of the eastern half of the U.S. (Gleason and Cronquist, 1998). Corylus americana is tolerant of EFB and subsequently acts as a reservoir of inoculum to infect highly susceptible European hazelnuts planted across its range.
The establishment of hazelnut production in the Pacific Northwest, nearly 100 years ago, was largely possible due to being outside the native range of C. americana and its associated pathogen A. anomala. Unfortunately, this situation changed dramatically with the introduction of EFB in southwest Washington in the late 1960s (Davison and Davidson, 1973). EFB devastated hazelnut orchards in Washington before scientists developed a solid understanding of the pathogen, along with control measures, and plant breeders found genetic resistance to the disease (Johnson et al., 1996; Mehlenbacher and Thompson, 1991; Coyne et al., 1998; Lunde et al., 2000). While little is left of the hazelnut industry in Washington, commercial production continues in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, but not without expensive fungicide applications and disease management protocols. Fortunately, after nearly 30 years of breeding, EFB-resistant hazelnut cultivars are now available for use by Oregon growers (Mehlenbacher et al., 2007; Mehlenbacher et al., 2008). Unfortunately, these EFB-resistant cultivars are not well adapted or reliably productive in the harsher climate of the northeastern U.S. However, they are very useful as high-quality, EFB-resistant breeding parents. Accordingly, the rapid progress made at Rutgers towards the development of cold-hardy, EFB-resistant hazelnuts has been largely based on the successful breeding and research efforts developed at Oregon State University (Molnar et al., 2005a).
Coyne, C. J., S. A. Mehlenbacher, and D. C. Smith. 1998. Sources of resistance to eastern filbert blight. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 124:253-257.
Davison, A.D. and R.M. Davidson, Jr. 1973. Apioporthe and Monchaetia canker reported in western Washington. Plant Disease Reporter 57:522-523.
FAOStat. 2012. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/default.aspx#ancor Accessed March 30, 2012
Fuller, A.S. 1908. The filbert or hazelnut. p. 118-146. In: The Nut Culturist. Orange Judd Company, NY.
Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1998. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Gardens. Bronx, NY
Johnson, K.B., S.A. Mehlenbacher, J.K. Stone, and J.W. Pscheidt. 1996. Eastern filbert blight of European hazelnut: It’s becoming a manageable disease. Plant Disease 80:1308-1316.
Lunde, C. F., S. A. Mehlenbacher, and D. C. Smith. 2000. Survey of hazelnut cultivars for response to eastern filbert blight inoculation. HortScience 35(4): 729-731.
Mehlenbacher, S. A. and M. M. Thompson. 1991. Occurrence and inheritance of resistance to eastern filbert blight in ‘Gasaway’ hazelnut. HortScience 26:410-411.
Mehlenbacher, S.A. and J. Olsen. 1997. The hazelnut industry in Oregon. Acta Horticulturae 445:337-345.
Mehlenbacher, S.A. 2005. The hazelnut situation in Oregon. Acta Horticulturae 686:665-667.
Mehlenbacher, S.A., A.N. Azarenko, and D.C. Smith. 2007. ‘Santiam’ hazelnut. HortScience 42:715-717.
Mehlenbacher, S.A., D.C. Smith, and R.L. McCluskey. 2008. ‘Sacajawea’ hazelnut. HortScience 43:255-257.
Molnar, T.J., J.C. Goffreda, and C.R. Funk. 2005a. Developing hazelnuts for the eastern United States. Acta Horticulturae 68:609-617.
Molnar, T.J., S.N. Baxer, and J.C. Goffreda. 2005b. Accelerated screening of hazelnut seedlings for resistance to eastern filbert blight. HortScience 40:1667-1669.
Molnar, T.J., S.A. Mehlenbacher, D.E. Zaurov, and J.C. Goffreda. 2007. Survey of hazelnut germplasm from Russia and Crimea for response to eastern filbert blight. HortScience 42:51-56.
Molnar, T.J., J.M. Capik, and J.C. Goffreda. 2009. Response of hazelnut progenies from known resistant parents to Anisogramma anomala in New Jersey, U.S.A. Acta Hort 845:73–81
Molnar, T.J., J.C. Goffreda, and C.R. Funk. 2010. Survey of Corylus resistance to Anisogramma anomala from different geographic locations. HortScience 45:832–836.
Molnar, T.J. 2011. Expansion of hazelnut research in North America. FAO-CIHEAM-NUCIS Newsletter, Number 15:33-37
Thompson, M.M., H.B. Lagerstedt, and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1996. Hazelnuts. p. 125-184. In: J. Janick and J.N. Moore (eds.). Fruit breeding. vol. 3. Nuts. Wiley, New York.
1. Clonally propagate 14 experimental hazelnut selections developed at Rutgers University and two eastern filbert blight-resistant control cultivars (from Oregon State University) through grafting and field (mound) layering and work with partner-farmers to establish yield trials of these trees at four locations. Tree will be propagated in 2009 with planting in 2010. Yield trials will be organized in a randomized complete block design (five trees of each genotype at each location). Trials will be surrounded by hazelnut seedlings grown from select parents at Rutgers University to reduce border effects and to provide ample pollen for nut production later in the study.
2. Discuss planting details and field maintenance requirements with cooperating farmers. This includes soil preparation (perform soil test and amend soil as need [optimal pH range is 6.0-6.5]), spacing of trees (20’ between rows and 10’ between trees), organization of planting in a randomized complete block design, irrigation, weed control (through chemical herbicide and/or through mowing and mulching), and possible problems including deer browse and buck rub. Part of this farmer training includes invitation of cooperating farmers to visit Rutgers to learn hands-on about hazelnut plants. Discuss with partner-farmers the yield evaluation requirements, which will start outside the timeline of this funded proposal.
3. Present seminars at annual meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Conference to discuss the establishment of the SARE-funded replicated trials and hazelnuts as a potential new crop for the Northeast.
Fourteen superior, EFB-resistant hazelnut selections were identified prior to the initiation of this project (see attachment 1 and Figures 1 and 2). They were selected based on their resistance to the eastern filbert blight pathogen (clones were selected from progeny described in Molnar, et al., 2009—see introduction section Literature cited), as well as their nut and kernel attributes (round kernels, larger than 1.0 g, with a kernel to shell ratio of around 50%) and yields based on single plant estimates. Four unrelated sources of eastern filbert blight resistance were utilized in the breeding of the selections to broaden the genetic diversity of those elite clones selected for larger-scale production. Resistance in the breeding lines was derived from European hazelnut (‘Ratoli’ and ‘Zimmerman’), wild Americana hazelnut (Yoder #5), and Turkish tree hazel (‘Grand Traverse) (also see Molnar et al., 2009).
Starting with only one plant of each of the 14 selections identified in our breeding nurseries, we propagated trees through grafting and mound-layering (stooling) to establish the replicated yield trials proposed in this study. See Figures 3 and 4 for images of mound layering in the field.
Replicated trials were then established following best known practices in cooperation with our select cooperator farmers who had prior experience growing hazelnuts and other underutilized fruit and nut trees. These cooperators were chosen based on their past experiences to help reduce problems associated with the potentially steep learning curve of establishing and growing hazelnuts. The cooperators were also chosen for their different climates and soils and their proximity to other potential growers in different regions of the northeastern U.S.
Once propagated (see below), plants were transported to the cooperators’ farms for field planting (See figures 5-8). Each tree was planted by hand, with hole dug with shovels or powered augers depending on the location. To protect the plants from wind, each plant was staked with bamboo poles and protective fencing was placed around each tree to prevent rabbit and deer damage. Weed control was done by herbicides or by mulching depending on the cooperator’s desires. Plants were irrigated immediately after planting and will continue to be irrigated throughout the first and second years to promote proper establishment. Irrigation will not be required in the third year or after, unless severe drought conditions are present.
The 14 experimental hazelnut selections, as well as the 2 control cultivars, were propagated at Rutgers by bench grafting by the Project Leader. Dormant one-year hazelnut seedlings as well as nursery stock purchased from Oregon nursery sources was used for rootstocks. Grafting and layering was first performed in 2009. Grafting was done in the greenhouse in March using dormant scions and rootstocks (greenhouse temperatures were around 75 degrees F day/ 65 degrees F night). Scion wood was collected in January and stored at 32 degrees F until use. Splice grafts (whip grafts) or chip buds were the grafting techniques most widely used, although side veneer grafting was done when scion wood was of much smaller diameter than the rootstocks. Field layering began in July 2009 with rooted plantlets dug in late fall of 2009, potted into a one-gallon container and overwintered in a cold storage greenhouse. In 2010, the grafted and layered plants were transplanted to 2-gallon containers in April or June to continue growth in their second year. They were treated with slow release fertilizer and maintained under optimal care in the greenhouse under extended daylengths and warm temperatures (75 degreesF day/ 65 degrees F night) to promote development of strong root systems and branches to enhance survival when field planted. Plants were moved outside under partial shade in July to continue growth and to naturally acclimate to outdoor conditions for field planting in September or October. Prior to planting, trees were cut back to approximately 3 feet tall. It should be noted that the trial planted at Rutgers was field-planted using one-year-old trees in 2009 (ahead of the other trials since we had a protected location and experience with field planting young trees). Also, the trial in McGraw, NY, was planted in 2011. For the McGraw, NY trial, propagation of the plant material established there followed a similar development timeline, only grafting and layering began in 2010 for planting in October 2011.
Trials were chosen based on having diverse climates and soils as well as cooperator-farmers having previous experience growing hazelnuts. Trial locations include the Rutgers Horticultural Farm 3, North Brunswick, NJ (2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 7A); 2. Peter’s Paw Paws, Aquebogue, NY (eastern Long Island, 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 7A); 3. Z’s Nutty Ridge Farm LLC, McGraw, NY (central NY, 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 5b); and 4. Olson’s Tree Farming, Findley Lake, NY (Western NY, 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 5b). The recently updated USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map scale provides minimum temperatures at these locations. However, the locations of the trials also differ in terms of precipitation events and moderation of air temperature extremes due to proximity to large bodies of water. North Brunswick, NJ and Aquebogue, NY fall in the same USDA Plant Hardiness Zone and even have similar rainfall amounts (average yearly rainfall over 2008-2010 was 50.70 for North Brunswick and 50.31 for Aquebogue [surface data, annual climatalogical summary, http://gis.ncdc.noaa.gov/map/acs/]), but the locations differ in their microclimates largely due to proximity to the ocean, with Aquebogue being surrounded on both sides by water which minimizes temperature fluctuations in the spring and fall. This location appears to be most similar to that of the Willamette Valley of Oregon where hazelnuts are now grown commercially (2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 8b). The minimum temperature reached in North Brunswick over 2008-2010 was 0.0 degrees F with Aquebogue reaching only 1.0 degrees F. In contrast, McGraw, NY and Findley Lake, NY are much colder and both fall in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 5b. However, precipitation and temperature data over the years 2008-2010 suggest McGraw is the more stressful environment. The average yearly rainfall for McGraw, NY over this period was 36.72 inches with lowest temperature recorded over these years being -13 degrees F, with Findley Lake receiving 43.24 inches of average yearly precipitation and reaching a low of -6.0 degrees F [surface data, annual climatalogical summary, http://gis.ncdc.noaa.gov/map/acs/]).
Fourteen experimental selections and two known cultivars (controls) were included in the replicated trials. The proposed field design at each location was a randomized complete block or a completely random design (depending on the location and farmer). Each trial consisted of 14 Rutgers selections, 2 Oregon selections (controls) with a goal of 5 trees of each, for a total of 80 trees. The planned field spacing was 20 feet between the rows and 10 feet between plants in the row, although some alterations were made by cooperating farmers, with additional spacing between the rows and trees provided by Jeffery Zarnowski. Border rows of hazelnut seedlings (provided by Rutgers) were planted to minimize border effects and to enhance consistency within the trials.
Most plant evaluations, data collection, and subsequent analysis will be performed outside of the timeline of the funding provided here, as discussed more thoroughly in the project timeline of the original proposal narrative. First evaluations were made in the early spring following the plantings made in 2010 to identify injured or dead trees that need to be replaced to maintain a complete set of replications of each clone. Nut yield evaluations will begin in year three (2013) and will continue for four additional years. All nuts will be harvested yearly from each selection at each location with total yield measurements taken. Total nuts from each selection will be air dried for four-six weeks and then be weighed, ultimately to estimate yield potential of each selection on a per acre basis. Nut samples of each selection from each location will also be evaluated by the project leader for nut and kernel weight, kernel percentage (% kernel of whole nut by weight), number of blanks, blanching ability, flavor, etc. to better understand the quality, performance and reliability of the clones when grown in different locations and climates, and from a year to year basis. Yearly data from the four plantings will be tabulated and analyzed to ultimately develop statistically significant and publishable recommendations on which selections are suitable (or not) for larger-scale experimental and/or early commercial plantings.
- List of Rutgers hazelnut selections and their attributes
- Figure 3. Field mound layering of select hazelnut clones for trial
- Field mound layering distant view
- Figure 1. Close up of nut cluster of Rutgers hazelnut selection showing large size nut
- Replicated hazelnut trial at Rutgers planted 2009, picture taken late summer 2011
- Figure 2. Nut clusters on Rutgers selections CRXr12p35
- Trees planted, staked, and protected at the Olson farm, Findley Lake, NY
- Close up of hazelnut chip bud (propagation) on seedling rootstock
- Tree planting in fall of 2010 at the Olson Farm
- Chip budded plants in the greenhouse
- 1. We propagated the 14 Rutgers hazelnut selections and two control plants (Jefferson and Theta from Oregon State University) through grafting and field (mound) layering and established the trees at four locations in trials organized in a randomized complete block design or completely random design. The target was five trees of each of the 14 clones to be planted at each location. However, we found some clones were more challenging to propagate than others resulting in not reaching our target goal of 5 trees of each selection at each site. Plus, severe weather events including flooding in Findley Lake, NY caused die back and death of a number of plants (we are propagating outside the scope of this proposal timeline to replace those that dies in trials). Trial locations include the Rutgers Horticultural Farm 3, North Brunswick, NJ (planted in 2010); 2. Peter’s Paw Paws, Aquaboque, NY (Long Island) (planted in 2010); 3. Z’s Nutty Ridge Farm LLC, McGraw, NY (planted in 2011); and 4. Olson’s Tree Farming, Findley Lake, NY (Western NY) (planted in 2010). Total number of plants surviving as of December 2011 can be found in Table 1. At least one tree of each clone was successfully established at each location.
2. Replicated trials were surrounded on all four sides with one or two rows of hazelnut seedlings to act as border rows and to later provide supplemental pollen to enhance the yield trials.
3. Numerous discussions were held with the three cooperating farmers (Malcolm Olsen, Peter Haarmann, and Jeff Zarnowski) which included planting details and field maintenance requirements. All three farmers also visited Rutgers University at least once during the course of the study (at their own expense) to learn best management practices and to observe hazelnut orchards, research trials, and propagation at Rutgers. Discussions were also held on yield evaluation requirements, which will start outside the timeline of this funded proposal.
4. Principle investigator presented seminars at the 2010 and 2011 Annual meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Association in Wooster, OH, and Logan, Utah, respectively, and at the 2011 annual meeting of the American Chestnut Foundation (Buffalo, NY). The establishment of the SARE-funded replicated trials and hazelnuts as a potential new crop for the northeast were the focus of these speaking engagements.
5. A hazelnut field day was held at Rutgers University in July 2010 to discuss the hazelnut project, which included a field tour of the Rutgers replicated yield trials. Two of the three farmer-cooperators attended the field day and also presented on their farms and trials.
6. Cooperating farmer Malcolm Olsen hosted a meeting of the NY Nut Growers Association in the fall of 2011 at his farm. Part of the on-farm tour was a stop at the Rutgers hazelnut trial including discussion on its purpose and progress.
7. At the completion of the project, replicated trials of superior Rutgers experimental hazelnut clones were established on three private farms and one land grant institution. While the two-year timeline of this funding covers primarily the propagation and establishment of the hazelnut research trials (nut evaluation will begin in year three), the cooperators are personally committed to a longer evaluation period of the plant material (seven years), as well as providing access for demonstration and the timely dissemination of project results during the multi-year timeline. The overriding goal of this project is to identify the highest-yielding, most reliably performing experimental selections and then propagate them for larger-scale testing and possible release for early-stage commercial production. The trials will also help to identify unforeseen pitfalls or challenges of hazelnut production in the northeast before moving to the greater investment and risk of larger-scale production.
This funded proposal allowed the propagation and establishment 14 of the most promising hazelnut clones identified from the Rutgers University breeding program in four locations in the northeastern U.S. The trials span the moderated climate of the eastern end of Long Island (Aquaboque, NY), the slightly colder and less moderated climate of central New Jersey (North Brunswick, NJ), to the harsher, cold climate of central New York State (McGraw, NY), to the lake-moderated, cold climate of far southwestern, NY (Findley Lake, NY). These locations should help us identify the best performing selections (clones) in and across these growing regions, which represent a large percentage of the climates and soils found across the northeast. From the yield and nut quality data collected from these trials (nut production should start in 2013), we hope to identify those selections worthy of larger-scale propagation and release to farmers.
We also recognize that without farmer and extension personnel education, it may take decades before this sustainable crop is utilized to its fullest capacity. Therefore, we specifically chose farmer-cooperators also willing to host tours and demonstration events at their farms to help transmit information on hazelnut production and the potential of this crop for the northeastern U.S.
Education & Outreach Activities and Participation Summary
No formal publications were made (yet) directly from this funded proposal, which was primarily for the establishment of longer-term research trials. Outreach events included a hazelnut field day held at Rutgers University in July 2010 where the replicated trial was discussed and shown in a field tour. Invited speakers came from Italy, Nebraska, and New York. There were over 80 people in attendance including Rutgers faculty, extension agents (Rutgers and SUNY), farmers, and future hazelnut growers. Presentations were held in the morning at the Cook Campus Center and field tours were provided in the afternoon of the hazelnut research plots at Hort Farm 3. Rutgers presentation was titled, “The Rutgers Hazelnut Project,” where the SARE trials were highlighted. Peter Haarmann, a cooperating farmer on the project, also spoke about his hazelnut experiences and the SARE sponsored project. Jeff Zarnowski, also a cooperating farmer, made a presentation on his previous work and the establishment of the new SARE sponsored trials. Following presentations, a tour was provided of the hazelnut research plots including the new replicated trial. In 2011, Malcolm Olsen hosted a NY Nut Growers Association meeting at his farm, which also included a field tour of his replicated hazelnut trial. An invited lecture was presented at the Northern Nut Growers Assoc. 101st Annual meeting at Wooster College, Wooster, Ohio on July 19, 2010. The title was, “Update on the Rutgers hazel project.” The SARE sponsored hazelnut trials were discussed. The establishment of the replicated trials were also discussed in two presentation in 2011 (Annual meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Association and the Annual Meeting of the American Chestnut Foundation).
For reference purposes, hazelnut-related papers and abstracts published during the timeline of this project include:
1. Molnar, T.J. and M. Pisetta. 2009. Searching for resistance to eastern filbert blight: hazelnuts from the republic of Georgia. The nutshell, quarterly newsletter of the Northern Nut Growers Association 63(4):16–22.
2. Molnar, T.J., J.M. Capik, and J.C. Goffreda. 2009. Response of hazelnut progenies from known resistant parents to Anisogramma anomala in New Jersey, U.S.A. Acta Hort 845:73–81
3. Molnar, T.J., J. Capik, D. Zaurov, A. Morgan, and C. R. Funk. 2010. Hybrid Hazelnut Consortium: a collaborative national effort to expand hazelnut production. P. 47. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Rutgers Turfgrass Symposium. Center for Turfgrass Science. School of Environmental and Biological Sciences. Rutgers University.
4. Molnar, T.J. 2010. A new call for hazelnuts. The nutshell, quarterly newsletter of the Northern Nut Growers Association 64(1):31–32.
5. Molnar, T.J. 2010. A (second) new call for hazelnuts. The nutshell, quarterly newsletter of the Northern Nut Growers Association 64(2):12.
6. Molnar, T.J. 2010. Eastern filbert blight: does genetic resistance hold up across different regions? The nutshell, quarterly newsletter of the Northern Nut Growers Association 64(2):16–24.
7. Molnar, T.J., J.C. Goffreda, and C.R. Funk. 2010. Survey of Corylus Resistance to Anisogramma anomala from Different Geographic Locations. HortScience 45:832–836.
8. Molnar, T.J., J. Capik, S. Zhao, N. Zhang. 2010. First report of Eastern Filbert Blight on Corylus avellana ‘Gasaway’ and ‘VR20-11’ caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller in New Jersey. Plant Disease. 94:1265.
9. Molnar, T. 2011. Corylus L. p. 15-48. In: C. Kole (ed.) Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources of Forest Trees (Volume 10.). Springer-Verlag
10. Capik, J.M. and T.J. Molnar. 2010. Breeding ornamental hazelnuts. Combined Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators’ Society. 60: 136-146
11. Molnar, T.J., J. Capik, C. Leadbetter, D. Zaurov, and C. R. Funk. 2011. Progress Identifying New Hazelnut Germplasm Expressing Resistance to Eastern Filbert Blight. P. 42. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Rutgers Turfgrass Symposium. Center for Turfgrass Science. School of Environmental and Biological Sciences. Rutgers University
12. Inzano, M. and T.J. Molnar. 2010. The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: A New Pest of Hazelnuts. The nutshell, quarterly newsletter of the Northern Nut Growers Association. Vol. 64(4):12-16–32.
13. Kahn, P.C., T.J. Molnar, G. Zhang., and C.R. Funk. 2011. Investing in Perennial Crops to Sustainably Feed the World. Issues in Science and Technology. Summer 2011, p 75-81
14. Molnar, T.J. 2011. Nut Tree Research and Breeding at Rutgers University. Annual Report of the Northern Nut Growers Association. 101:7-113.
15. Cai, G., C. Leadbetter, T. Molnar and B. Hillman. 2011. Draft genome sequence of hazelnut eastern filbert blight pathogen Anisogramma anomala. Abstracts of the annual meeting of the Northeast Division of the American Phytopathological Society. New Brunswick, NJ. October 12-14, 2011.
16. Leadbetter, C., G. Cai, B. Hillman and T.J. Molnar. 2011. Utilizing microsatellite markers to explore the genetic diversity of eastern filbert blight (Anisogramma anomala). Abstracts of the annual meeting of the Northeast Division of the American Phytopathological Society. New Brunswick, NJ October 12-14, 2011.
17. Molnar, T. and N. Zhang. 2011. Application of a real-time PCR assay for detection of eastern filbert blight in hazelnut breeding. Abstracts of the Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, Honolulu, HI August 6-10, 2011. Phytopathology Vol. 101, No. 6 (Supplement) S123
18. Cai, G.,C. Leadbetter, T. Molnar, and B.I. Hillman. 2011. Genome sequencing and analysis of Anisogramma anomala, the causal agent of eastern filbert blight. Abstracts of the Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, Honolulu, HI August 6-10, 2011. Phytopathology Vol. 101, No. 6 (Supplement) S25
19. Cai, G., C. Leadbetter, T. Molnar, and B.I. Hillman. 2011. Genome-wide identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Anisogramma anomala. Abstracts of the Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, Honolulu, HI August 6-10, 2011. Phytopathology Vol. 101, No. 6 (Supplement) S25
20. Molnar, T.J., Capik, J., Leadbetter, C.W., Zhang, Z., Cai, G. and B. Hillman. 2011. Developing hazelnuts (Corylus spp.) with durable resistance to eastern filbert blight caused by Anisogramma anomala. Abstracts of the Fourth International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry. Eugene, OR. July 31-Aug. 5, 2011
21. Molnar, T.J. and J. Capik. 2011. Utilization of Wild Corylus in the Genetic Improvement of Hazelnut. Abstracts of the 1st International Symposium of Wild Relatives of subtropical and Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. Davis, California, USA. March 19-23, 2011. p. 14-15
22. Molnar, T.J. and J. Capik. 2011. Breeding for eastern filbert blight resistance in hazelnuts. HortScience 46(9):S8. (Abstr.)
23. Capik, J and T.J. Molnar. 2011. Breeding ornamental hazelnuts. HortScience 46(9):S3. (Abstr.)
24. Leadbetter, C., T. Molnar and J. Capik. 2011. Screening new hazelnut germplasm for resistance to eastern filbert blight. HortScience 46(9):S4. (Abstr.)
1. Hazelnut for Biofuel Production. 2011.
other useful information on the web:
Hybrid Hazelnut Consortium
Rutgers Ag Products Website: hazelnuts
No economic analysis was performed in this study
The research/demonstration trials establish in this proposal were done to later assess the potential of the crop for future farmer adoption. The three partner-farmers associated with this project are interested in expanding their hazelnut trials and remain highly enthusiastic about the potential of hazelnut for the northeast U.S. They have committed to maintain the hazelnut trials for 7 years following planting (outside of the scope and timeline of this funded work) and have also agreed to host demonstration tours of their trials in the near future.
Areas needing additional study
These trials, as well as other established through other funding at Rutgers, need to be maintained and evaluated for at least 7 years from the date of planting to select the best performers, either locally or regionally. The study of more efficient on-farm propagation methods will also be key to helping to meet the demand for plant material if these trials prove that several selections are consistently high yielding and worthy of release to farmers. In addition, farmer training will also be needed since there is little history of commercial hazelnut or other nut-tree production in the northeastern U.S. Fortunatley, many of the pricinples and practices developed in Oregon for the current U.S. hazelnut industry will be directly applicable to developing an industry in the northeast, once suitable cultivars are identified.