Developing Agronomic Strategies to Optimize Production of Quinoa and Hulless Barley on No-till Farms in the Palouse Region of Idaho and Washington

Final report for SW15-061

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2015: $223,119.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2018
Grant Recipient: Washington State University
Region: Western
State: Washington
Principal Investigator:
Dr. Kevin Murphy
Washington State University
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Project Information

Abstract:

In an effort to increase crop diversification, no-till farmers in the Palouse region of North Idaho and Eastern Washington have expressed a need for increased knowledge and awareness of appropriate agronomic practices for both quinoa and hulless barley.  Each of these crops possesses the potential to add value to traditional no-till farming rotations in the Palouse through the marketing of their enhanced nutritional value and heart-healthy characteristics. Quinoa is recognized worldwide as an important gluten-free crop with high nutritional content and as a source of phytonutrients and fiber for human health.  At present, little is known about either the best management practices or the best available varieties for quinoa and hulless barley on no-till, dryland farms of the Palouse.

From 2015 to 2017, we evaluated 10 varieties and/or breeding lines each of quinoa and hulless barley on two no-till farms in Washington and Idaho. While the barley trials had reliable results across all location years, quinoa only produced a harvestable yield in one year. This is likely due to a combination of high temperatures and very dry conditions. In addition, agronomic trials for each crop were conducted from 2016 to 2018 on two no-till farms. These focus on determining optimal nitrogen and seeding rates for each crop on no-till farms in the Palouse.   Agronomic traits measured included emergence, plant height,  lodging tolerance, days to maturity and seed yield. End-use quality traits of interest included seed protein content, seed size, test weight, and β-glucan content (for barley only).

For the barley variety testing experiment, results showed a significant varietal difference in yield across years and locations (p < 0.05). In Almota for all three years, the top three high yielding varieties were Kardia (3,988 kg/ha), 10WA-118.13 (3,880 kg/ha), and 10WA-107.8 (3,763 kg/ha). Across all three years in Almota, the 10 varieties had a mean yield of 3,349 kg/ha. In Genesee, for all three years, the top three high yielding varieties were Kardia (5,887 kg/ha), 10WA-107.8 (5,689 kg/ha), and 10WA-118.13 (5,617 kg/ha) respectively, and the nursery mean was 4,898 kg/ha. When comparing varieties across years and locations, the top three high yielding varieties were Kardia, 10WA-118.13, and 10WA-107.8 with 4,937 kg/ha, 4,748 kg/ha, and 4,726 kg/ha. Across all three years and both locations, the 10 varieties yielded a total average of 4,124 kg/ha. Kardia is the only hulled entry in the variety trials, and was included as a hulled, high β-glucan control.

Results from the agronomy trials showed a significant nitrogen rate x variety action for yield across all locations. Nitrogen did not have an impact on plant emergence and stand establishment, but did impact plant height and maturity. There was also a significant nitrogen rate x variety interaction for β-glucan content and protein content for each year. The barley variety Julie consistently had a higher β-glucan content than the variety Havener, though Havener had significantly higher grain yields each year. Though we are still waiting on our final β-glucan results, our preliminary results indicate that nitrogen rate did not have a significant effect on β-glucan content. Should these results bear out, farmers will not have the capacity to manage β-glucan content based on nitrogen application. However, neither will the effect of nitrogen rate on β-glucan content be a concern, and farmers can use nitrogen to manage yields and protein content. Differences in β-glucan content were found across years and locations, indicating that years and locations with higher precipitation resulted in higher β-glucan content in the grain.

 

Project Objectives:

1. Identify specific varieties and/or breeding lines of quinoa and hulless barley that perform well on no-till farms in the Palouse.

2. Determine the effect of seeding rate and nitrogen rate on agronomic traits and seed yield of quinoa and hulless barley;

3. Develop outreach products and events in Idaho and Washington, as well as at regional and national conferences, to increase knowledge of and awareness about the agronomic and market capacity of quinoa and hulless barley.

4. Publish a peer-reviewed paper in an impactful agriculture-based academic journal.

5. Provide varietal information that will contribute to an officially released variety.

 

Cooperators

Click linked name(s) to expand
  • Cedric Habiyaremye
  • Jeremy Bunch
  • Doug Finkelnburg
  • Dr. Girish Ganjyal
  • Wayne Jensen
  • Karl Kupers
  • Mike Moran

Research

Materials and methods:

A three-year study (2016-2018) was conducted on two no-till farms; one in Genesee, ID (Jensen farm) (46.611134oN Lat., -117.009925oW Long.) and the other one in Almota, WA (Aeschliman farm) (46.791288oN Lat., -117.438473oW Long.). The agronomic trials included two varieties of hulless barley ‘Havener’ and ‘Julie’ grown with 5 N application rates (0, 62, 95, 129 and 162 kg/ha), and 3 seeding rates (2.5, 3.1 and 3.75 mil/ha). The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replicates per experimental unit. Plots were evaluated for agronomic traits such as: percentage emergence (PE), days to heading (DH) days to maturity (DM), plant height (PH), and grain yield (GY). Plots were planted using a no-till drill, and fertilizer was banded near the seed in planting operation. Agronomic data were recorded as follows. PE was recorded as observation from scale of 1 to 5 with 5 (100 % emergence rate) and 1 (0% emergence rate).  DH was recorded as a number of days from sowing to the time when in 50% ear had emerged from the flag leaf sheath (stage 10.3 on the Feekes scale). DM was recorded as the number of days from sowing to stage 11.4 on the Feekes scale. PH was measured from soil surface to tip of the spike (excluding awns). GY was measured as the weight of the grain harvested from the plot.

Seed harvesting was conducted using a 1999 Wintersteiger Nursery master Elite plot combine from Austria. Seed cleaning was conducted using electrical seed thresher (Midwest Industry Inc., Bozeman, MT) for 30 sec and from each sample, we recorded test weight and seed size. Test weight was measured using Pint Cup 104 Seedburo Equipment Co. (Chicago, IL), and from each test-weight, a sample of 250g was used to measure seed size using a grain sizer model G-2 (Swenko, Minneapolis, MN) with screen sizes of 2.38 mm and 2.18 mm for 30 sec. Each experimental unit was analyzed for their contents of β-glucan, protein, ash, starch, oil, crude fiber. All the analysis was conducted on dry basis using near infrared instrumentation (Perten DA 7250 , Hägersten, Sweden).

Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software SAS 9.4 University Edition (SAS Institute IN., Cary, NC, USA). Phenological data and was analyzed using a mixed model with PROC GLIMIX. Model assumptions were verified using marginal and conditional studentized residuals from PROC MIXED and studentized residuals from PROC GLIMMIX.  Contrasts were calculated to show which of the two varieties differed by N and seeding rates. The statistical significance level was set at α = 0.05.

Research results and discussion:

We have established differences for multiple agronomic and/or quality traits among food barley varieties and breeding lines in no-till dryland systems in two locations as is represented by the first two tables below. We sourced these entries from both the WSU and U of I breeding programs. The tables below show varietal differences in yield over 3 years for yield, test weight, plump and thin kernels, beta glucan content, and protein content. For the barley variety testing experiment, results showed a significant varietal difference in yield across years and locations (p < 0.05). In Almota for all three years, the top three high yielding varieties were Kardia (3,988 kg/ha), 10WA-118.13 (3,880 kg/ha), and 10WA-107.8 (3,763 kg/ha). Across all three years in Almota, the 10 varieties had a mean yield of 3,349 kg/ha. In Genesee, for all three years, the top three high yielding varieties were Kardia (5,887 kg/ha), 10WA-107.8 (5,689 kg/ha), and 10WA-118.13 (5,617 kg/ha) respectively, and the nursery mean was 4,898 kg/ha. When comparing varieties across years and locations, the top three high yielding varieties were Kardia, 10WA-118.13, and 10WA-107.8 with 4,937 kg/ha, 4,748 kg/ha, and 4,726 kg/ha. Across all three years and both locations, the 10 varieties yielded a total average of 4,124 kg/ha. Kardia is the only hulled entry in the variety trials, and was included as a hulled, high β-glucan control.

Variety Name/Year

 

 

 

 

 

Almota

Yield (kg/ha)

Genesee

Yield (kg/ha)

Almota

Test weight (kg/hL)

Genesee

Test weight (kg/hL)

Almota

Plumps (>6/64) (%)

Genesee

Plumps (>6/64) (%)

Almota

Thins (%)

Genesee

Thins (%)

2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10WA-107.8

4493

5775

70

66

90

90

1

2

10WA-118.13

4188

5386

71

65

74

80

4

4

10WA-130.5

3396

4598

74

69

76

77

3

4

Ab09BG10HL-85

2410

3864

69

65

68

78

6

5

Goldenhart

3299

4117

72

67

89

90

3

2

Julie

2663

3690

73

71

90

87

2

2

Kardia

4117

5891

64

64

91

93

2

2

Transit

2491

3501

71

69

72

75

4

3

X07G31-T120

2780

4265

71

68

64

69

7

5

Mean

3350

4565

71

67

80

83

4

3

2017

               

10WA-107.8

3519

4678

69

67

91

90

2

2

10WA-118.13

3623

4242

71

70

74

82

5

4

10WA-130.5

2999

3869

74

71

78

79

3

4

Ab09BG10HL-85

2545

3497

72

70

75

80

7

5

Goldenhart

3336

3828

73

74

90

92

3

2

Julie

2636

3492

75

70

91

88

2

2

Kardia

3699

4148

65

61

89

93

2

2

Transit

2708

3449

73

69

75

76

5

4

X07G31-T120

3482

4557

72

72

66

70

7

5

Mean

3217

4003

72

70

82

84

4

3

2018

               

10WA-107.8

3277

6613

75

75

76

84

7

5

10WA-118.13

3829

7222

74

74

76

88

7

4

10WA-130.5

3826

6022

75

77

74

83

9

4

Ab09BG10HL-85

3918

6826

75

76

82

91

5

3

Goldenhart

3793

5065

77

77

89

87

3

3

Julie

3097

6074

74

75

82

94

6

1

Kardia

4147

7623

65

67

86

89

4

3

Transit

3022

5559

72

75

66

89

11

2

X07G31-T120

3237

6460

73

74

74

83

8

5

Mean

3649

6485

74

75

78

88

7

3

 

Mean data across years 2016, 2017, and 2018 for β-glucan and protein in Almota and Genesee.

Variety Name/Year

B-glucan (%)

Protein (%)

 

Almota

Genesee

Almota

Genesee

2016

 

 

 

 

10WA-107.8

6.0

5.3

11.7

10.9

10WA-118.13

6.2

6.7

12.9

11.2

10WA-130.5

7.5

7.7

12.2

11.2

Ab09BG10HL-85

10.7

11.1

14.4

12.5

Goldenhart

9.9

10.4

12.4

11.6

Julie

7.9

8.6

14.7

13.1

Kardia

8.4

7.8

12.8

11.0

Meg's Song

7.8

7.2

12.4

10.8

Transit

10.8

11.4

13.0

13.0

X07G31-T120

6.8

7.0

12.3

11.4

Mean

8.2

8.3

12.9

11.7

 

       

2017

       

10WA-107.8

5.0

5.6

10.9

11.9

10WA-118.13

6.4

7.1

11.8

11.9

10WA-130.5

7.3

8.1

11.2

12.1

Ab09BG10HL-85

10.5

11.3

13.1

13.3

Goldenhart

9.5

10.3

10.1

11.2

Julie

7.2

8.0

12.5

13.8

Kardia

6.9

8.0

11.5

13.0

Meg's Song

7.2

7.2

10.7

11.4

Transit

10.3

10.6

12.3

13.1

X07G31-T120

6.5

7.1

10.3

10.5

Mean

7.7

8.3

11.4

12.2

 

       

2018

       

10WA-107.8

7.4

7.5

10.7

11.9

10WA-118.13

7.2

7.6

11.2

11.8

10WA-130.5

8.7

8.6

11.2

11.7

Ab09BG10HL-85

7.5

7.6

10.4

10.7

Goldenhart

11.1

10.4

10.4

10.9

Havener

7.1

7.1

8.7

9.6

Julie

9.1

8.7

12.6

12.7

Kardia

8.3

7.8

11.1

11.6

Transit

11.5

11.8

12.1

12.6

X07G31-T120

7.2

7.2

10.6

10.9

Mean

8.5

8.4

10.9

11.4

 

       

 

Results from the agronomy trials showed a significant nitrogen rate x variety action for yield across all locations. Nitrogen did not have an impact on plant emergence and stand establishment, but did impact plant height and maturity. There was also a significant nitrogen rate x variety interaction for β-glucan content and protein content for each year. The barley variety Julie consistently had a higher β-glucan content than the variety Havener, though Havener had significantly higher grain yields each year. Though we are still waiting on our final β-glucan results, our preliminary results indicate that nitrogen rate did not have a significant effect on β-glucan content. Should these results bear out, farmers will not have the capacity to manage β-glucan content based on nitrogen application. However, neither will the effect of nitrogen rate on β-glucan content be a concern, and farmers can use nitrogen to manage yields and protein content. Differences in β-glucan content were found across years and locations, indicating that years and locations with higher precipitation resulted in higher β-glucan content in the grain.

Varieties

B-glucan (%)

Protein (%)

Almota

Genesee

Almota

Genesee

2016

       

Havener

5.8

6.5

9.5

8.7

Julie

7.6

8.2

13.7

12.0

Mean

6.7

7.4

11.6

10.4

2017

       

Havener

6.5

7.1

8.9

10.3

Julie

7.7

8.5

12.4

14.8

Mean

7.1

7.8

10.7

12.6

2018

       

Havener

6.9

6.8

8.9

8.4

Julie

8.6

8.2

11.7

11.1

Mean

7.8

7.5

10.3

9.8

N (kg/ha)

B-glucan (%)

Protein (%)

Almota

Genesee

Almota

Genesee

2016

       

0

6.8

7.3

10.7

9.2

62

6.6

7.2

10.9

9.2

95

6.7

7.4

11.7

10.4

129

6.7

7.3

12.1

10.8

162

6.8

7.7

12.6

12.2

Mean

6.7

7.4

11.6

10.4

2017

       

0

6.8

7.6

9.4

11.4

62

7.0

7.8

9.5

11.6

95

7.2

7.9

10.4

12.6

129

7.2

7.8

11.6

13.5

162

7.4

7.9

12.5

13.6

Mean

7.1

7.8

10.7

12.6

2018

       

0

7.7

7.4

9.5

8.0

62

7.5

7.5

9.1

9.0

95

7.6

7.6

10.0

9.8

129

8.0

7.6

11.0

10.1

162

8.0

7.7

11.8

11.9

Mean

7.8

7.5

10.3

9.8

For the following table, Pearson correlations is shown for days percentage emergence (PE), Days to maturity (DH), days to maturity (DM), plant height (PH), grain yield (GY), test weight (TW), plumps, and thins in Almota and Genesee

Almota

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variables

PE

DH

DM

PH

GY

TW

Plumps

Thins

PE

1.00

             

DH

-0.17

1.00

           

DM

-0.22

-0.06

1.00

         

PH

-0.22

0.05

0.99***

1.00

       

GY

0.69

-0.19

0.55

0.54

1.00

     

TW

0.04

0.34

-0.95*

-0.91*

-0.67

1.00

   

Plumps

0.34

0.67

0.23

0.31

0.48

-0.07

1.00

 

Thins

-0.28

-0.29

-0.61

-0.65

-0.73

0.53

-0.86

1.00

Genesee

Variables

PE

DH

DM

PH

GY

TW

Plumps

Thins

PE

1.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DH

-0.08

1.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

DM

-0.67

-0.03

1.00

 

 

 

 

 

PH

-0.23

-0.39

0.81

1.00

 

 

 

 

GY

-0.12

-0.74

0.59

0.90*

1.00

 

 

 

TW

-0.05

0.82

-0.45

-0.78

-0.94*

1.00

 

 

Plumps

0.34

0.05

-0.90*

-0.94*

-0.71

0.54

1.00

 

Thins

-0.30

0.39

0.82

0.67

0.30

-0.18

-0.87

1.00

*p < 0.05, *** p < 0.001

PE: percentage emergence; DH: Days to Heading; DH: Days to Maturity; PH: plant height; GY: Grain Yield; TW: Test Weight.

 

 

Research conclusions:

Impacts

Our results and observations indicate enthusiastic and growing interest in the potential for growing heart-healthy, high beta glucan food barley in dryland systems in the Palouse. Yields continue to increase as new varieties are tested and released, and the potential for increasing the food barley market is strong. Through our research we have raised awareness of hulless, high beta glucan food barley as a novel and economically viable market class of barley. We conducted multiple field days, and presented our research at local, state, regional and national conferences. This research also helped us identify a new barley variety, Meg's Song, which was released in the 3rd year of this project. Meg's Song is a high yielding hulless barley with approximately 7 to 8% beta glucan content. We have also worked with chefs to develop novel recipes for Meg's Song and Havener hulless barley, and these have been promoted at two breeder-chef events, one in California and one in New York, and at the 2018 Cascadia Grains Conference. Much of the work to generate an impact from this research will continue along in this vein where we can showcase the products to generate more interest. We anticipate one Extension bulletin and one research paper to be submitted for publication in 2019. We also anticipate the successful graduation of one PhD student in 2019 whose major focus was the research conducted in this project. We will track the change in productionof hulless barley over the next few years to continue to gauge impact. Finally, we are working with the WSU College of Medicine to test cardiovascular biomarkers based on a diet incorporating Meg's Song barley compared to commonly available hulled barley and a rice control. This WSARE funded research has really allowed us to focus on the potential of hulless barley production and marketing in the Inland Northwest, and we are excited to see how this could impact our farming systems in upcoming years.

The outlook is not as good in the immediate future for quinoa as it is for barley in the dryland grain producing region of the Palouse. High temperatures on these dryland farms pose a significant impact on the yields of quinoa. This WSARE research allowed us to test for heat tolerance among diverse varieties, and now heat tolerance is one of our major breeding objectives. As WSU and others begin to release more productive, and heat and drought tolerant varieties of quinoa, we anticipate more grower adoption. There is considerable interest among growers in quinoa, but because it is a much newer crop species to our region, there is still much research to conduct prior to the reliable and dependable development of quinoa production strategies and adapted varieties. This research will continue, though any meaningful impact may be more distant in the future than it will be for food barley.

Accomplishments

Below are our objectives, with accomplishments summarized below each.

1. Identify specific varieties and/or breeding lines of quinoa and hulless barley that perform well on no-till farms in the Palouse.

We evaluated 10 varieties and/or breeding lines each of quinoa and hulless barley on two no-till farms in Washington and Idaho. Results from these trials summarized over years will inform us on which varieties of each crop that will perform best, measured across a diversity of traits, on no-till farms in the Palouse region. Each year were very different in terms of rainfall and temperature extremes, and we are in the process of finalizing 3-year results for these trials. In general, barley trials were much more consistent than the quinoa trials. High temperature have a strongly detrimental effect on quinoa yield, particularly in soil moisture limited environments. 2017 was an extremely hot year, and high temperatures during flowering and seed set resulted in negligible quinoa yields. These results will be included in both an Extension bulletin and a peer-reviewed journal article, both to be submitted for review in 2019.

2. Determine the effect of seeding rate and nitrogen rate on agronomic traits and seed yield of quinoa and hulless barley;

Two food barley and one quinoa variety were grown in separate but similar agronomy trials on two no-till farms over three years. The focus of these trials was to identify optimum seeding rates and nitrogen fertility rates. To this end, five nitrogen fertility rates and three seeding rates were tested across varieties and locations. Differences were significant especially for nitrogen fertility rate. Interactions were also found across seeding rate and fertility rate. Each no-till farm represents a distinct rainfall zone and/or soil type. Agronomic traits of interest include: speed and rate of emergence, juvenile growth habit, leaf and stem color, plant height at maturity, disease resistance, lodging tolerance, weed suppression and seed yield. End-use quality and nutritional traits of interest include seed protein content, seed size, test weight, β-glucan content (for barley only), and extrusion properties. We have found significant differences among  barley varieties, nitrogen rate in both crops and seeding rate in quinoa. These will be summarized and provided in our Extension bulletin and research article. We will also continue to communicate these results to farmers and other stakeholders at field days and conferences across the Pacific Northwest.

3. Develop outreach products and events in Idaho and Washington, as well as at regional and national conferences, to increase knowledge of and awareness about the agronomic and market capacity of quinoa and hulless barley.

Two field days in 2016 were held to introduce farmers to quinoa and hulless barley, and to describe and show our field trials. One on-farm field day in conjunction with Shepard's Grain Farmer Cooperative was held in 2017 where this trial and preliminary results were discussed. Results were also discussed with farmers at two additional field days in conjunction with WSU Variety Testing during the summer of 2017. Preliminary results were also shared during an oral presentation at the Cascadia Grains Conference in Olympia, Washington in January 2017.  Stakeholders in attendance included no-till and conventional till farmers, consumers, chefs, and other scientists. In addition, results were presented at a WSU BIOAg symposium in a poster format in March 2017 and in an oral presentation at the ASA-CSSA-SSSA annual meeting in October 2017. Results were again presented at the 2018 and 2019 Cascadia Grains Conference in Olympia, and the 2018 Cascadia Grains East Conference held in Moscow, ID in August 2018. PhD student Cedric Habiyaremye presented his research again at the ASA-CSSA annual meeting in November 2018. Select grains from this trial, particularly Havener and Meg's Song barley varieties, were shared with chefs and presented in mouth-watering barley dishes at three separate events in Olympia, WA, Sonoma, CA, and NYC, NY. Close to 800 people attended these three events and all ate this barley. We have also included Meg's Song and Havener barley in the WSU Small Grain Variety packet so their agronomic information is available to farmers. Both these varieties are now regularly included in the University of Idaho and the Washington State University Variety Testing Programs and grown at 15 locations each year. Each locations is host to a field day, and these barley varieties are discussed at every field day, and their agronomic information is published into booklets available to the public as well as on websites and sent out to listserves. Finally, we are in the process of developing an Extension bulletin that we will publish through the University of Idaho as a way of presenting our data and translating the results for our farmer stakeholders.

4. Publish a peer-reviewed paper in an impactful agriculture-based academic journal.

We are in the process of writing a peer-reviewed article that will be submitted to an academic journal, tentatively by Summer 2019.

5. Provide varietal information that will contribute to an officially released variety.

This project provided a unique source of additional information that contributed to the release of Meg's Song barley by WSU in 2017. This variety is already gaining attention from growers and stakeholders, and we expect that it will contribute positively to the food barley market class. Seed is becoming available and we anticipate that this barley will begin to be grown in different regions of the Palouse. It is broadly adapted, high yielding for a hulless type, contains 7 to 8% beta glucan, and is resistant to lodging.

Participation Summary
2 Farmers participating in research

Education

Educational approach:

We focus on education through field days, farmer talks, and poster and oral presentations at meetings and conferences. We believe that in addition to educating ourselves and farmers, it is also critical to educate consumers, chefs, marketers, bakers, and other related stakeholders. We developed barley field days where we would bring in representatives from barley related industries and go from field to lab to miller/maltster processors to baker/brewer and consumer end-users. We've developed workshops at conferences, and spend a significant amount of time and energy working with the entire value chain so we can learn from and educate one another. As we  synthesize our data at the end of the project, we will employ other forms of education in addition to the above, including extension bulletins and/or fact sheets and peer-reviewed academic publications.

Educational & Outreach Activities

6 Consultations
4 Curricula, factsheets or educational tools
1 Journal articles
8 On-farm demonstrations
1 Published press articles, newsletters
6 Tours
12 Webinars / talks / presentations
7 Workshop field days

Participation Summary:

300 Farmers
500 Ag professionals participated
Education/outreach description:

Learning Outcomes

Key areas taught:
  • Barley Agronomy and End-use Quality
Key changes:
  • Quinoa Agronomy; Cropping System Diversity; Role of Agriculture in Health and Nutrition

Project Outcomes

5 Grants received that built upon this project
6 New working collaborations
Project outcomes:

Our project will contribute to agricultural sustainability on the Palouse as well as in areas beyond the geographical scope of this project in different ways. We have provided both knowledge and technology with regards to growing new crops or new market classes of existing crops. We release a new hulless, food barley cultivar that targets the heart-healthy market driven by demand of nutritious and healthy foods. Foods which are not eaten are unable to deliver their nutrition to people, so we have worked on the development of flavorful culinary dishes and extrusion potential. Food barley currently brings in considerably more money per pound to the farmer, and this will be beneficial financially and could further encourage to add barley to their largely wheat-based rotations. Quinoa provides a greater agronomic challenge to growers, and will take a considerable amount of effort to fully realize its potential as an alternative crop in no-till systems on the Palouse. Some results were encouraging, and if we can combine appropriate agronomic practices with adapted, heat and drought tolerant varieties, there could be a future for quinoa in this region. The knowledge we gained from our experiences with quinoa when it didn't work out have been worthwhile and has led to other research opportunities, collaborations, and grant funding. We anticipate that quinoa production in the U.S. will continue to grow and we are poised to continue to contribute to this effort.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.