The Use of Grape Products as a Natural Anthelmintic in Goats

Project Overview

Project Type: Graduate Student
Funds awarded in 2014: $9,995.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2016
Grant Recipient: Lincoln University
Region: North Central
State: Missouri
Graduate Student:
Faculty Advisor:
James Caldwell
Lincoln University

Annual Reports


  • Animals: goats


  • Animal Production: parasite control
  • Education and Training: on-farm/ranch research

    Proposal abstract:

    Infestation of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is one of the largest economic and health constraints on small ruminant production in the United States. The widespread frequency of synthetic anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant GIN requires alternative approaches that are of non-chemical means to increase profitability of small ruminant production. The use of natural anthelmintics that contain condensed tannin (CT) could make small ruminant production in the United States more sustainable. Small ruminant producers still search for a more consistent method of treatment for controlling GIN when an animal has reached their physiological threshold for survival. When offered at appropriate concentrations, CT has attained a reduction in parasite loads. Positive results from previous research indicated that grape pomace (GP) had a greater efficacy on reducing the viability of parasites than in other fruit by-product treatments. In the fecal culture portion of the study, presence of GP extract at (30 g CT/kg DM) showed a 100% inhibition of eggs hatched into developing larvae. Studies evaluating CT concentrations have shown that red grape juice contains a high concentration of CT (64 mg/L) but fermentation increases this amount to 2,567 mg/L. The fermentation creates supplementary components which increase overall CT concentrations above forages, grains, and most legumes. Therefore, the objective of the proposed study is to use fermented grape extract as a natural anthelmintic in goats.

    Project objectives from proposal:

    The development of natural farming practices has been the producer response to increased consumer awareness of chemical use in agricultural products and consumer demands for natural food. The drive to find natural and sustainable practices to maintain healthy livestock is crucial in providing global food security. The producer of small ruminants is seeking a product that is available, inexpensive to use, and easy to administer. The state of Missouri is known to have many conventional vineyards. Vineyards have the byproducts available for the producer to purchase whether it is in liquid form such as, juice or fermented product or in dry form such as, grape pomace, which all contain high levels of CT. The possibility of positive results could benefit both vineyard and producer with the sustainable use of byproducts that may not be fully utilized by the vineyard proprietor.


    Programs that promote Integrated Pest Management such as, FAMACHA© or Faffa Malan's Chart were developed as an effective tool to determine parasite load and to reduce unnecessary drenching of synthetic anthelmintics. This system has shown to reduce parasites by selectively treating animals with a significant worm burden. However, small ruminant producers still search for a more consistent method of treatment for controlling GIN when an animal has reached their physiological threshold for survival. When offered at appropriate levels of concentration, CT has attained a reduction of parasite load. This could increase animal health and producer profits, as well as decrease parasite resistance and financial inputs for producers. The objectives of the research are to: 1) determine if the use of fermented grape extract decreases FEC in goats, 2) determine if stronger results are present at 7 day or 14 day dosing intervals, this will determine the importance of dosage timing in the parasite lifecycle, and 3) to decrease the effects of synthetic anthelmintic resistant GIN in goats by giving producers an alternative anthelmintic.

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.