IPM and Biological Control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and the Colorado Potato Beetle

Project Overview

GW06-021
Project Type: Graduate Student
Funds awarded in 2006: $10,000.00
Projected End Date: 12/31/2008
Grant Recipient: Washington State University
Region: Western
State: Washington
Graduate Student:
Major Professor:
Ekaterini Riga
Washington State University

Annual Reports

Commodities

  • Agronomic: potatoes
  • Vegetables: tomatoes

Practices

  • Crop Production: application rate management, biological inoculants, cover crops, intercropping
  • Education and Training: demonstration, display, extension, farmer to farmer, networking
  • Farm Business Management: agricultural finance, budgets/cost and returns
  • Pest Management: allelopathy, biological control, competition, cultural control, integrated pest management, trap crops, traps
  • Soil Management: green manures, organic matter

    Abstract:

    A 2 x 3 multifactorial experiment was used to test the following hypotheses: 1) determine whether mustard seed meal of Brassica carinata can decrease M. chitwoodi populations, 2) determine whether mustard meal amendment has a negative effect on entomopathogenic neamtodes (EPN) infectivity of Colorado potato beetle (CPB) and EPN suppression of M. chitwoodi, and 3) determine if S. feltiae or S. riobrave can infect 4th instar CPB larvae and cause mortality. 

    In summary, one of two species (S. feltiae) of EPN were effective at reducing M .chitwoodi infection of tubers and simulataneously infecting the CPB.

    Introduction

    Description of the Problem:
    There are two pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum, in the pacific Northwest, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden et al., commonly called the Columbia root knot nematode (RKN) that are of economic importance in Washington State potato production.  Above ground, the CPB can completely defoliate potato plants in 1-2 generations (Hare et al, 1980), with most extensive damage caused by the larval stages of the beetle. Due to the risk of crop loss conventional potato growers rely on “calendar sprays” of broad-spectrum pesticides as frequently as every 10 days for CPB control, making potatoes amongst the most intensively sprayed crops in the region.   Below ground, potato tubers are attacked by the plant parasitic nematode RKN, a prevalent problem for Washington state potato growers; this nematode species can have at least 5 generations within one growing season.  The use of insecticides against CPB and fumigants against RKN deplete above ground and below ground diversity, as well as increase the risks of toxic runoff into groundwater. Luckily, the lifecycle of CPB involves an underground stage which is found in the same soil habitat as RKN, i.e. near the potato rhizosphere during the growing season, making them ideal targets for using one or two biological control methods to simultaneously target both two pests.  Mustard seed meal and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) have shown biocontrol potential against both the nematode and the beetle on potato.

    The purpose of this experiment is to find out if mustard seed meal and/or entomopathogenic nematodes will control both the root knot nematode and the beetle and protect the potato tubers.

    Project objectives:

    A 2 x 3 multifactorial experiment was used to test the following hypotheses: 1) determine whether mustard seed meal of Brassica carinata can decrease M. chitwoodi populations, 2) determine whether mustard meal amendment has a negative effect on EPN infectivity of CPB and EPN suppression of M. chitwoodi, and 3) determine if S. feltiae or S. riobrave can infect 4th instar CPB larvae and cause mortality

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.