Increasing Sustainability of Livestock Production of the Northern Great Plains
Increasing sustainability of livestock production in the Northern Great Plains has significant implications for the agricultural sector in the focus region. Crop and beef cattle producers are experiencing historically high commodity prices for cattle, calves, and fed cattle, while grain and oilseed prices have fluctuated widely, but most in a downward trend. Input costs decline more slowly. The research in this project looks into integration of crop and beef cattle systems to identify the complementing holistic potential that may exist. Paralleling the actual research is a focus on education for existing producers through farmer-cooperator projects, educational events for high school and undergraduate students, and an international Turkish research scientist connection. This report encompasses activities and events for the first and second years of the project. Public awareness of alternative production methodologies is increasing as evidenced by agricultural programing awareness across the entire agricultural sector and attendance at the 2012 and 2013 Beef Cattle and Forage Field Days held at the Dickinson Research Extension Center Ranch Headquarters. The field days are designed as workshops for a cross section of stakeholders including farmers and ranchers, research personnel, local, state and federal agency representatives who may or may not be actively raising cattle and crops, but have a focused interest in non-traditional production methods. Program topics include project data summary presentations and tours of the integrated diverse cropping and beef cattle systems being studied, and presentations and tours of producer-cooperator projects that are grazing cover crops and utilizing unharvested corn for extensive backgrounding of approximately 200 calves. The field day/workshops are practical sessions focusing on soil health, and the mechanics of upgrading and attaining soil health benchmarks using the pillars of soil health that include minimal soil disturbance with no-till seeding and planting, crop diversity using cool and warm season broadleaf and grass crops, including cover crops in the crop rotation, maintaining a living root in the soil as long as possible, keeping soil surface residue, and including livestock grazing whenever possible. Youth education at the high school level has resulted in active participation by southwestern North Dakota Vocational Agriculture students through their annual participation in the Vo-Ag High School Student Field Day. Fifty to sixty enthusiastic students have attended each year to learn about a variety of agricultural topics as well as the connectivity between the microbial world and agriculture, and how the living components of soil and sun are the foundation of food production. At the undergraduate college student level, Dickinson State University (DSU), Agriculture and Technical Studies undergraduate student, Lauren Pfenning, has been actively participating in the SARE research. After a period of four years of the diverse crop rotation that includes beef cattle grazing, soil bulk density (BD) difference between spring wheat control, rotation crops, and native range was evaluated by Ms. Pfenning. Results from the project will be presented by Ms. Pfenning at the DSU undergraduate student scientific research review. Briefly, when BD values for native range were compared to all of the crops, BD was less except for corn and tended to be less for the pea-barley crop (P>0.05). Traditional soil testing and fertilizer recommendations from the NDSU Soil Testing Laboratory are used to determine the amount of N-P-K-Cl to apply. Fertilizer recommendations are declining due to the interactive and collective effect of the soil health principles employed, and crop yields have increased steadily as years of crop yield history accumulate. Non-confinement grazing of crops and residues by beef cattle is showing that less intensive procedures can have a positive effect on profitability. These data suggest that high breeding efficiency can be attained among small (SF) and large (LF) March-April born virgin heifers when transitioned to May-June calving through the strategic use of grazed and harvested forages resulting in a lower net cost per pregnant SF heifer. Compared to traditional feedlot growing and finishing of yearling steers, 141 steers grown for modest winter growth of approximately 1.0 pound/day that grazed perennial and annual forages (crested wheatgrass, native range pasture, pea-barley intercrop, and unharvested corn) for 182 days before entering the feedlot required the least number of days on feed (66 days) compared to the feedlot control (142 days) and an all perennial treatment (91 days). Reducing feedlot residency from 142 days to 66 days was profitable even during a period when corn was priced over $7/bushel. Control feedlot steers lost $298/steer whereas the perennial/annual forage steers brought $9 profit/steer; a margin difference of $307/steer. The data clearly shows that long-term extended grazing has the greatest potential for profitability. A second and ongoing similar study is evaluating the performance and economic difference between small (3.4) and large frame (5.31) steers using a similar research protocol. Small and large frame steers were sent directly to the feedlot (FLOT) and a comparable randomly assigned group grazed perennial and annual forages (GRAZ – crested wheatgrass, native range pasture, pea-barley intercrop, and unharvested corn). To determine system net return, expenses (e.g. steer placement cost, grazing and feedlot finishing expenses, transportation and brand expenses) were deducted from the gross carcass value. Net return for the FLOT treatment was considerably smaller than the GRAZ treatment and within the individual treatments net return for SF steers was much lower. Lower expenses were one reason that system net return for GRAZ steers was higher than FLOT steers, but also sales price increased 13.3% from the December sales date to the March sales date. In this first year of a 2-year study, LF steers were more highly profitable than SF steers. Producer educational schools have been reserved until the last year of the project to allow for accumulation of data upon which to base the educational format and knowledge transfer. Public awareness of this SARE project is increasing and with increasing awareness project PI, Doug Landblom, has been an invited program speaker to 12 winter series meetings in southeastern Montana and western North Dakota presenting the topic, “Crop Diversity, Cover Crops, and Beef Production”, and he was also invited to speak at the Multi-State Waste Management Annual conference on the subject titled, “Effect of Extended Grazing Management on Economics and Manure Distribution”. Free-lance writers have also published articles on different aspects of the SARE project in the regional bi-monthly publication, Farm and Ranch Guide, and the national magazine, Feed-Lot. Research reports have been published in non-peer reviewed publications to include the Dickinson Research Extension Center Annual Report, 2013 North Dakota Beef Report, and an abstract has been submitted to the Western Section, American Society of Animal Science proceedings. The extensive heifer development research project has been accepted for peer-reviewed publication in the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science and additional peer-reviewed publications are expected to be generated from the SARE research. Summarized data to date suggests that grazing and situations in which the animal does its own foraging and harvesting reduces input cost and supports improved profit margins.
1. Compare three cow-calf production systems (Conventional, Integrated, and Yearling) tailored for the semi-arid region of the Northern Great Plains from birth to final harvest to determine the effect of system on production and profitability using whole-systems econometric analyses and ranch profitability analyses.
2. Evaluate the effect of systems integration on the biological responses of animals, crops, weeds, soil, and water conservation.
3. Establish student alternative production system programs to include: High school and college student awareness programs, undergraduate summer internships and research projects.
4. Conduct integrated crop-livestock grazing management workshops for producers, Extension educators and other government agency personnel.
The site location for this project was initially seeded to spring wheat across the entire study area in 2009. Then, during the 2010-2011 crop season the experimental integrated crop and livestock rotation was established and livestock water and fencing were completed. Livestock production data for the project begins with calves born in 2010 and carried over as yearling steers and heifers in 2011, which is necessary given the long generation interval for yearling cattle. Beginning with the 2011-2012 crop season the SARE project LNC11-335 was initiated.
After weaning between November 1st and the 15th of each year, all calves are moved to drylot at the DREC ranch headquarters for 7 days to recover from weaning and are then moved to unharvested corn fields for backgrounding along with supplemental hay. The control cows in the conventional system (CS) were assigned to drylot pens for hay feeding. Cows in the forage-based system (FS) graze fields of stockpiled mixed perennial forage (crested wheatgrass, bromegrass, and native range pasture) and corn residue as an alternative to feeding hay, which is projected to reduce winter feed and labor cost. Cows assigned to the integrated cropping system (IS) cover crops and crop residue (corn and sunflower) following farming and extended steer grazing. Upon completion of the FS and IS cow extended grazing methods, the cows are moved to drylot pens and fed hay until May calving.
Cattle feeding and finishing is characterized and a high risk, low profit, margin business. Doesn’t need to be that way, however. Grazing yearling steers for an extended period of time may replace losses with profit without the use of risk management tools. Two experiments are being conducted. One has been completed and the second is in progress. In the first experiment, three treatment groups of yearling steers were compared to evaluate in an extended grazing comparison that begins after weaning, when the steers grazed stockpiled corn and received supplemental hay. The 1st week of May each year of the 2-year study, the yearling steers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: 1) control, 2) perennial grass only (crested wheatgrass, native pasture and then into the feedlot), and 3) perennial grass + annual forage (crested wheatgrass, native pasture, field pea/barley, unharvested corn and then into the feedlot). The control group was moved directly to the feedlot at the University of Wyoming, Lingle, WY and grown until slaughter. The extended grazing groups graze their respective forage sequences until early November, when they too are moved to the University of Wyoming feedlot for finishing and slaughter. All steers are harvested at the Cargill Meat Solutions packing plant, Ft. Morgan, CO. After a 48 hour chill and federal carcass grading, strip loin steaks are removed from each carcass half for shear force and sensory panel evaluation (tenderness, taste, and juiciness). The 2nd experiment with yearling steers is using the perennial and annual forage sequence just described, but extended grazing of large frame and small frame steers are being compared the large and small steers that are entirely feedlot finished.
Project Data Collection:
Numerous data points are being recorded for crops, livestock, soils, and economic inputs and returns.
Data Collection Includes:
• Cow, calf, heifer development, and yearling data (costs, growth, efficiency, feed savings, meat sensory evaluation, and systems economic analysis)
• Soil health analysis (standard physical soil measurements, soil food web analysis, bulk density, water infiltration, crop fertilizer recommendation changes)
• Whole-farm input costs and returns are being managed using the Farm-Works database management system
• Producer Cooperator demonstration results to the extent that they have kept records.
Baseline soil chemical, physical, and biological measurements are being conducted. Measurements of change in soil quality will be finalized in the last year of the study.
As data is accumulated, it will be compiled and used in programming for youth education at the high school and college level. These are two very different demographic groups that will be addressed differently. At the high school level, students and their Vo-Ag instructors are invited to participate in an annual student field day awareness program in which various aspects of agriculture are presented by university personnel from the Dickinson Research Extension Center, Dickinson State University, Department of Agriculture and Technical Studies, North Dakota State University Extension, and the USDA/Natural Resource Conservation Service.
Educational programming for undergraduate college students is designed student internships and undergraduate student research projects. Due to difficulty attracting students to the internship program, the internship and undergraduate student research programs are being combined. Lauren Pfenning, Agriculture and Technical Studies graduating Senior, has completed a bulk density (BD) and soil texture study of the diverse crop rotation being used in this integrated systems investigation to determine if differences between treatments and within treatments can be detected and to further determine how the BD results obtained differ between the continuous spring wheat control, rotation crops, and native range. Undisturbed native range would be expected to have the lowest BD values; however, it has been hypothesized that after 4 years in the rotation, there will be some rotation crop BD measurements that will not differ from the native range values.
In addition to the high school and college level education and research projects, the project has been fortunate to expand internationally through an arrangement between the Dickinson Research Extension Center and Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, BIGA, Turkey. As part of the educational outreach, a visiting Short-Term Research Scholar, Songul Senturklu, Ph.D., was invited to participate in the project and the invitation was accepted. Geographically and environmentally, there are geographic regions in Turkey with similarities to the northern Great Plains of the U.S. While Turkish farmers and agricultural methods are antiquated and vastly different from American agricultural methods, the relationship incurs an international connection to alternative methods that may fit well into the less intense Turkish farming methods. Dr. Senturklu has been incorporating principles learned from this SARE project into some of the agriculture courses she teaches at her university in Turkey.
Our research team planned to begin offering alternative production systems management schools and workshops during the 2nd and 3rd production cycles of the project. However, we felt that more data and information was needed before embarking on the schools. Therefore, the day-long schools will be taught during the last year of the grant. Education to stakeholders is being facilitated through other outlet venues. Specifically, 1) through field day/workshops that are conducted in the classroom for part of the day and in the rotation fields for the remainder of the day, 2) the project PI has been invited to speak and talk about the integrated crop and beef cattle systems and cover crops at a number of producer meetings in North Dakota and eastern Montana, 3) YouTube videos, and 4) farmer-rancher cooperator farm tours and program presentations. The day-long schools will condense a large body of information into focused educational events for extension educator Train-the-Trainer programming and for farmer-rancher-end users that desire to learn what to expect and about how to employ alternative integrated crop and grazing management principles on their farms and ranches. To augment these educational events, tours of the Farmer/Rancher Cooperator Demonstration Projects will be conducted.
Five farmer/ranchers signed participation letters to conduct a project. Of the 5 producers, 2 have actually completed their intended projects two years in a row. A 3rd producer planted a corn crop for grazing, but grasshoppers destroyed the crop and is no longer interested in participating in the project. A 4th producer wanted to do a project, but his involvement depended on receiving EQUIP funds for infrastructure construction, which did not materialize, and the producer is no longer interested in doing a project. And the 5th producer decided to withdraw from the project citing that he was retiring; fishing looked a whole lot better than working.
Video documentation of the Farmer/Rancher Cooperator Demonstration Projects are on-going and provide a steady flow of direct up-to-date interviews and information from the producers. Video documentation of the research at the DREC has also been conducted during the growing season.
Impacts and Contributions/Outcomes
The comparative crop and livestock systems are running smoothly. Crop production from the diverse rotation and integration with livestock grazing is the key component in this SARE project. The crop rotations were established a year before SARE funding was received; therefore, yields for 2011, 2012, and 2013 are shown in Table 1. Establishment prior to the start of the funded study enabled us to work out any project management problems in advance of the project’s initiation date. Biological production data collected in objective 2 will be used to determine systems effect on profitability. Systems whole farm production and economic data to include input costs and returns are being are being accumulated for analysis in the project’s final report.
Objective 2 A very brief summary of crop production data is shown in Table 1. Cow performance following grazing of summer native range pastures, crop residue (corn and sunflower) and cover crops, grass pastures, and drylot winter forage is incomplete at the time this report was prepared. For cow and calf performance through weaning, the data is summarized in Table 2. Integrated crop and beef cattle production systems cow performance data is being accumulated for the CS, FS, and IS will be reported in the project’s final report.
Referred Journal Publication
Effect of frame score on growth, fertility, and economics
S. Senturklua, D.G. Landbloma, G.A. Perryb, T. Petryc
aDickinson Research Extension Center, North Dakota State University, 1041 State Ave., Dickinson, ND, USA 58601, bDepartment of Animal Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA 57007, cDepartment of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND USA 58105.
A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small (SF: 3.50; n = 50) and large (LF: 5.56; n = 50) frame heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, energy was restricted when the heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue with supplemental hay. For P2, energy was increased naturally grazing early spring crested wheatgrass (CWG) pasture that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period. Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of the pre-trial management P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p=0.0002). Ending P1 (209 d) percent of mature body weight (BW) was 48.7 and 46.8% and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0 vs. 40.0%; p=0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p= 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer DMI was 20.1% less (p=0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p=0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p=0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of body weight than LF heifers (p=0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p=0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p=0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p=0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for the sale of non-pregnant heifers, was lower for SF heifers (p=0.004). These data suggest that high breeding efficiency can be attained among SF and LF March-April born virgin heifers when transitioned to May-June calving through the strategic use of grazed and harvested forages resulting in a lower net cost per pregnant SF heifer.
Key Words: Beef heifer, Heifer production economics, Fertility, Frame score, Increasing energy management, Percent mature body weight
Publication Reference: Senturklu, S., D. G. Landblom, G. A. Perry, and T. Petry. 2014. Effect of frame score on growth, fertility, and economics. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci., Vol. xx:xx-xx (Recent notification of acceptance; Volume and page numbers have not been assigned yet)
Alternative approaches to growing and finishing yearling steers that may improve profitability through retained ownership is being studied as one of the livestock project initiatives. A brief summary for the 1st year of a 2-year investigation using medium to large frame steers follows:
Scientific Research Abstract:
Proceedings, Western Section, American Society of Animal Science
Consequence of perennial and annual forage grazing systems before feedlot entry on yearling steer grazing and feedlot performance, carcass measurements, meat evaluation, and system net return
S. Senturklu1,2, D. G. Landblom1, R. Maddock3, and S. Paisley4
1Dickinson Research Extension Center, North Dakota State University, Dickinson, North Dakota; 2Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universitesi, Canakkale, Turkey; 3Animal Sciences Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota; and 4Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming
ABSTRACT:In a 2-year study, yearling steers (n=141), previously wintered for modest gain of -1·d-1, were randomly assigned in early May each year based on birth date and weight to one of three retained ownership rearing systems: 1) feedlot control (FLT), 2) perennial grass pasture (crested wheatgrass (CWG) > native range (NAT) (PST) or 3) perennial grass pasture followed by annual forage (CWG > NAT > field pea-barley (PBLY) > unharvested corn (CN)) (ANN). During the extended grazing period, grazing annual forages after perennial grasses promoted increased growth (P = <0.0001), rib-eye area (REA, P = <0.0001), fat depth (FD, P = <0.0001) and percent of intramuscular fat (%IMF, P = 0.0003). At feedlot entry, ANN steers were heavier (P = <0.0001) and required less finishing days on feed (DOF). Compared with the FLT control steers (142 DOF), the number of DOF for the grazing system’s steers was 66 and 91 days for the ANN and PST systems, respectively. For feedlot performance, grazing system steer ADG was greater (P = 0.006), feed efficiency (FE) better (P = 0.018) and feed cost per unit of gain was lower (P = 0.0005) than for the FLT control steers. Hot carcass weight was heavier for grazing steers (P = <0.0001) than the FLT control; however, no difference was identified for marbling score or percent USDA Choice quality grade. Strip loin steaks (2.54 cm thick) were removed from each carcass half for tenderness, cooking yield, and sensory evaluation. There were no treatment differences for shear force, cooking yield, tenderness, juiciness or flavor. Systems net return was determined without accounting for risk management procedures. The ANN system net return was the most profitable system, returning $9.09/steer; however, the PST system steers lost -$30.10/steer, and the FLT control system lost -$298/steer. These data suggest that retaining ownership through finishing preceded by a long-term sequence of perennial and annual forages improves economically important muscle and fat traits, and the ANN system has the greatest system profit potential.
Key words:feedlot, grazing, meat evaluation, net return, perennial and annual forage, yearling steers
Abstract Reference: Senturklu, S., D.G. Landblom, R. Maddock, and S. Paisley. 2014. Consequence of perennial and annual forage grazing systems before feedlot entry on yearling steer grazing and feedlot performance, carcass measurements, meat evaluation, and system net return. Western Section Proceedings, Am. Soc. Anim. Sci., Vol. 65:xxx.
Document 3 – Western Section – American Society of Animal Science Proceedings
Research Progress Report:
The combined effect of beef cattle frame score and forage grazing sequence on yearling steer grazing and feedlot performance, carcass trait measurements, and systems economics
Senturklu, S1,2., D.G. Landblom1, R.J. Maddock3, and S.I. Paisley4
1Dickinson Research Extension Center, North Dakota State University, Dickinson, ND, 2Animal Science Department, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universitesi, Canakkale, Turkey, 3Animal Sciences Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 4Animal Science Department, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY
Ninety-six steers originating from two beef cattle herds maintained at the Dickinson Research Extension Center (DREC) were divided into two frame score groups identified as small frame (SF: average 3.40; range 1.58 to 4.13) and large frame (LF: average 5.31; 4.48 to 6.65). After weaning in the fall of 2012, the steers were managed as a single group and backgrounded grazing unharvested corn and as the available corn diminished the steers were also fed mixed hay (alfalfa-bromegrass-crested wheatgrass) until the end of April 2013. During the backgrounding period, the steers grew at a modest ADG of 1.10 lb/day. On May 1, 2013, the steers were randomly assigned to either feedlot (FLOT) or grazing (GRAZ) treatments. Within these two main treatments, two feedlot groups (LF: n=24 and SF n=24) and two grazing groups (LF: n=24 and SF n=24) were established. The FLOT steers were shipped to the University of Wyoming, Sustainable Agriculture Research Extension Center (SAREC), Lingle, Wyoming on May1, 2013 and started on trial May 8, 2013, and fed until December 9, 2013; a feeding period of 216 days. The GRAZ steers grazed native range from May 1 to August 27, 2013, a period of 113 days before being moved to graze annual forage fields of field pea-barley intercrop (30 days) followed by grazing unharvested corn (77 days). The total grazing period was 220 days. At the end of corn grazing, the GRAZ steers were shipped to the SAREC, Lingle, Wyoming for a short final finishing period of 74 days. When each of the systems treatment groups were finished, the groups were delivered by commercial truck to the Cargill Meat Solutions packing plant, Ft. Morgan, Colorado. Due to the system’s differences, the FLOT group was delivered to the packing plant on December 9, 2013 and the GRAZ group was delivered on March 4, 2014.
All expenses and returns associated with this alternative growing and finishing systems study were recorded. Native range grazing costs were assessed using a custom grazing rate and all farming expenses for the annual forages in the GRAZ system were documented and used in expense calculations. Steer frame score grazing performance, cost/steer, and cost/lb of gain were computed. Feedlot finishing performance, feed intake and efficiency, and finishing economics for the LF and SF treatment groups were documented. Carcass trait measurements and total carcass values were documented and system net return was determined.
Results of this systems investigation show that the SF steers grew at a significantly slower rate under both grazing (P = 0.034) and feedlot (P = <0.0001) conditions. Under grazing conditions, the SF steers had a lower cost/steer ($285.05 vs. $278.04); however, due to their slower growth rate, grazing cost/lb of gain was higher ($0.53 vs. $0.598). In the FLOT group, feed cost/lb of gain was significantly higher for the SF steers ($0.8543 vs. $0.9349; P = 0.001). However, during the short 74 day final finishing period, feed cost/lb of gain was the same for the LF and SF steers. Comparing the average FLOT and GRAZ systems feed cost/lb of gain, finishing feed cost/lb of gain for the GRAZ system averaged 41% less (P = 0.001).
Carcass trait measurements identified economically important differences. Small frame steer HCW was 14.6% lighter (P = 0.001) and ribeye area was 9.5% smaller than the LF steers. Small frame steers did have higher marbling score (P = 0.08). Numerically, SF steers had a higher percentage of carcasses that graded Choice or greater, but statistically, there was no difference (P = 0.20). Carcass value for LF steers in both the FLOT and GRAZ system treatments was 13.8% higher.
To determine system net return, expenses (e.g. steer placement cost, grazing and feedlot finishing expenses, transportation and brand expenses) were deducted from the gross carcass value. Net return for the FLOT treatment was considerably smaller than the GRAZ treatment and within the individual treatments net return for SF steers was much lower. Lower expenses were one reason that system net return for GRAZ steers was higher than FLOT steers, but also sales price increased 13.3% from the December sales date to the March sales date. In this first year of a 2-year study, LF steers were more highly profitable than SF steers.
Document 4 Research Progress Report with Tables
Baseline soil health measurements to include chemical (N, P, K, S, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cl, pH, and Elec. Conductivity), physical (bulk density, water infiltration rate, and water holding capacity), and biological (organic matter, soil Foodweb, and growing season nitrogen mineralization) data are being collected. The final evaluation of soil health change due to systems integration will be reported after ending measurements are taken and will be reported in the project’s final report. Fertilizer application to the crop rotation fields is being done according to traditional soil testing procedures. Soil test recommendations are declining, but remain higher for corn than desired. Transition from conventional farming practices to the combination of no-till, crop rotation, multi-species cover crop plantings, and beef cattle grazing will improve soil health characteristics over time. Bulk Density (BD) measurements in the spring wheat control compared to the other crops in the rotation did not differ (P > 0.10). There was, however, a tendency for the pea-barley intercrop field BD to be similar to native range (e.g. 1.375 vs. 1.49 cm3 for native range and pea-barley, respectively) and when native range BD was contrasted with the corn field after 4 years the two values were considered to be similar (e.g. 1.375 vs 1.47 cm3 for native range and corn, respectively).
Document 5 Soilweb Results
Document 6 Multiple-Year Soil Test Results
Document 7 Bulk Density Undergraduate Student Research Paper
Outreach educational programming:
- The Beef Cattle and Forage Field Day/Workshops have been held on August 29, 2012 and August 19, 2013. An estimated 120 people attended the 2012 educational program and 100 people attended the 2013 program. After the main field day/workshop, a discussion session with dinner was held at the Center’s main office in Dickinson. This session was well attended and people asked a wide variety of questions – some we could not answer –provided great food for thought. The next annual field day/workshop will be held on August 27, 2014.
Document 8 2012 and 2013 Field Day Programs
- Short-Term outcomes are being accomplished by increasing awareness among producers and students. Producer demonstration projects are among the most positive and encouraging elements of the project that will help increase awareness of alternative approaches to crop production and cattle management, while improving the environment. Farmer-rancher cooperator demonstration projects at the Lucas Hoff and Derrick Dukart Farms included YouTube videos, www.ag.ndsu.edu/DickinsonREC/livestock-research and program participation at the 2013 Beef Cattle and Forage Field Day/Workshop. Lucas Hoff presented a 30 minute talk on his extensive backgrounding project and Derrick Dukart hosted a bus tour at his farm to show his cover crop field and prospects for winter grazing of the crop.
Document 9 Lucas Hoff Field Day Program PowerPoint Presentation
Document 10 Lucas Hoff Backgrounding With Unharvested Corn Cost and Return Summary
Document 11 Derrick Dukart Cover Crop Grazing
- 2012 and 2013 High School Vo-Ag Field Day/Workshops have been attended by 50-60 students each year. Students are very interested in the integrated beef cattle and cropping systems research.
Document 12 2012 and 2013 High School Vo-Ag Field Day/Workshop Program Agendas
- International Turkish, Short-Term Research Scholar, Songul Senturklu, Ph.D. is participating in research data collection, programming, and peer reviewed journal publications as research is completed.
Document 13 Effect of an Extended Grazing Season on Grazing & Feedlot Performance
Senturklu, S., D. G. Landblom, G. A. Perry, and T. Petry. 2014. Effect of frame score on growth, fertility, and economics. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci., Vol. xx:xx-xx (Recently accepted peer-reviewed publication)
- Undergraduate student research project designed to document rotational cropping system soil texture and bulk density was conducted by Lauren Pfenning, Dickinson State University, Department of Agriculture and Technical Studies
- Forage suitability for grazing is being evaluated in a variety screening demonstration. The results and plots were discussed and viewed during the field day/workshops
Document 14 2012 Forage Screening Demonstration
- Project PI, Doug Landblom, was the invited speaker at the “2014Winter Series” of 12 Farmer-Rancher Extension meetings conducted across southeastern Montana and western North Dakota speaking on the subject titled, “Crop Diversity, Cover Crops, and Beef Production”
Document 15 Invited Speaker 2014 Winter Series PowerPoint Presentation
- Project PI, Doug Landblom, was one of several invited speakers at the 2013 Multi-State Waste Management Annual Conference, Fargo, North Dakota and spoke on the subject titled, “Effect of Extended Grazing Management on Economics and Manure Distribution”
Document 16 Invited Speaker Waste Management Conference PowerPoint Presentation
- Popular press publications:
- Cover Crops: Multi-species best way to renovate soils. Sue Roesler, Journalist, Farm and Ranch Guide, Friday, March 21, 2014, Vol. 34, No. 24, pp. 6A-7A.
Document 17 Farm and Ranch Guide Cover Crop Article
- Eating the Right Stuff. Terri Queck-Matzie, Journalist, Feed-Lot Magazine, February 2014, Vol. XXII, No. 1, pp. 18-19.
Document 18 Feed-Lot Magazine Eating the Right Stuff Article
The integrated crop and livestock grazing management workshops and train-the-trainer programs for extension, SCD, and NRCS personnel are planned activities. These activities are scheduled to begin during the third year of the study. At which time, a greater body of data from the funded research will be presented in January or February of 2015.
- Soil FoodWeb Results
- Multiple-Year Soil Test Results
- Lauren Pfenning: Bulk Density Undergraduate Student Research Paper
- Senturklu, S. Effect of Extended Grazing on Grazing & Feedlot Performance
- Feed-Lot Magazine Article
- Western Section-Am. Soc. Animal Science (Abst)
- Lucas Hoff-Producer Cooperator-Corn Cost & Return Summary
- Derrick Dukart-Producer Cooperator-Cover Crop Grazing with Bulls
- Effect of Extended Grazing Management on Economics and Manure Distribution Handout
- Lucas Hoff -Farmer-Cooperator-Field Day Presentation
- Summary of 2012 Forage Screening Demonstration
- Field Day/Workshop Programs
- High School Vo-Ag Field Day Agendas
- Winter Series Meeting Handout
Short – Term Visiting Shcolar
NDSU – Dickinson Research Extension Center , Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
1041 State Avenue
Dickinson, ND 58601
Office Phone: (701) 456-1110
3132 Co. Rd 89
Hebron, ND 58638
Office Phone: 7018784966
Assoc. Prof/Livestock Economist
NDSU – Dept. of Agribusiness & Applied Economics
608 Barry Hall
NDSU Dept. 7610
Fargo, ND 58108
Office Phone: 7012317469
6285 46 St.
Glen Ullin, ND 58631
Office Phone: 7013483740
11261 15 St. SW.
Manning, ND 58642
Office Phone: 7015734322
NDSU Extension Rangeland Management Spec.
NDSU – Extension School of Natural Resources Sciences
100F Hultz Hall
NDSU Dept. 2230
Fargo, ND 58108
Office Phone: 7012317647
8969 31.St. SW
Richardton, ND 58652
Office Phone: (701) 974-2316
6430 County Rd 20
Beulah, ND 58523
Office Phone: 7018735533