Pre- and Post-Harvest Strategies for Leek Moth Control on Diversified Vegetable Farms

Progress report for LNE19-379

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2019: $102,799.00
Projected End Date: 04/30/2022
Grant Recipient: University of Vermont
Region: Northeast
State: Vermont
Project Leader:
Victor Izzo
University of Vermont
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Project Information

Performance Target:

Fifty Northeastern growers will implement new sustainable leek moth management tactics, pre and/or post harvest, on 150 acres of allium cropland protecting $400,000/year worth of harvested alliums. Of these fifty growers, five will report their estimated average recovery of losses.

Introduction:

For the past four years, our research team has documented the advancing leek moth (LM) invasion via an externally funded statewide monitoring program here in Vermont. According to our longitudinal catch data, we estimate the moth’s rate of expansion conservatively at approximately 33 miles per year. Recent reports of LM damage from several farms in western Maine validate our estimation and suggest that the moth is likely to reach the Atlantic coast of the USA in the next several years. Considering the pest’s rapidly expanding distribution, allium crop losses are
projected to increase substantially in the upcoming years. The 2012 Ag Census estimates that over 520 farms within Vermont and New York currently grow allium crops totaling close to 8000 acres (US Census of Agriculture, 2012). With Maine allium growers in the cross hairs of the LM expansion, the impacted acreage will undeniably increase as the moth moves east through Maine and south through Massachusetts. 

Marketable damage from LM can occur at both the pre and post-harvest stages of crop management. First, during the primary crop growth stage, larval feeding by LM can defoliate, damage and/or reduce the photosynthetic potential of hosts plants leading to reduced yields. In addition, wounds associated with larval feeding may expose host plants to secondary diseases and pest infestations leading to even greater crop losses.
Finally, post-harvest damage from LM larvae can often lead to substantial losses in marketability during crop storage. Losses incurred during curing and storage have been reported by up to 40% of our monitored farms over the past three years.

This project looks to test both pre and post-harvest tactics for reducing the impact of leek moth damage on marketable allium yields. These include: the release of a commonly available parasitoid wasp and adaptive curing practices to reduce bulb damage from late season LM larvae. These two tactics will provide farmers with adaptable and affordable low-tech options for managing LM in allium crops. Furthermore, the development of non-chemical options for the control of LM both reduces the dependency on chemical controls, lowers the risk of
pesticide resistance and helps to diversify the current IPM toolbox for more sustainable control of the LM.

Through our educational plan we will also provide growers with up to date information on the state of the invasion within their region. For those farmers that have yet to experience LM or are outside the moth’s current distribution, these farmers will receive diagnostic support materials (e.g. booklets, photographs, etc.) and trap identification tools at any of our workshops. Also, farmers will receive education regarding the ecology of the pest and training for successful on-farm LM monitoring. Strategies for LM management generally require precise timing for effective control. Regardless of the adopted tactic(s) (e.g. cultural, chemical, etc.) farmers need to be aware of the basic population dynamics associated with LM under field conditions. Finally, farmers will be provided with the opportunity to join our monitoring efforts. In the past 4 years we have grown our monitoring program from 3 to over 30 growers in Vermont. It is this network that will provide the most efficient and effective dissemination of knowledge.

Cooperators

Click linked name(s) to expand/collapse or show everyone's info
  • Scott Lewins (Educator and Researcher)
  • Dr. Heather Darby (Educator and Researcher)

Research

Hypothesis:

Hypothesis I: Releasing Trichogramma brassicae during leek moth flights will significantly affect pest pressure associated with the leek moth larvae in onion plantings.

Hypothesis II: Topping onions at harvest will significantly affect the incidence of leek moth exit holes and marketability of onions while in storage.

Materials and methods:

The following research design is the product of an ongoing Participatory Action Research (PAR) project whereby participating growers identified their most preferred treatments. Based on this information, we are choosing to conduct field trials to test the two most popular options:

1) To test the efficacy of the commonly available generalist egg parasitoid, Trichogramma brassicae, as a biocontrol for LM (originally proposed by Andy Jones - Intervale Community Farm).

2) To test the effect of variable “topping” lengths for the reduction in the number of LM exit holes and subsequent reduction in marketability of onions post-harvest (originally proposed by Christa Alexander - Jericho Settlers Farm).

Hypothesis I: Releasing Trichogramma brassicae during leek moth flights will significantly affect pest pressure associated with the leek moth larvae in onion plantings.

In all three years of the project we will conduct field trials on two UVM-associated research farms – the UVM Horticultural Research and Education Center (HREC) in South Burlington, VT and Borderview Research Farm (BRF) in Alburgh, VT. In addition, on-farm trials will be conducted at three commercial diversified farms identified as high risk from our existing monitoring program – Interval Community Farm in Burlington, VT, Jericho Settlers Farm in Jericho, VT, and Foote Brook Farm in Johnson, VT.

In the spring of each growing season, two 175ft-long beds will be established, at least 200m apart from one another at HREC/BRF, in fields that were cover cropped, plowed, disked, and fertilized using Pro-Grow and compost. They will then be formed into 40in-wide beds with black plastic and drip tape for irrigation. At HREC/BRF, Forum variety (Bejo Seeds) onions sets will be planted singly with 3 rows per bed and 4in spacing
within rows, in mid-to-late May. A cultivating tractor and hand-cultivation will be used for weed control between beds, but no insecticides will be used for insect control throughout the trials. Specific horticultural practices (e.g. bed prep, plant spacing, weed management, etc.) at each commercial farm site will be based on their own best practices, thus will vary from each other and differ from the research farms, however the growers will be asked to refrain from pesticide applications during the parasitoid releases. Experimental treatments, beds treated with
Trichogramma releases and untreated controls, will be randomly assigned to one of each bed at all research sites (five total).

For the experimental treatments, Tricho-Gard® sachets from Anatis Bioprotection (each containing 4,000 Trichogramma brassicae pupae), will deployed weekly during the second and third LM flights, through to onion harvest. One Tricho-Gard® will be placed in the center of the bed, every 25ft per the recommendations of Anatis Bioprotection, based on their work with garlic and leek growers in Quebec. The exact timing of LM flights will be determined through the use of pheromone traps set up at each location; based on our last four years of monitoring throughout Vermont, this will likely occur from around June 15th through the end of July. Untreated controls will contain no Tricho-Gard® sachets.

Anatis Bioprotection will also provide pasteurized Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella) eggs to be placed within both experimental treatments beds and untreated control beds. These sentinel eggs will determine the viability of the Trichogramma wasp releases in the treatment plots and reveal the presence of any native/endogenous parasitoids within the control beds. Sentinel eggs will be glued to paperboard cards with nontoxic glue and the cards will be tied to onion plants every 25ft along the beds. Sentinels eggs will be replaced semiweekly at each location throughout release period (approximately June 15 - August 1). After the sentinels are in the field for a half-week, they will be placed in 16oz deli containers (Solo Cup Co.), brought back to the lab, and kept on a bench at room temperature to rear out the parasitoids.

Prior to harvest, presence/absence of LM larval feeding damage will be recorded for each onion (1575 onions per bed at each site). Onions will be harvested in late July, and total biomass (bulbs and leaves) will be recorded in the field using a platform scale. A subsample of 100 randomly selected onions per bed at each site will be individually weighed.

For statistical analysis, damage incidence and allium yields will be designated as dependent variables. Differences among treatments will be determined via a generalized linear model for both damage incidence and allium yield. Trichogramma treatment (i.e. released parasitoid) will be considered the single fixed factor. Farm site, trial year and their associated interactions will be considered random effects.

Hypothesis II: Topping onions at harvest will significantly affect the incidence of leek moth exit holes and marketability of onions while in storage.

In all three years of the project topping trials will be conducted with onions grown at the HREC and BRF. In the spring of each growing season, a 175ft-long bed will be established (at least 200m away from beds with Trichogramma released described in the methods above, to remain independent) in fields that were cover cropped, plowed, disked, and fertilized using Pro Grow and compost. They will then be formed into 40in-wide beds with black plastic and drip tape for irrigation. Forum variety (Bejo Seeds) onions sets will be planted singly with 3 rows per bed and 4in spacing within rows, in mid-to-late May. A cultivating tractor and hand-cultivation will be used for weed control between beds, but no insecticides will be used for insect control throughout the season. 

At harvest, onions will be topped using hand shears to remove the foliage at variable lengths, as described by Wright et al. (2001). Experimental treatments will include onions clipped at 1in, 6in, and 10in from the shoulder, and an uncut control (i.e. full length leaf tube). Fifty onions from each site will be randomly selected for each treatment (50 onions x 4 treatments = 200 total at each site). Onions will then be placed in a well-ventilated hoop house at the HREC with large exhaust fans to ensure proper curing. Bulbs will be considered cured when the neck tissue is dry, up to three weeks. Onions from the control treatment will be topped after curing using hand shears to remove the dried foliage.

After all of the onions from each treatment/site have been cured and topped, LM damage incidence (presence/absence of exit holes) and yield (weight in lbs) will be measured for each bulb. Onions will then be placed in a nylon string bag and stored in a walk-in refrigerator at 5 degrees Celcius and approximately 70% RH. Six months post curing, onion “storability” and “quality” will be determined using incidence of rot and a degrees Brix test, respectively. All onions will be cut open, presence/absence of rot will be recorded, and a sample from the center will be pulverized using a hand press, filtered with a Kimwipe and placed in the sample well of a refractometer.

For statistical analysis, dependent variables will include: damage incidence, yield, rot incidence, and degrees Brix values. Differences among topping lengths will be evaluated using a generalized linear model with topping length as a fixed factor and year, site and their associated interactions as random effects.

Research results and discussion:

 

Leek Moth Distribution

Thanks to the efforts of numerous growers throughout the NY/VT region, our research team has been tracking the expansion of the leek moth distribution from its original introduction in northern NY for the past several years. According to our most recent data, the current distribution of the moth, indicated in yellow, includes northeastern NY, a large majority of VT, northern NH and western Maine (Figure 1.)

Parasitoid release trials

1) To test the efficacy of the commonly available generalist egg parasitoid, Trichogramma brassicae, as a biocontrol for LM (originally proposed by Andy Jones - Intervale Community Farm).

2019 Field Season

In collaboration with the Canadian biological control company, Anatis Bioprotection, we are currently testing the efficacy of the parasitoid wasp, Trichogramma brassicae, as a biological control option for managing LM in onion crops. Data from the 2019 field trials replicated across six Vermont farms are promising. The release of T.brassicae within onion plots significantly reduced the incidence of LM larval damage in onion leaves (Figure below) across all farms. Provided the success of the trichogramma releases, our team will be advancing our trials to include other allium crops and to optimize the release protocols. 

2020 Field Season

Due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant modified field protocols, we modified our commercial farm collaborators for the 2020 field season. The participating farms included two research farms: Borderview Farm (Alburgh, VT) and the Horticultural Research Farm at UVM (Burlington, VT) and three commercial farms: Dog River Farm (Berlin, VT), Pete's Greens (Craftsbury, VT) and Intervale Community Farm (Burlington, VT.)

As a general trend across all of the 2020 trichogramma release field trials, leek moth pressure, measured as leaf damage incidence, was substantially lower in comparison to the previous year (2019). Three (out of 4) of the replicated field trials displayed less than 1% total LM incidence in both the control and release plots. The HREC field trial, the sole trial with significant larval damage, displayed no difference between the control and release plots. The inconclusive results from the 2020 trials is likely the result of the interaction of climatic factors and the physiology of both the LM and the trichogramma wasps. Insects populations are particularly sensitive to extreme temperatures and fluctuations in humidity. Growth rates and developmental times for most insects are directly correlated with ambient temperature. However, there are upper and lower temperature thresholds for insect development. Temperatures above or below these thresholds can significantly reduce population growth rates leading to reduced pest pressure and poor natural enemy performance. The 2020 summer growing season was typified by extreme temperatures and drought across much of the region, including Vermont. Provided these conditions, the suppression of LM pressure in 4/5 of the field trials is not a surprising result. Similarly, the lack of significance between the control and release plots within the HREC field trial is likely the result of the stunted development of the released trichogramma wasps.  

 

 

Onion Topping 

2) To test the effect of variable “topping” lengths for the reduction in the number of LM exit holes and subsequent reduction in marketability of onions post-harvest (originally proposed by Christa Alexander - Jericho Settlers Farm).

2019 Field Season

LM Damage Assessment during Curing

Onion topping displayed a significant effect on the incidence of LM pressure during curing (and likely during storage). "Topped" onions exhibited significantly fewer larval exit holes when compared to onions cured with in-tact leaf tubes (figure below). Storage quality data will be collected after six months of storage at the recommended storage conditions for onions. These results suggest that topping prior to curing may prevent sequestered leek moth larvae from feeding upon stored onions. In addition, larvae are likely found farther than 10'' from the shoulder of the bulb at the time of harvest.  

 

Surprisingly, bulbs topped 10'' from the shoulder exhibited significantly higher masses after two weeks of curing. The physiological mechanism(s) leading to these results is not readily apparent at this time. We are currently seeking feedback from several plant physiologists to provide some possible hypotheses or mechanisms to better justify these results. 

 

Onion Storage Quality (Completed in April 2020)

Onion topping did not significantly affect onion quality after six months of cold storage across both research trials. However, for onions harvested from Borderview research farm, topping length did display a significant affect on storage. Because we did not determine the cause of the rot, it is difficult to deduce the reason(s) for the difference in damage incidence between the two farms. Both uncut onions and onions cut at 10'' from the shoulder of the onion exhibited significantly higher incidence of onion rot, 10% and 12% respectively. The direct mechanism(s) for these differences, again are not easily discernable from the current data set as the observed pathologies (i.e. rotted onion layers) were not characterized as pathogens or abiotic causes.  

  Percentage of onions displaying rot (n=50)
Inches from shoulder Horticultural Research Farm Borderview Research Farm
0 0% 10%
1'' 4% 6%
6'' 0% 4%
10'' 0% 12%

 

2020 Field Season

LM Damage Assessment during Curing

The onion topping damage assessment was considered inconclusive due to a lack of documented leek moth damage (i.e. larval exit holes) in post-cured bulbs. 

Participation Summary
7 Farmers participating in research

Education

Educational approach:

Recruitment
Initial farmer recruitment for educational events, knowledge transfer and workshops will begin with direct
recruitment from our current network of growers in our monitoring program. Further recruitment from outside of
VT will be achieved through extension professionals in NY, NH and Maine. We have received commitments of
support from the extension professionals in these regions (Caleb Goosen - Maine, Anna Wallingford – NH, and
Elisabeth Hodgdon – NY).

Educational Curriculum
Our curriculum will focus upon adaptable information to aid farmers in applying sustainable IPM tactics both new
and old. General knowledge of the phenology and ecology of LM will be essential for the success of our
educational program, as this will allow for proper deployment of tactics. Additionally, we report the results of our
field trials in conjunction with trainings for successful application.
As part of our current program we have utilized an information “flip” booklet, developed by Cornell Cooperative
Extension, detailing the ecology, identification and pest management strategies for LM. Following the completion
of the final field season of this project we will look to refresh these booklets to include the results of our
management trials and techniques for applying the newly derived knowledge. In addition, we will add any recent
LM developments that are not directly associated with this research project. Booklets and pdfs of the
informational material will be distributed electronically to previously identified farmers during the winter following
our final field season. Additionally, booklets will be handed out at all conferences, workshops and meeting that
we will attend as part of our outreach commitments.
Webinars, individual consultations, and site visits over two years will support education and adoption. Farmers
will receive assistance with individualized deployment from the project team. Farmer-to-farmer communication
will also be facilitated through farm demonstrations, PAR meetings and postings to regional Veg and Berry
Listserves where farmers utilizing the techniques will communicate to others about the benefits and challenges.
Results from our trials will also be posted on the www.uvm.edu/agroecology,
http://www.uvm.edu/extension/cropsoil/ and http://web.entomology.cornell.edu/shelton/leek-moth/ websites. In
addition, we will present the results of this project at regional and national conferences including: the Winter and
Summer NOFA conferences, the Entomological Society of America Conferences and the Vermont Vegetable
and Berry Growers Annual Meeting. We will also hold a formal biocontrol workshop at a local participating farm
to provide technical support. Instructional materials (hard copies and electronic) detailing IPM tactics complete
with our research findings will be distributed at all conferences/workshops. Finally, a manuscript will be submitted
for publication to appropriate peer-reviewed scientific journal(s).

VVBGA webinar 10-2020

Technical Assistance
Technical assistance for LM scouting, monitoring, and management measures will be offered to growers via
phone, one-on-one meetings and on-farm consultations when requested. Additionally, a “Best Practices” video
will be developed to provide growers virtual access (via YouTube) to the installation and application procedures
for LM control tactics.

Milestones

Milestone #1 (click to expand/collapse)
What beneficiaries do and learn:

1) One hundred northeastern vegetable growers (from NY, NH, VT and Maine) will receive a survey to assess general LM knowledge, LM pressure in alliums and willingness to adopt new organic practices including those being tested in the research portion of this project.

Proposed number of farmer beneficiaries who will participate:
100
Actual number of farmer beneficiaries who participated:
250
Actual number of agriculture service provider beneficiaries who participated:
10
Proposed Completion Date:
June 30, 2019
Status:
Completed
Date Completed:
December 12, 2019
Accomplishments:

Year 1 (2019) We distributed our survey in three capacities:

  1. Distributed the survey to our participatory research farmer network via direct email, 50 growers in total.
  2. Distributed surveys during our Master Gardener outreach event "Hand's on insect identification" on July 22, 2019 at the Horticultural Research and Education Center (HREC) ~30 participants
  3. Distributed during our Master Gardener outreach event "Identifying Veg Pests and Diseases" Aug 22,2019 at HREC ~ 25 participants
  4. Distributed surveys to 150+ growers at the 2019 New England Fruit and Vegetable Growers Conference, Manchester, NH. 
Milestone #2 (click to expand/collapse)
What beneficiaries do and learn:

2) Seventy-five growers will return the survey; 40 of which will agree to participate in the education and
Outreach program including education on available biocontrol suppliers and possible on-farm consultations.
a. Forty growers return survey; 20 of which will agree to participate in the education and outreach program including education on available biocontrol suppliers and possible on-farm consultations. August 2019
b. Thirty-five will return survey; 20 of which will agree to participate in the education and outreach program including education on available biocontrol suppliers and possible on-farm consultations. June 2020

Proposed number of farmer beneficiaries who will participate:
40
Actual number of farmer beneficiaries who participated:
85
Proposed Completion Date:
June 30, 2020
Status:
Completed
Date Completed:
August 10, 2019
Accomplishments:

Forty growers from our in-person outreach events volunteered to be a part of our education program. These growers joined our 50 grower network partners as part of our complete pool of participants.  

Milestone #3 (click to expand/collapse)
What beneficiaries do and learn:

3) Three growers will volunteer to host field days detailing the project on their farms over a two year period.
a. One grower will volunteer to host a field day in August 2019
b. One grower will volunteer to host a field day in August 2020
c. One grower will volunteer to host the final field day in August 2021

Proposed number of farmer beneficiaries who will participate:
3
Actual number of farmer beneficiaries who participated:
2
Proposed Completion Date:
August 31, 2021
Status:
In Progress
Accomplishments:

The Intervale Community Farm (Burlington, VT), Borderview Farm (Alburgh, VT), Bear Roots Farm (Williamstown, VT) and Catamount Farm (Burlington, VT) have each volunteered to host a field day during the 2020 growing season. 

Due to COVID-19 restrictions and UVM policies participating farms were unable to host any in-person events for the 2020 growing season.  

Milestone #4 (click to expand/collapse)
What beneficiaries do and learn:

4) The forty participating growers will receive LM monitoring updates on the phenology of the pest during the research period.
a. For year one, updates will be sent out three times during the growing period with the final update being
distributed in early August 2019.
b. For year two, updates will be sent out three times during the growing period with the final update being
distributed in early August 2020.
c. For year three, updates will be sent out three times during the growing period with the final update being distributed in early August 2021.

Proposed number of farmer beneficiaries who will participate:
40
Actual number of farmer beneficiaries who participated:
50
Proposed Completion Date:
August 31, 2021
Status:
In Progress
Accomplishments:

During the 2019 and 2020 growing season we distributed email updates (both direct emails and listserve posts) that coincided with the beginning of each adult leek moth "flight", three in total. We can verify that 50 of our farmer network partners received these updates. In concert with these emails we also distributed our updates via the Vermont Vegetable and Berry Growers Association (VVBGA) listserve. 

Milestone #5 (click to expand/collapse)
What beneficiaries do and learn:

5) Updates on the research trials will be distributed at the end of each field season. This consistent communication will increase the likelihood that farmers will participate in the M&E for the project goals and adoption.
a. For year one, research trial data and analysis will be sent out to growers in December 2019
b. For year one, research trial data and analysis will be sent out to growers in December 2020
c. For year one, research trial data and analysis will be sent out to growers in December 2021

Proposed number of farmer beneficiaries who will participate:
40
Actual number of farmer beneficiaries who participated:
85
Proposed Completion Date:
December 20, 2021
Status:
In Progress
Accomplishments:

The 2019 research brief can be found at https://www.uvm.edu/agroecology/vepart-publishes-new-research-brief/. This brief was distributed directly to our farmer networks, our recent survey participants and the VVBGA newletter. 

The 2020 research brief is forthcoming and will be distributed in early February. We will add the new link  with the new report as soon as it has been completed and distributed to our partner farm network. We will also update the "actual number of farmers" field once the research brief is distributed. 

Milestone #6 (click to expand/collapse)
What beneficiaries do and learn:

6) Two-hundred and fifty northeastern vegetable growers attending the annual Northeast Organic Farmers Association (NOFA) Summer Conferences, associated state Winter Conferences, and New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference participated in a series of info sessions and workshops detailing the most successful pest control tactics gleaned from the previous research and current on-farm research trials.
a. Following the first field season, we attended the 2019 New England Vegetable and presented our preliminary findings from our monitoring and field trials for 200 growers and close to 100 extension professionals. December 2019
b. We will present our preliminary findings and monitoring information for 75 growers and gardeners
attending the 2022 NOFA-VT Winter and 2022 Vermont Vegetable and Berry Growers Association
meetings. January/February 2022
c. We will attend the 2022 Winter VT NOFA conference and present our first three years of data from our
monitoring and field trials for up to 75 growers and gardeners. January/February 2021
d. During the 2021 field season we will present our 2020 findings at the 2021 Summer Northwest Crops and Soils Field day in VT. This info session will provide upto 50 growers and gardeners the most up to date information on our research. August 2021
e. Final data and analysis will be shared via a presentation for 150 growers attending the 2021 New England Vegetable and Fruit Conference and the 2022 Vermont Vegetable and Growers Association Winter meeting. December 2021
f. Final data and analysis will be shared via a presentation for 150 growers attending the 2021 New England Vegetable and Fruit Conference and the 2022 Vermont Vegetable and Growers Association Winter meeting January 2022

Proposed number of farmer beneficiaries who will participate:
250
Actual number of farmer beneficiaries who participated:
242
Actual number of agriculture service provider beneficiaries who participated:
100
Proposed Completion Date:
January 31, 2022
Status:
In Progress
Accomplishments:

We presented our research to approximately 200 growers during our presentation session at the 2019 NEVFG Conference. We also presented our research as part of the 2020 Vermont Vegetable and Berry Growers' Association (VVBGA) webinar series, 16 attendees viewed the presentation live and another 17 VVBGA members have accessed the video since that time. Furthermore, we were invited to share our 2020 research results at the UVM extension monthly organization meeting which was attended by over 100 extension service advisors. 

https://www.uvm.edu/extension/horticulture/vermont-vegetable-and-berry-grower-webinar-series

 

Milestone #7 (click to expand/collapse)
What beneficiaries do and learn:

7) Fifteen high risk growers will receive personalized assessments and coaching for implementation of the tactics being tested in the research field studies.
a. Five of these farms will be contacted in year one of our field trials to assess the best course of possible
action on their farms to reduce the impact of LM. September 2019
b. Five of these farms will be contacted in year one of our field trials to assess the best course of possible
action on their farms to reduce the impact of LM. September 2020
c. Five of these farms will be contacted in the final year of the study. These farms will be receive the final
results of our study and will be informed of the best tactics to fit their farming system. September 2021

Proposed number of farmer beneficiaries who will participate:
15
Actual number of farmer beneficiaries who participated:
15
Proposed Completion Date:
September 30, 2021
Status:
In Progress
Accomplishments:

We have consulted directly with the farmers hosting our current field trials regarding the best course of action given our preliminary research data and will be meeting with these farmers in late January 2020 to discuss next steps.  

Due to COVID-19 restrictions, consultations with local growers were conducted virtually as part of our LM education program. Many of these growers (~10) were contacted via the Northeastern extension network as part of weekly pest alert calls.  

Milestone #8 (click to expand/collapse)
What beneficiaries do and learn:

8) The final M&E surveys will be distributed to 150 growers on regional listserves to evaluate knowledge of pest, adoption of new practices and success of the tactics. January 2022

Proposed number of farmer beneficiaries who will participate:
150
Proposed Completion Date:
January 31, 2022
Status:
In Progress
Accomplishments:

The final M&E survey is pending as we await the completion of our project. 

Milestone Activities and Participation Summary

Educational activities:

10 Consultations
1 Curricula, factsheets or educational tools
1 On-farm demonstrations
3 Published press articles, newsletters
1 Tours
3 Webinars / talks / presentations
1 Workshop field days

Participation Summary:

250 Farmers
10 Number of agricultural educator or service providers reached through education and outreach activities
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.