Indigenous Food-Science-Ways: Integrating Indigenous knowledge with food science research and education to support value-added Native foods

Progress report for SW21-929

Project Type: Research and Education
Funds awarded in 2021: $349,898.00
Projected End Date: 08/31/2024
Host Institution Award ID: N/A MSU Internal
Grant Recipients: Montana State University; Salish and Kootenai College
Region: Western
State: Montana
Principal Investigator:
Wan-Yuan Kuo
Montana State University
Co-Investigators:
Rachel Andrews-Gould
Salish and Kootenai College
Dr. Jane Boles
Montana State University
Dr. Paul Gannon
Montana State University
Dr. Paul Lachapelle
Montana State University
Dr. Brent Peyton
Montana State University
Brenda Richey
Montana State University
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Project Information

Abstract:

Native Americans have a 50% higher obesity rate than non-Hispanic whites and are three times as likely to die from diabetes than the national average. Such a high prevalence of chronic illness is contributed by the disrupted food heritage and by the highly processed non-Native foods of the Commodity Food Programs. In the last decade, Tribal nations have initiated food sovereignty revolutions by reconnecting to Native food systems that value the health of both the land and people. Under the Food Safety Modernization Act, food science becomes a crucial tool to prove the safety of Native foods. Unfortunately, Native food systems are yet to receive sufficient support from today’s food science societies.

On the other hand, Tribal producers are economically disadvantaged in the competitive agri-business industry due to limited processing infrastructure and business assistance on the Reservations. The Tribal members’ spiritual dilemma between value-added endeavors and profiting from ancestral foods also creates a barrier to embrace a value-added economy.  

Working with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT), this project aims to establish a culturally-sensitive, value-added Native food initiative by integrating Indigenous wisdom with current practices in food science research, instruction, and outreach. First, an annual Native food assessment will be conducted using surveys and focus group interviews to gather Tribal members’ interests and challenges in value-added Native foods. Second, value-added bison products will be developed based on traditional Indigenous food processing knowledge and evaluated for safety and quality. Scale-up trials will be accompanied by assessments in food safety, marketability, and nutrition. Third, economic and ecological models will be built based on the developed bison products for ranch-to-campus operations. Forth, Salish Kootenai College business students and Montana State University Food Product Development Lab students will collaborate to innovate business ideas for value-added Native foods with food sovereignty and ecological purposes.

The project result will be disseminated to the CSKT community via a Native Food Day event with progress presentations, workshops, and focus groups. The economic impact of the project will be evaluated using an Input-Output Model to estimate economic multipliers associated with changes in existing food systems. The food sovereignty and ecological impact of the project will be assessed using a post-workshop survey, and the overall project benefit will be evaluated by monitoring the annual Native food assessment.

This project will identify the critical components to establish sustainable, Native-owned value-added enterprises to support the 150 CSKT producers. Re-defining value-added using Native sustainability lenses will facilitate the creation of nutritious and culturally-significant Native food products to strengthen the economy, food sovereignty, and ecological resilience of Native communities. The integration of Native values with Western practice in this project can serve as a collaborative model for the food science community to support the Indigenous food sovereignty movement at national and global scales. 

Project Objectives:

Objective 1. Assess Native food status on the Flathead Reservation

Objective 2. Develop healthy value-added bison meat products

Objective 3. Build economic and ecological models for bison ranch-to-campus

Objective 4. Establish SKC-MSU student partnership on Native food business innovation

Objective 5. Share value-added Native food opportunities with the Tribes

Objective 6. Evaluate multidisciplinary sustainability impact of the project

Timeline:

The table below displays the timeline of the project with important stakeholder events, project milestones, and scholarly output. The annual Native food survey and Native food focus group will take place in December and June each year, respectively. The partnership between the SKC and MSU students will take place in the fall of each year, followed by the business class innovation in spring. The Annual Native Food Day will take place in June when the project progress meeting and annual workshop will be hosted, and the business students’ innovation ideas presented, as the focus groups held.

Cooperators

Click linked name(s) to expand/collapse or show everyone's info
  • Francis Bird - Producer
  • Clint Fitchett - Producer
  • Trevor Huffmaster - Technical Advisor
  • Jill Mackin (Researcher)
  • KayAnn Miller - Technical Advisor
  • Jason Moore - Technical Advisor
  • Brandon Siemion - Producer
  • James Vallie
  • Patrick Yawakie

Research

Hypothesis:
  • Offering technical assistance and resources in food processing, safety, marketing, distribution, and energy optimization will encourage producers and food processors to engage in Native food farm to school businesses. 
  • Offering technical assistance and resources in local food procurement will encourage school meal operators to engage in Native food farm to school purchases. 
Materials and methods:

Objectives 1-4 are the research objectives of this project. For each objective, the purposes and procedures are briefly described, followed by detailed methodology.

 

Objective 1. Assess Native food status on the Flathead Reservation:

The recently formed CSKT Food Sovereignty Team has conducted a quick survey on COVID-related food insecurity. Building on previous dietary studies on the Reservation6,20, we propose to work with the CSKT Food Sovereignty Team to assess the annual Native food status on the Flathead Reservation. Surveys and focus groups will be used to gather Tribal members’ perceptions, knowledge, practice, interest, and challenges in accessing, preparing, and consuming Native foods. The assessment will also explore opinions on creating value-added opportunities for Native foods with ecological and food sovereignty purposes. This business component of Native foods has not been studied in previous CSKT research. The assessment result will guide the product and business development of this project to meet the Tribes’ needs.

 

Assessment planning:

We have recently received funding from the Center for American Indian Rural Health Equity to form a CSKT Community Advisory Board on healthy value-added Native foods. We will work with the Board on designing and conducting the assessment. Besides, we will follow the First Nations Development Institute’s “Food Sovereignty Assessment Tools21” to conduct the assessment. The survey will be administered in December each year and focus groups in June to allow analyzing the survey data for forming appropriate focus group questions. We will pilot a survey and focus group interviews in spring 2021 to prepare for the project assessment (supporting documents).

 

Annual Native food survey:

The survey will be semi-structured with multiple choices and open-ended questions, administered online using Qualtrics (Provo, UT). As this Reservation has around 60% non-Native residents22 who can influence the local food system, the survey will recruit 60 adult Tribal members and 60 non-tribal adults from the Reservation. The survey will assess the participants' Native food experiences and opinions, including the frequency of consuming selected Native foods, the perceptions on Native food and dietary health, the interests and barriers to acquiring more Native foods. The survey will also inquire participants' thoughts on value-added Native foods, including the potential cultural conflict to commercialize ancestral foods, recommendations on the choice of Native foods and value-added directions, and implications of value-added Native foods to food sovereignty and ecological conservations. 

 

Annual Native food focus groups:

The focus group will recruit 24 adult Tribal members split into three groups with comparable demographics for result validations across groups. The actual method employed will more closely resemble the action of storytelling or ‘Talking Circles’ which are more commonly employed for Indigenous peoples to communicate and gain greater understandings through a Native perspective. Indigenous peoples have long used storytelling as an oral tradition to pass on knowledge from generation to generation to teach about cultural beliefs, values, customs, rituals, history, practices, relationships, and ways of life.  Storytelling serves to connect Indigenous people to their environment and guide their interactions with it.  In this way, storytelling can preserve culture, help to better realize relationships to the environment, and serve as a means of appreciating and supporting collective decisions.  The term ‘Talking Circles’ will be used as our means of assessment and will encourage storytelling by elders and others who wish to participate. The Talking Circles will be based on a focus group approach that is widely used in consumer research23. The focus group guide will be developed based on the survey result and framed on the opportunities of value-added Native foods. Nvivo 12 Software (QSR International, Doncaster, Australia) will be used to analyze and create themes from the focus group data. 

 

Objective 2. Develop healthy value-added bison meat products

 

Bison dried meat is a traditional food of many First Nations Tribes. The CSKT stakeholders consider dried meat as a desirable product to be developed due to its connection with Indigenous foodways, its high nutritional quality24, yet high demand in time and resources to prepare. Bison dried meat can be made into various dishes25 and thus has a wide market potential beyond Native consumers. Bison dried meat traditionally is made by sun drying. However, literature is scarce regarding bison meat drying to meet current food safety standards.

 

Thus, this project aims to integrate traditional Indigenous knowledge and food safety requirements to develop commercializable bison dried meat. While we intend to honor the animal by providing the original flavor of bison, some consumers including Natives may prefer less gamey and bloody flavors. Hence, bison jerky with smoke flavors will also be developed. The developed bison products will be presented to the Flathead Tribal schools and MSU to engage the students in learning Native foods. The products will also be used to build the bison ranch-to-campus models (objective 3).

 

Bison dried meat preparation:

The bison dry meat will be developed based on traditional meat cutting and handling recommended by Tribal stakeholders, combining the following oven heating and solar drying steps to meet USDA safety regulations for jerky26,27. Longissimus dorsi will be sliced  into approximately 1 cm thick slices and slices either placed in brine for salt equilibration or dry rubbed with salt and held at ≤ 40°F with selected periods and levels of salt. Lethality will be achieved using a commercial smokehouse (Alkar, Lodi, WI).  Meat strips will be processed for lethality in two different ways.  One would be a process similar to how many processors produce jerky, house temperature at 160°F with dampers closed for 1 hour26.  The second process would be steam cooked to an internal temperature of 145°F for 5 minutes. Afterward, using a solar-assisted forced-air dryer, the meat water activity will be reduced to ≤ 0.85 monitored by a water activity meter (Aqualab 4TE, Meter Food, Pullman, WA).

 

Microbial and quality tests:

The products prepared with varying salt levels, brine periods, heating and drying time will be tested for Enterobacteriaceae, Generic E. coli, and total aerobic plate count using 3M Petrifilm Plates (St. Paul, MN). The products that pass the above indicator tests will be subjected to a challenge study utilizing inoculated pathogens, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes to confirm the process lethality. The products that pass the challenge test will be screened for sensory qualities using an in-house sensory panel. Using the process yielding a safe and desirable product, a jerky version of the bison product will be created by including spices and powdered smoke flavor during the dry brining step.

 

Pilot scaled-up and consumer tests:

The processes yielding safe and preferable sensory qualities will be pilot scaled-up from 140 grams to 14 kg of starting bison meat. Scaled-up products passing the meat temperature, water activity, indicator and the challenge tests will be evaluated for batch consistency by an in-house sensory panel and a texture analyzer (TA.XTii, Texture technologies, Hamilton, MA) with Warner-Bratzler knife with guillotine block. Two bison dried meat and two bison jerky products with tested safety, optimized sensory quality, and batch consistency will be presented to the three Flathead Tribal schools and MSU for consumer acceptance tests. 120 students at each location will rate their liking of the four products on a nine-point hedonic scale.

 

Nutritional analysis:

For the top-rated bison dried meat and jerky, total protein, fat, fatty acid profile, and mineral will be analyzed by NP Analytical Laboratories (St. Louis, MO). Moisture will be analyzed using a Mettler Toledo HE53 Moisture Balance (Columbus, OH). The nutrition labels will be created using the ESHA software (Salem, OR) and provided to the Tribal schools and MSU for presenting the product quality compared to foods currently offered on the campus.

 

 

Objective 3. Build economic and ecological models for bison ranch-to-campus

 

Both the CSKT Food Sovereignty Team and our Producers are interested in business models to bring healthy Native foods to the local market. Flathead Reservation 4H Extension and MSU Culinary Services are looking to use Native foods to enrich the students’ learning of Indigenous heritage. Yet, CSKT members repeatedly face the conflict of profiting from ancestral foods, which should have been integral to the land that the Tribal members commit to safeguarding7.

 

Henceforth, we propose to build both economic and ecological models of taking Native food to the market, to demonstrate that commercializing Native foods has the purpose of benefiting not only the local economy but most importantly, food sovereignty and environmental sustainability. The models will be built to bring the bison products developed in Objective 2 from ranches to the three Flathead Tribal schools and MSU.

 

The economic model for the bison ranch-to-Tribal schools:

Based on the 2017 Census of Agriculture, Montana has an estimated bison inventory of 19,157.  That inventory is mostly distributed across three locations and includes 4,045 bison in Glacier County (in Blackfeet Nation), 1,379 bison in Big Horn county (in the Crow Agency), and 2,800 in Madison county (home to Ted Turner’s famous Flying D Ranch)28. The three Producers on this project have a total of around 550 bison located on the Flathead, Blackfeet, and Crow Reservations.

In developing a model that delivers bison from ranches on the Flathead Reservation into schools, the existing supply chain can be utilized. While there are only three scalable bison slaughter and processing facilities in Montana, White’s Wholesale Meats on the Reservation has expressed a willingness to slaughter bison from the CSKT. Once slaughtered, the bison meat can be made into a bison dried meat or jerky with Mission Mountain Food Enterprise Center, also on the Reservation. The utilization of this existing slaughter and processing capacity provides a clear remedy for the largest hurdle impacting the completion of a ranch-to-school supply chain29. This supply chain also satisfies CSKT’s interest in using slaughter and processing that is in the local economy and has an existing relationship with the Tribes.

 

The economic model for the bison ranch-to-MSU:

In addition to delivering healthy food to Tribal schools, the development of expanding this supply chain to include the MSU dining hall will also provide positive benefits to all involved.  This project will collaborate with Chef KayAnn Miller, Director of MSU Indigenous Food Initiative. The MSU Dining Hall has a long-running interest in purchasing Montana raised foods with an ongoing example including the purchase of beef from animals raised by Montana State University30. The established Farm-to-Campus program is commissioned to make 25% of the foods served on campus sourced from Montana suppliers31. Similarly, this new collaboration will provide an important outlet for Tribal food to make its way to feed the student body at Montana State University and augment existing supply chains through the Mission Mountain Food Enterprise Center and the CSKT.

 

The ecological model:

The supply chain economic model for the bison products will be used as the framework to build the ecological model. The ecological model will be constructed using contemporary, holistic, and food product-specific life cycle assessment (LCA)32,33. The LCA model will focus on the basic cumulative use of energy, water, land, and associated greenhouse gas emissions34. This will offer opportunities for identifying improvements in bison product chain efficiency, manufacturing safety, and environmental performance.

Economic and social-cultural factors such as employee benefits, working conditions, and animal welfare will also be incorporated into the model35,36 as cultural considerations are critical for food production and consumption patterns as well as how environmental, social, and economic impacts associated with food systems are valued. The bison products LCA will be constructed by selecting/defining a functional unit of consumer benefit, articulating the LCA goals and scope, inventorying mass and energy inputs and environmental releases throughout each relevant stage of production, and evaluating the potential economic, social, cultural, and economic impacts of cumulative mass and energy inputs and releases.

The LCA model will become the foundation for future development into a more-comprehensive life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) which will include life cycle costing (LCC), social life cycle assessment (SLCA), and cultural aspects within the bison product LCA. Transparency in LCA documentation including databases and assumptions utilized coupled with diligence in group-informed interpretations of LCA results will help provide meaningful information for project stakeholders and the public.

Participation Summary
4 Farmers participating in research

Education

Educational approach:

Objectives 4 and 5 of this project are Educational objectives, focusing on student education and community outreach, respectively.

 

Objective 4. Establish SKC-MSU student partnership on Native food business innovation  

  1. Fish products entrepreneurship:
    1. In 2021, an SKC business major and an enrolled tribal member, Brittany Robles, partnered with an MSU Food Product Development Lab student, Havilah Burton. This partnership aimed to develop and promote value-added fish products of Native Fish Keepers, Inc. (NFKI), the Tribally-owned and operated fishery of Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. The two students used our 2021 Native Food Survey and discovered significant interest from the local food services and retail in carrying NFKI's fish products. They also conducted a focus group with local food stakeholders and identified strategies to market the fish products. In 2022, Havilah who became the SNAP-Ed Educator of MSU Extension- Flathead Reservation, connected with the American Indian Food Program which then expressed willingness to support promoting NFKI's products via their outreach programs. 
    2. In the summer of 2021, the MSU Food Product Development Lab partnered with the MSU Institution of Ecosystem to offer internships for students to work on pollution prevention for food and beverage manufacturers. This internship program recently established a project with NFKI, in which an environmental studies student from Bemidji State University will assess the feasibility of repurposing fish by-products generated from NFKI's frozen fillet manufacturing operation during summer 2022. 
  2. Traditional dry meat product entrepreneurship: In February 2022, Patrick Yawakie, an enrolled Tribal member and the director of Flathead Reservation People's Food Sovereignty Program partnered with the MSU Food Product Development Lab on traditional dry meat development. To initiate this project, Yawakie is currently recruiting Native students from the Reservation to partner with MSU Food Product Development Lab's master student, Mattie Griswold. The Lab also worked with MSU Institute of Ecosystem and recruited a food science master student from the University of Illinois to assist the project via the Pollution Prevention summer internship. The partnership aimed to establish a meat manufacturing protocol that is safe and energy-efficient, creating nutritious and culturally-relevant dry meat from wild game, donated or commercial traditional meat. The Program plans to use this partnership to leverage its existing network, currently serving frozen meat to over 800 individuals on the Reservation. Developing the dry meat will save up freezer storage space and electricity costs and ramp up the provision of healthy protein with recommended cooking recipes and meal kits to more families on the Reservation. Since there are no Tribal bison ranchers on the Reservation, the Program is also considering procuring commercial bison from neighboring tribes to serve the dried bison to Tribal schools on the Reservation. 

Objective 5. Share value-added Native food opportunities with the Tribes

An Annual Native food Day will be the primary mode to disseminate the project outcomes. This day of the event will be scheduled to June at the Salish and Kootenai College and will include a series of activities including Native food stakeholder meetings to present the project progress, the business students’ product and business presentations (Objective 4), stakeholder workshops to introduce the topic of interest, and the focus group interviews (Objective 1). Since the project will start in July 2021, the first Annual Native food Day will be in June 2022.

Educational & Outreach Activities

5 Consultations
1 Tours
2 Webinars / talks / presentations
27 Other educational activities: 8 producer/food worker interviews, 12 community advisory board meetings, 3 presentations to CSKT Government, and 4 visits with project collaborators.

Participation Summary:

4 Farmers
61 Ag professionals participated
Education/outreach description:

The table below summarizes past and upcoming community outreach events of this project. 

Community event and purpose

Location, dates, and duration

Participant

Outcome

8 interviews with Native producers and food service workers to identify needs, interests, challenges, and recommendations in supplying, sourcing, processing, marketing, and distributing local foods to local communities (in collaboration with the MSU Extension)

Flathead Reservation; Fall 2021-Winter 2022, 1.5 hours per interview, totaling 12 hours  

8 agricultural professionals: 4 are Native producers, two (man) raise cattle and grow feed crops, one (man) grows cherries, and one (woman) grows potatoes and raises cattle. The other 4 are Native workers of food establishments, two (1 man, 1 woman) manage restaurants, one (woman) provides event catering, one (man) operates a food truck.

 

Both the producers and food workers expressed interest in selling and buying more local foods, however needing a stronger local food network including financial support, communication, processing, and distribution infrastructure. The producers identified challenges to selling food products including consumer cost barriers, limited processing and distribution infrastructure, limited access to financial capital and USDA inspection; The food workers identified challenges to buying local foods including high cost, consistency of availability, assurance of food safety, and lack of procurement network.

12 community advisory board meetings to update the project progress, seek input, and to learn community development status and needs.

Virtual; Summer 2021 – Spring 2022, 1 hour per meeting, totaling 12 hours

5 board members attending different dates: Rachel Andrews-Gould (Dean, Business Division; Director, Center of Excellence for Tribal Entrepreneurial Education, Salish Kootenai College (SKC)), Amy Vaughan (Director of Operations, Boys & Girls Club of the Flathead Reservation and Lake County), Brenda Richey (Ag/4-H Agent of Flathead Reservation, MSU Extension); Jan Tusick (Director, Mission Mountain Food Enterprise Center); Havilah Burton (SNAP-Educator, MSU Extension- Flathead Reservation)

These meetings have helped to identify three collaboration opportunities: (1) Native Fish Keepers and the American Indian Food Program to market lake trout products from the Reservation; (2) Montana Team Nutrition to identify a culinary professional to coach St. Ignatius School on Farm to School initiatives; (3) Invite school officials and local food stakeholders to advise us on developing the 2022 Flathead Reservation local food survey.

 

3 presentations to the CSKT Government to introduce the proposed projects, seek guidance and approvals of upcoming project activities.

Virtual; Aug 2021 & Mar 2022; totaling 3 hours

2 presentations to the CSKT Council: first with the 10 Council members of 2021, second with the 10 Council members of 2022; 1 presentation to the CSKT Food Sovereignty Team of 5 members

The 4 projects presented and approved include (1) Food product development with Boys and Girls Club; (2) Bison and beef farm to school opportunity assessment (3) Native Fish Keepers’ lake trout marketing, and (4) Tribal youth mental health and diet study.

4 visits with Patrick Yawakie, director of People’s Food Sovereignty Program of Flathead Reservation to form a partnership on traditional meat drying

Montana State University (MSU) Bozeman; Mar – Apr 2022, totaling 6 hours

One tour to MSU Meat Lab with the PI and co-PIs (Jane Ann Boles, meat science, Paul Gannon, chemical engineering) to discuss meat drying safety and energy efficiency study; one visit to MSU Food Product development Lab with the PI and MSU Institute of Ecosystems to discuss summer internships. Two virtual visits with the PI and graduate student to discuss project logistics.

The visits consolidated the plans to create a commercial meat drying model to support the Program’s non-profit operations: (1) develop nutritious, palatable, culturally acceptable dried meat products using traditional game meat, (2) develop a food safety protocol for the meat drying, (3) study the energy efficiency of meat drying to reduce the storage and freezing cost, (4) assess feasibility of expanding from current meat hunting to sourcing meat from neighboring Tribal ranches  

2 public presentations to introduce the project team and collaborators’ work on Indigenous food sovereignty  

MSU Bozeman; Mar 2022; totaling 4 hours

One presentation “Indigenous Food Product Development” included panel discussion with Chef Sean Sherman, joined by 23 audiences; the other presentation “Meat distribution on the Flathead Reservation” given by Patrick Yawakie, joined by 14 audiences

These presentations created collaboration dialogues between the People’s Food Sovereignty Program and Chef Sean Sherman of the Indigenous Food Lab, and highlighted work of this project to local food organizations including Prospera Business Network and Open and Local Coalition

5 consultations with Flathead Reservation and Native food stakeholders to offer technical information in food research, development, and testing.    

Virtual; Summer 2021-Spring 2022; total of 10 hours

Shelly Fyant, food sovereignty leader and former CSKT Chairwoman, Joshua Brown; University of Montana doctoral student and CSKT Food Sovereignty Team member, Brandon Siemion, owner of Bighorn Bison at White Buffalo Ranch and Native producer of Crow Nation; Barry Hansen, Fish Biologist of the CSKT Native Fish Keepers, Inc.; Brianna Routh, Food & Family Extension Specialist of MSU Extension.

These consultations answers questions for the Native food stakeholders in the areas of food safety, nutrition, quality, food product and recipe development, value-added processing and marketing, food waste repurposing, and institutional review board applications. Addressing these stakeholders’ questions were helpful in supporting their food businesses and food sovereignty works.    

Annual Native Food Day Workshops

June 2022; One-day event on the Reservation

Native food stakeholders including producers, food service workers, farm to school operators

This workshop will focus on Native food to school opportunities and resources based on USDA safety inspection, school meal nutrition and procurement requirements.

 

 

Learning Outcomes

Key areas taught:
  • This project started in July 2021 and has focused on assessing the needs and challenges of stakeholders. The first Annual Native Food Day workshop will be offered in June 2022 to provide farm to school resources to Native producers and school meal operators.

Project Outcomes

2 New working collaborations
Project outcomes:

Two collaborations were formed during the past project year. The first was the partnership with the People's Food Sovereignty Program of the Flathead Reservation. The project team will provide technical assistance to develop traditional dry meat products for the Program to distribute more healthy protein to the families on the Reservation. The project team will establish and validate food safety protocol to ensure the meat drying process complies with federal meat processing safety requirements. The project team will also study and optimize the energy efficiency of meat drying to reduce costs associated with frozen meat storage. The second partnership was with the Native Fish Keepers, Inc. The project team will investigate the feasibility of re-purposing the fish waste into different new value-added products, and compare the sensory and nutritional qualities and consumer perception of different trout cuts related to mercury levels to inform the effective consumer education on healthy fish consumption. A partnership with MSU Institute of Ecosystem allowed providing 2022 summer student interns to assist with the above two projects.

 

The first Annual Native Food Day workshop in June 2022 will assess Native food stakeholders' interest and plans in engaging in farm to school opportunities and analyze the corresponding economic and social benefits. 

The student internship and collaboration with the People's Food Sovereignty Program and Native Fish Keepers on product and market development, safety, and energy efficiency assessment will commence in June 2022. The environmental benefit of this partnership will be presented in August 2022.

Information Products

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE.